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Meryem Ameur

Faculty of Sciences and Technics

Sultan Moulay Slimane University

Beni Mellal city

Morocco

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Outline

1 Introduction

3 Iterative Estimators

4 Experimental Results

5 Conclusion

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Introduction 1/3

processes :

1 An observed process, noted Y.

2 A hidden process, noted X.

In Markovian segmentation we consider :

1 An observed process Y is an image to be segmented.

2 A hidden process X is an image result of segmentation .

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Example

Observation Y Result X

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Introduction 2/3

where K is a number of membership class. It's initialized by the user. From

the observed image Y = (Yn ) R, n N , where N is a number of pixels

component the image. HMM(eld,chain,tree) used the Bayes theorem :

P(X ).P(Y |X )

P(X |Y ) = (1)

P(Y )

Where :

P(X |Y ) : is the probability of a posteriori law X knows Y .

P(X ) : is the probability of the a priori law .

P(Y |X ) : is the probability of the attached data law.

P(Y ) : is a constant of normalization P(Y ) = 1.

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Introduction 3/3

ICE algorithm. We are used these estimators to estimate a parameters of

Hidden Markov Chain with Independant Noise model(HMC-IN) to

segment the brain tumor MRI images.

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Hidden Markov Chain With Independant Noise (HMC-IN)

Independent Noise (HMC-IN), because, it ignores the noise information

contained the image to be segmented Y .

Let the process Z = (X , Y ), where X = (Xn )Nn=1 and

Y = (Yn )N n=1 R.

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Hidden Markov Chain With Independant Noise (HMC-IN)

1 The process X is a Markov Chain, it's homogeneous and stationary, its

law is as follows :

Y1

N

P(x) = P(X1 = x1 ). P(Xn+1 = xn+1 |Xn = xn ) (2)

n=1

3 Each observation yn , n N depends only on its hidden class xn .

P(Yn = yn |X ) = P(Yn = yn |Xn = xn ) (3)

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The laws of HMC-IN

1 The law of Markov chain X .

2 The law of attached data Y |X (observations).

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The parameters of HMC-IN

I The initial law PI (i) = p(x1 = i) i .

I The transition matrix A(i, j) = p(xn+1 = j|xn = i) i, j .

2 Attached data parameter's y |x (Gaussian law ) :

I The mean i i for each class k .

I The variance i2 i for each class k .

I The density f of the distribution Y condionally to X using :

1 (yn i )2

f =p exp[ ] (4)

2(i2 ) (i2 )

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Estimation phases

2 The iterative estimation parameters phase.

3 The nal decision phase.

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Initialization phase

Conguration initial of X 0 by :

I K-means.

I FCM....

Initialization parameters of the X process x0 .

I PI (i)0 .

I A(i, j)0 .

Initialization parameters of the data attached law y0|x .

I (i)0 .

I ((i)2 )0 .

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Iterative Estimation phase

iterations q Q .

1 EM : Expectation Maximization.

2 SEM :Stochastic Expectation Maximization.

3 ICE : Iterative Conditional Estimation.

These algorithms are based on Baum Welch algorithm to calculate

parameters.

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Baum Welch algorithm

Calculated Forward probabilities n (i) = p(y1 , ....., yn , xn ).

Forward Algorithm

1 Initialization : (n = 1)

PI (i)fi (y1 )

1 (i) = P i (5)

j PI (i)fj (y1 )

2 Induction : (n > 1)

P

fi (yn+1 ) j n (j)A(i, j)

n (i) = P P i (6)

k fk (yn+1 ) j n (j)A(i, j)

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Baum Welch Algorithm

Backward Algorithm

1 Initialization : (n = N)

N (i) = 1i, j (7)

2 Induction : (n < N)

P

j A(i, j)fj (yn+1 )n+1 (j)

n (i) = P P i, j (8)

k fk (yn+1 ) j n (j)A(i, j)

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Baum Welch Algorithm

Marginal a posteriori Law n (i)

n (i) = n (i)n (i)i, j (9)

Calculated Joint a posteriori probabilities

n (i, j) = p(xn = i, xn+1 = j|yn ).

n (i)A(i, j)fj (yn+1 )n+1 (j)

n (i, j) = P P i, j (10)

k fk (yn+1 ) l n (l)A(l, k)

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A.EM Algorithm

EM Algorithm

For a number of iteration q Q :

Step(E ) :

I Calculate n (i), n (i), n (i, j) and n (i), using Baum Welch.

Step(M ) :

[q]

I Estimate parameters of the Markov chain x using the deterministic

strategy.

PN

1 n (i, j)

[q]

A(i, j) = Pn= N

i, j (12)

n=1 n (i)

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EM Algorithm

Estimate parameters of law attached data y[q]|x for each class i also by

the deterministic strategy.

PN

1 yn n (i)

[q]

i = Pn=

N

i (13)

n=1 n (i)

PN [q] 2

2 [q] n=1 (yn i ) n (i)

(i ) = PN i (14)

n=1 n (i)

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B.ICE Algorithm

ICE Algorithm

For each iteration q Q :

Calculate n (i), n (i), n (i, j) and n (i), using Baum Welch.

Simulate a sample of X q for one random simulation using the

parameters of the iteration q

strategy.

PI (i)[q] = 1 (i)i (15)

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ICE Algorithm

PN

1 n (i, j)

A(i, j) [q]

= Pn=

N

i, j (16)

n=1 n (i)

stochastic strategy :

yn 1[xn = i]

PN

1

[q]

i = Pn= i (17)

n=1 1[xn

N

= i]

PN [q] 2

2 [q] = i]

(i ) = i (18)

n=1 1[xn = i]

PN

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Complexity of ICE and EM (Comparaison)

Task ICE EM

Calculate O(K 2 N) O(K 2 N)

Calculate O(K 2 N) O(K 2 N)

Calculate O(K 2 N) O(K 2 N)

Calculate O(KN) O(KN)

Calculate PI O(K ) O(K )

Calculate A O(K 2 N) O(K 2 N)

Calculate O(KN) O(KN)

Calculate 2 O(KN) O(KN)

Simulate X O(KN) not executable

Table: Complexity of EM and ICE algorithms

From this table, we notice that the complexity of ICE is superior than the

complexity of EM. Because, ICE simulates the hidden process X one time

in each iteration q Q . This task makes ICE more complex than EM.

Meryem Ameur Markovian Segmentation (Laboratory of Information

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Final Decision phase

result image X .

MPM : Maximum Posteriori Mode.

MPM Estimator

The solution in image segmentation by Hidden Markov Chain according

MPM is : maximize the marginal a posteriori probability n (i) :

xnmpm = argmaxi (n (i)n (i)) = argmaxi ((n (i))) (19)

The complexity of this estimator is O(KN).

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Experiments

We use K-means algorithm to initialize the conguration of X0 where

K = 3.

Concerning the initial law PI 0 we have :

PI0 =

0.33

0.33

0.33

Concerning the matrix of transition A0 (i, j), we have :

A0 =

0.5 0.25 0.25

0.25 0.5 0.25

0.25 0.25 0.5

The mean 0 and the variance ( 2 )0 from the conguration of X0 .

We have a number of iterations Q = 30.

We have used this type of initialization parameters in all experiments

presented in this work.

We have used the thresholding technic to extract the interset region.

Meryem Ameur Markovian Segmentation (Laboratory of Information

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Experiment 1

Figure: Experiment 1

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Experiment 2

Figure: Experiment 2

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Experiment 3

Figure: Experiment 3

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Results 1/2 :PSNR index SSIM index and error rate

We have compared these estimators in term of the PSNR index, the SSIM

index, the error rate and the convergence.

Experiments PSNR ICE SSIM ICE PSNR EM SSIM EM

Experiment 1 24,0672 0.5710 24,0672 0.5697

Experiment 2 18.4713 0.4773 18.4713 0.4784

Experiment 3 21,8050 0.5157 21,8058 0.5150

Table: PSNR index and SSIM index

Experiment 1 8,1357 8,1357

Experiment 2 9.6075 9.6075

Experiment 3 10,0450 10,0450

Table: error rate

Meryem Ameur Markovian Segmentation (Laboratory of Information

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Results 2/2 : Convergence

Experiments ICE EM

Experiment 1 5 iterations 7 iterations

Experiment 2 6 iterations 8 iterations

Experiment 3 7 iterations 8 iterations

Table: The convergence of ICE and EM algorithms

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Conclusion

I EM.

I ICE.

Under the nal Bayesian criteria.

I MPM.

In Segmentation of.

I Brain tumor MRI images.

To extract brain tumor position

I Thresholding technic.

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Conclusion

1 The complexity.

2 The PSNR index.

3 The SSIM index.

4 The error rate.

5 The convergence.

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Conclusion

1 In term of the Complexity ICE is more complex than EM.

2 In term of the quality of segmentation the dierence is not important.

3 In term of the convergence ICE converge faster than EM.

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Perspectives

Perspectives

Using these estimator algorithms to :

1 Segment color textured images using a pairewise Markov chain model.

2 Segment the MRI images using the triplet Markov chain, considering

that X is non stationary.

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Meryem Ameur Markovian Segmentation (Laboratory of Information

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