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ABSTRACT

A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a microprocessor that has been designed specifically for the
processing of 3D graphics. The processor is built with integrated transform, lighting, triangle setup/clipping,
and rendering engines, capable of handling millions of math-intensive processes per second. GPUs allow
products such as desktop PCs, portable computers, and game consoles to process real-time 3D graphics that
only a few years ago were only available on high-end workstations. Used primarily for 3-D applications, a
graphics processing unit is a single-chip processor that creates lighting effects and transforms objects every
time a 3D scene is redrawn. These are mathematically-intensive tasks, which otherwise, would put quite a
strain on the CPU.

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DECLARATION

I, Chandra Shekar N bearing the USN:1BH13EC005, studying in the final semester of


Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication Engineering at Bangalore Technological
Institute, Bangalore, hereby declare that this seminar work entitled Graphics Processing Unit which
is being submitted by me in the partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Electronics
and Communication Engineering, from Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi is an authentic
record of me carried out during the academic year 2016-2017, under the guidance of Prof. Darshitha K
S, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Bangalore Technological Institute,
Bangalore,

I further undertake that the matter embodied in the dissertation has not been submitted
previously for the award of any degree or diploma by me to any other university or institution.

Place: Bangalore Chandra Shekar N

Date:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of this seminar report would be
incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible, without whose constant guidance
and encouragement would have made efforts go in vain.

I am proud to be part of Bangalore Technological Institute for providing such healthy


environment for successful completion of seminar work.

I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. H. S. Nanda, Principal, Bangalore Technological Institute,


Bangalore, for providing a congenial working environment.

I also oblige and thank Prof. Deepa T., Head of the Department, Electronics and Communication
Engineering, Bangalore Technological Institute, Bangalore, for giving me the support and
encouragement that was necessary throughout my studies.

I convey thanks to my seminar guide Prof. Darshitha K S, Assistant Professor, Electronics and
Communication Engineering, Bangalore Technological Institute, Bangalore, for her encouragement and
support constant support and guidance which was of a great help to complete this work successfully.

I would like to thank the teaching and non-teaching staff members of Electronics and
Communication Department who have helped me directly or indirectly for the successful completion of
the seminar work.

Finally, I would like to thank our parents, friends and for all who supported a lot in the successful
completion of the work.

Chandra Shekar N
(1BH13EC005)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract i
Declaration ii
Acknowledgements iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures v
List of Tables vi
List of Acronyms vii

Chapter Page No.

1 INTRODUCTION 1

2 HISTORY AND STANDARDS 3

3 PARAMETERS OF GPU 9

4 TYPES OF GPUS 17

5 APPLICATIONS 20

CONCLUSION 24

REFERENCES 25

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List of Figures

Fig 2.1 Illustration to show how buses connects the CPU 5


Fig 2.2 AGP Graphics Controller 7
Fig 3.1 Bar Graph indicating GPU Performance 10
Fig 3.2 Internal Organization of GPU 12
Fig 3.3 Architecture of GPU 15
Fig 4.1 Comparison of performances of GeForce4 Ti 4600 and its predecessor in FPS 18
Fig 4.2 Performance comparisons of GeForce2 MX 400 and GeForce4 MX460 19
Fig 5.1: A basic triangular polygon 21

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List of Tables
Table 2.1: Specifications of AGP at different modes 8

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List of Acronyms
GPGPU General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit
CPU Central Processing Unit
PC Personal Computer
AMD Advance Micro Device
IBM International Business Machines
HD High Definition
VGA Video Graphics Array
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
PCI Peripheral Component Interface
VL Bus Vesa Local Bus
ISA Industrial Standard Architecture
Pnp Plug and Play
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port
SBA Side Band Allocation
RAM Random Access Memory
ROM Read Only Memory
DAC Digital to Analog Converter
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
API Application Program Interface
IDCT Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform

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DXVA Direct X Video Accelerator
DDR Double data rate synchronous Dynamic Random access
STM Software Transactional Memory
FPS Frames per second
CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture
IHV Independent Hardware Vendors
TSMC Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company
ATI Array Technology Incorporation