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ANALISA PRODUKTIFITAS PEKERJA DENGAN METODE

WORK SAMPLING

The journal that will be reviewed in this paper is Analisa


Produktifitas Pekerja Dengan Metode Work Sampling by Andi, Koento
Danny Wibowo, and Andri Prasetya.

1. Introduction
Productivity of employee is an important aspect in a production
process. It is the main aspect in determinining the successness of a
project. Low productivity can obstruct the execution of a project.
Eventough productivity of employee is important, there is still an
utility of employee that is not effective, like idle, chatting, eating,
drinking, smoking outside of work hours, etc.
The paper aims to perform a work measurement on the existing
project in Surabaya, which is project X and project Y. The aspect that is
measured and analyzed in the paper is the productivity of employee in
the two projects. In order to perform the measurement and analysis,
the writer use work sampling method. The productivity measurement
that can be obtained from the analysis is labor utilization rate (LUR).
Besides getting the value of labor utilization rate, the writer also
analyse the factos that affects the LUR in the two projects by using
questionnare.

2. Work Method
In this paper, the method that is used to perform the productivity
measurement, which is Labor Utilization Rate (LUR) is work sampling method.
Work sampling is a technique where a several instantaneous observation on a
certain periodic of time is done on a group of employee, machine, or process. In
this paper, the main focous is employee.
In executing work sampling method, there are several principle that must
be fulfilled. The principle of work method is as follows:
1. Observer must be able to quickly indentify individual and sample to
be classified.
2. Number of sample that is obtained should not be less than 384
observation data.
3. Sample is obtained from various parts of labor cycle to make sure
that every unit have the same chance to be observed.
4. In any big group, a sample is obtained randomly to represent a part of
or all characteristic from that group. In another words, a sample can
not show a special condition or situation that may gives impact to the
object that will be observed.
5. In order to avoid prejudice, recording must be done quickly without
hestitation like what what first seen.
Work sampling can be classified into three approach, which are field
rating, productivity rating, and 5-minute rating. In the paper, the observation that
is done is productivity rating where the type of activity of an employee that is
observed is formwork, pembesian, and digging. Those type of activities then will
be classified into three, effective, essential contributory, and ineffective activities.
The definition of those three type of activities is as follows:
1. Effecrive work, an activity where the activity of employee have direct
involvement with the process that can affect the final result.
2. Essential contributory work, an activity that have no direct
involvment with the final result, but generally needed in executing an
operation.
3. Ineffective work, an activity where the employee is idle or doing
activities that is not directly related to the process.

Observation is done on normal working hours, starts from 08.00 17.00


WIB. The observation on normal working hours is divided into three period,
which are in the morning (08.30-11.30), in the afternoon (13.30-15.00), and in the
evening (15.00-16.30). The observation day starts from Monday to Saturday.
Besides observation on normal working hour, writer also do an observation in
outside of normal working hours, which is in the morning (08.00-08.30), in the
afternoon (11.30-13.30), and in the evening (16.30-17.00). Observation by using
work samping method is done with the steps as follows:
1. Doing field observation and classifies the activities into effective,
essential contributory or ineffective work
2. Calculate number of employee in every type of activities
3. Calculate Labor Utilization Rate (LUR) by using the following formula
1
effective+ essential contributory
4
LUR=
total observation

The purpose of the paper is to know directly factors that affect the
productivity rate. The value that is obtained from the calculation of LUR only
shows which project that have better productivity of employee, but the factor that
affect the productivity can not be known only from the LUR. So, writer also
distributes a questionnare to know factor that affect the productivity rate. The
responder that fill in the questionnare is from parties that have direct involvement
like site manager, foreman, and supervisor.
The questionnare contain 18 productivity factor that have scale from 1 to
5. The value of 5 shows the best level while the value of 1 shows the lowest level.
The questionnare that is distributed then processed with mean analysis. To know
the factors that significantly different, the questionnare is processed with T-
test.Those two process is done by using SPSS.

3. Result of Observation and Analysis


Based on the calculation that is done by using result of observation, the
LUR of project X and project Y is obtained. In project X, the LUR is as follows:
55,44% for formwork and 54,79% for pembesian. So, the total LUR for project X
is 55,13%. While for project Y, the LUR is as follows: 43,10% for formwork,
43,65% for pembesian, and 51,08% for digging. So, the total LUR for project Y is
44,45%.
To know which project that have higher productivity rate, writer compare
the LUR of formwork and pembesian of project X and project Y. Based on the
comparison, it is known that the productivity rate of project X is higher than
project Y for every types of work. Eventough there is a difference in the
productivity rate, the value of LUR is still on the normal treshold of construction
project, which is 40-60%.

Figure 1 Productivity Comparison between Project X and Y

Based on the analysis on the working time, it is known that the value of
LUR in themorning is generally higher than in the afternoon and evening. This
may caused because in the morning, the employee still have high morale, high
power, and the weather is aslo supportive (not too hot if compared with the
weather in the afternoon and evening).
Based on the result of questionnare, the average of the rating of
productivity factors in project X is higher than in project Y. Also, based on T test
that has been done, there are three factors that is statistically different between
project X and project Y, which are material, scaffodling, schedule, skill, shifts,
leadership, controlling, machine, information, team work, absence, full area, crew
movement, inspection, rework, motivation, morale and attitude, and information
receivement. Based on those factors, often late or lack of material or scaffodling
cause the employee to wait for their work so there are many idle time. Schedule
that is not too good on the initial planning phase also have big impact in the
productivity of employee.

4. Conclusion
The purpose of the paper is to know which productivity rate between
project X and Y that is higher and what factors that influence the productivity.
After doing observation and analysis, the productivity rate in project X is higher
than in project Y. Some factors that influence the productivity rate are material,
scaffodling, schedule, skill, shifts, leadership, controlling, machine, information,
team work, absence, full area, crew movement, inspection, rework, motivation,
morale and attitude, and information receivement. Also, the productivity rate in
the morning is higher than in the afternoon and evening because the employee still
have high morale, high power, and the weather is aslo supportive (not too hot if
compared with the weather in the afternoon and evening).