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Analysis

Table 1. Raw data for the factory

2 stacking prismatic cell 2.4
3 electrode stack 2.8
4 sub assembly 2.6
5 sealing 1.9
6 labelling and formation 3.4
7 inspection and test 1.8

*Since loading component at station 1 will happen after every 20 product the time per product is
is then:

= 2.6/20

=0.13mins

Hence this time will be added to the process time at station 1.

*Since 2 mins is added after every 20 products to station2, 3 and 4 for unloading component, the
setup time for one product is now:
Tsu = time/no# of product
= 2/20
= 0.1 mins
Hence 0.1 mins will be added to the process time of station 2, 3 and 4.
*Now for station 6 considering that 15% of the product is readjusted, the total time for
production at station 6 is now:
Ttotal = (desired production x process time) + (15% of desired production x readjustment time)
= (280 x 3.4) + (0.15 x 280 X 2.2)
= 1044.44 mins
Hence process time per product at station 6 is now:
Tprocess = total time / number of products
= 1044.44/280
= 3.73 mins
(The total time is divided by 280 and not by 280+ 42 because in actual the 42 extra products
going through station 6 is from the 280 products which needs to be readjusted, hence in reality
only 280 products are processed.)

Table 2. Actual data for analysis

2 stacking prismatic cell 2.5
3 electrode stack 2.9
4 sub assembly 2.7
5 sealing 1.9
6 labelling and formation and readjustment 3.73
7 inspection and test 1.8

From the above recalculated process times, it becomes clear that the bottleneck station is station
6. Hence, each new product will be processed in the maximum process time which in this case is
3.73mins.
Work content time:

Twc= sum of all the process time

= 1.25+0.13+2.5+2.9+2.7+1.9+3.73+1.8+2.5
= 19.41 mins
Table 2 shows data which is for one machine available at each station. However, if each of the
machines operate at their respective times, it is not possible for the factory to meet its production
rate. Therefore, to meet the demand, one station may have more than one machine. The
calculations below shows the number of machines required for the required production at each
station.
No# of machine needed at each station:

Demand Production rate: 280pc/day

Total available processing time:
Ttotal= 7hrs/day x 60min/hr
= 420 mins

Station 1:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/1.38
= 304.35pc/day
No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate
=280/304.35
=0.92 ====> 1 machines

Station 2:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/2.5
= 168pc/day
No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate
=280/168
=1.667 ====> 2 machines

Station 3:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/2.9
= 144.83pc/day

No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate

=280/109.09
=1.93 ====> 2 machines
Station 4:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/2.7
= 155.56pc/day

No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate

=280/155.56
=1.80 ====> 2 machines

Station 5:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/1.9
= 221.05pc/day

No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate

=280/221.05
=1.27 ====> 2 machines

Station 6:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/3.73
= 112.6pc/day

No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate

=280/112.6
=2.49 ====> 3 machines
Station 7:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/1.8
= 233.33pc/day
No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate
=280/233.33
=1.2 ====> 2 machines
Station 8:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/2.5
= 168pc/day

No# of machine= Demand Production rate/Actual Production rate

=280/168
=1.67 ====> 2 machines

Maximum production rate:

Considering the bottle neck station i.e the maximum cycle time, which is at station 6 where each
machine will produce:
Actual Product per day = Total available time/ Process time per station
= 420/3.73
= 112.6 ===> 112pc/machine for a day
Since the number of machine at station 6 calculated was 3, the production rate now
Max production rate= production rate per machine x no# of machine
= 112 x 3
=336pc/day
Now this value of the production rate is larger than the demand of 280 pc/day. This is not a
problem as some time could be taken off the production schedule for preventative maintenance
repairing or inspection of machines. Hence the factory meets it desired production rate with the
Total number of workers:
As it is not specified in the design problem, it is assumed that one worker operates a single
machine, hence the total number of workers = total number of machines.
Total no# of machine = sum of all the machines from station 1 to 8
=1+2+2+2+2+3+2+2
=16machines
Total workers = 1
Balance delay:

Balance delay = 1 (wct/ n x Tc max )

= 1- (19.41/8x3.73)
= 1- 0.65047
=0.3495 ====> 34.95%
Balance efficiency 1-0.3495= 65.05%

Total floor space required:

Floor space needed by each station:
Station 1:
Each department takes 3 x 3 meter space, area = 9m2
Calculated number of department: 1
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
=9x1
=9m2

Station 2:
Each department takes 1.5 x 1.5 meter space, area = 2.25m2
Calculated number of department: 2
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
= 2.25 x 2
=4.5m2

Station 3:
Each department takes 1.5 x 1.5 meter space, area = 2.25m2
Calculated number of department: 2
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
= 2.25 x 2
=4.5m2
Station 4:
Each department takes 1.5 x 1.5 meter space, area = 2.25m2
Calculated number of department: 2
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
= 2.25 x 2
=4.5m2

Station 5:
Each department takes 1.5 x 0.9 meter space, area = 1.35m2
Calculated number of department: 2
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
= 1.35 x 2
=2.7m2

Station 6:
Each department takes 1.5 x 1.5 meter space, area = 2.25m2
Calculated number of department: 3
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
= 2.25 x 3
=6.75m2

Station 7:
Each department takes 1.5 x 1.5 meter space, area = 2.25m2
Calculated number of department: 2
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
= 2.25 x 2
=4.5m2
Station 8:
Each department takes 3 x 2.4 meter space, area = 7.2m2
Calculated number of department: 2
Floor space = area by each department x no# of department
= 7.2 x 2
=14.4m2

Total Floor space = sum of floor space from station 1 to 8

=9+4.5+4.5+4.5+2.7+6.75+4.5+14.4
=50.85m2

Table 3. Total flow between stations obtained from from-to chart.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 x 20 0 0 0 0 0 20
2 x 20 0 0 0 0 0
3 x 20 0 0 0 0
4 x 20 0 0 0
5 x 20 0 0
6 x 23 3
7 x 17
8 x

Table 4. Rel-chart

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 * E x x x x x E
2 * E x x x x x
3 * E x x x x
4 * E x x x
5 * E x x
6 * A U
7 * E
8 *
Table 5. Value chart

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 * 4 0 0 0 0 0 4
2 * 4 0 0 0 0 0
3 * 4 0 0 0 0
4 * 4 0 0 0
5 * 4 0 0
6 * 5 1
7 * 4
8 *

1 8 6 10
2 8 7 9
3 8 8 9
4 8 1 8
5 8 2 8
6 10 3 8
7 9 4 8
8 9 5 8

Floor plan layout:

Total area: 50.85m2
Taking each cell to be 1.5 x 1.5 =2.25m2
We have a total number of cells to be:
Total cell = 50.85/2.25
= 22.6 ==> 23 cells
Taking the matrix that best fits the number of cell we get 6 x 4 ===> 24 cells
Battery factory layout details:

Using the scores and doing several setup drafts, the best layout was finally chosen. As seen that
the factory is arranged in a closed loop somewhat in a spiral instead of a linear configuration.
The reason for this was that since the pallets and boxes were to return to station one after station
8, the used configuration provides station 1 and 8 to be side by side. This reduces return distance
for the empty pallets and boxes, reduces the time it takes for the empty pallets to reach to station
one, hence reducing the number of pallets required and also the cost of the conveyor system.

The initial startup of production begins by delivering components to station 2, 3, 4 in boxes form
station one. The boxes contain components for 20 products. These boxes stay on the conveyor
returning back to station 1. Then the casing is loaded and sent to station 2.The product travels
from station one to 2 in a belt conveyor of certain speed (speed calculation shown afterwards).
Different conveyors were used instead of a one speed conveyor to setup different speeds required
at different stations. The product goes to machine 1 of station 2. Straight after preparing the first
product, station 1 begins preparing the 2nd product for machine 2 of station 2. Hence station one
runs continuously without any breaks.( Calculations shown in the conveyor section afterwards.)

From station 2 to station 3 and then to station 4 consecutively, the product travels. Use of push
mechanisms are inserted between conveyors at 90 degrees to each other. The push mechanism is
integrated with a limit switch so that as the product is passed, it triggers the switch and enables
push mechanism to engage. (sensor systems also could have been used). Product moves from
station four to 5 and then to 6 in the same way. After processing at station 6, the product travels
on belt conveyors and is put onto a 90 degree belt conveyor by use of a turntable conveyor.

After process 7 the products go to a T junction where one end goes to station 8 and the other
goes back to station 6. The junction comprises of an overhead lift system computerized to
recognize if the product needs readjustments. If it does, then it picks up the product and places
onto conveyor going back to station 6. The product is readjusted and then is diverted directly to
station 8 with the use of the conveyor turntable. It the product does not need readjustments then
the lift system puts the product on conveyor moving leading to station 8.

At station 8, the product is unloaded and packaged. The empty pallets and boxes need to be then
returned back to station 1. Since the design requires the use of power and free conveyor which is
rapidly replacing all other conveyor systems due to the effectiveness of the conveyor in its
application and flexibility, this design uses power and free conveyor system as the means to
return the pallet and boxes and also providing solutions to movement problem. If a normal belt
conveyor would have been used, then our factory would have been totally surrounded by the belt
conveyors and practically preventing movement in and out of factory. A solution to this would
have been to use elevated conveyors however this becomes bulky and would cost more. The use
of power and free conveyor prevents all of the problems stated and returns the pallets and boxes
back to station 1.
Determining the conveyor speed of every conveyor:

Length of conveyor = 1.5m , tstation 2 = 2.5mins, tstation 1= 1.38mins

Ttime = tstation 2 tstation 1
= 2.5 1.38
=1.12 min
Hence station 1 is blocked by 1.12 min.
Hence by calculating the right speed of the conveyor, the blockage is prevented.
Speed = distance /time
= 1.5/ (1.12x60)
= 0.022 m/s
This means that with a speed of 0.022m/s, the product will reach station 2 just in time when
station 2 has finished processing the product infront. Hence station 1 doesn not have to wait for
station two to finish processing.

Ttime = tstation 3 tstation 2

= 2.9 2.5
= 0.4 min
Hence station 2 is blocked by 0.4 min
Hence by calculating the right speed of the conveyor, the blockage is prevented.
Speed = distance /time
= 3/ (0.4x60)
= 0.125 m/s
Speed of Conveyor at station 3:

Total Length of conveyor = 4.5m , tstation 3 = 2.9mins , tstation 4 = 2.7 mins

*Since station 4 is starving already, we have to have the maximum speed possible of the
conveyor to prevent further starvation.
Max speed= 0.38m/s (as given in question)
Time= distance /speed
= 4.5/0.38
= 0.197 mins
Starvation time= Tstation3 Tstation 4
=2.9-2.7
= 0.2 mins
Total starvation time= 0.2+0.197
=0.397 mins
Hence station 4 will only starve for 0.397 mins using max conveyor speed.
Speed of Conveyor at station 4:

Length of conveyor = 3m , tstation 4=2.7mins, tstation 5= 1.9mins

*Since station 5 is starving already, we have to have the maximum speed possible.
Max speed= 0.38m/s
Time= distance /speed
= 3/0.38
= 0.132 mins
Starvation time= Tstation4 Tstation 5
=2.1-1.9
= 0.8 mins
Total starvation time= 0.8+0.132
=0.932 mins
Hence station 5 will only starve for 0.932 mins using max conveyor speed.
Speed of Conveyor at station 5:
*Since two conveyor are used at 90degree we take same speed of both the conveyor, hence their
distance is added. Also assuming that the time required for the push mechanism is negligible.
Length of conveyor = length 1 + length 2
= 3 +1.5
= 4.5m
Ttime = tstation 5 tstation 6
= 3.73 1.9
= 1.83 min
Hence station 5 is blocked by 1.83 min
Hence by calculating the right speed of the conveyor, the blockage is prevented.
Time= distance /speed
= 4.5/ (1.83x60)
= 0.041 mins

Speed of Conveyor at station 6:

*Since two conveyor are used at 90degree we take same speed of both the conveyor, hence their
distance is added. Also assuming there is no time lost in the push mechanism.
Length of conveyor = length 1 + length 2
= 1.5 +4.5
= 6m
*Note that time at station 6 used is 3.4 not 3.73 as only 3.4mins is for sealing and labelling.
Time= distance /speed
= 6/0.38
= 0.26 mins
Starvation time= Tstation6 Tstation 7
=3.4-1.8
= 1.6 mins
Total starvation time= 0.26+1.6
=1.86 mins
Hence station 7 will only starve for 1.86 mins using max conveyor speed.

Speed of Conveyor from station 7 to 8:

*Since two conveyor are used at 90degree we take same speed of both the conveyor, hence their
distance is added. Also assuming there is no time lost in the push mechanism.
Length of conveyor = length 1 + length 2
= 4.5 +4.5
= 9m
*Assuming the overhead lift system takes 0.1 min to transport product from one conveyor to
another, then the time available for conveyors is:
Ttime = (tstation 7 tstation 8) toverhead lift
= (2.5 1.8)-0.1
=0.6 min
Hence station 7 is blocked by 0.6 min.
*Since station 7 is blocked we make use conveyor to prevent blockage.
Speed = distance /time
= 9/ (0.6x60)
= 0.25 m/s
Therefore, by using conveyor with speed of 0.25m/s, blockage is prevented.

Speed of Conveyor from station 6 to 8:

*Since two conveyor are used at 90degree we take same speed of both the conveyor, hence their
distance is added. Also assuming there is no time lost in the push mechanism.
*The time at station 6 now taken as the readjustment time = 2.2minutes.
Length of conveyor = length 1 + length 2
= 4.5 +4.5
= 9m
Ttime = (tstation 8 tstation 6)
= (2.5 2.2)
=0.3 min
Hence station 6 is blocked by 0.3 min.
*Since station 6 is blocked we make use conveyor to prevent blockage. The spped of conveyor
required is:
Speed = distance /time
= 9/ (0.3x60)
= 0.5 m/s
*Now since our speed comes to 0.5m/s which exceeds the maximum conveyor speed of 0.38m/s,
we cannot use 0.5 but have to use 0.38 as the conveyor speed. We now use speed of 0.38 to
calculate the time it will take to travel between the two stations.
Time= distance /speed
= 9/ (0.38 x 60)
= 0.3947 mins
It can be noted that by using a conveyor speed of 0.38m/s, instead of the product reaching station
8 in 0.3 minutes to prevent blockage, it now reaches station 8 in 0.3947minutes.Station 6 is no
longer blocked however now station 8 is starving. The starvation time is:
Total starvation time= 0.3947-0.3
=0.0947 mins
Hence station 8 will only starve for 0.0947 mins using max conveyor speed.
(This is fairly alright as this starvation will only occur 15% of the time, hence not a big issue to
worry on.)
Speed of Conveyor from station 8 to 1:
*We have used an over-head power and free conveyor system for this transportation of boxes and
pallets.
Length of conveyor = 7.5m
*Since we dont have a specified time for this we will calculate the minimum time that is needed
for the conveyor to travel from station 8 to 1.
Max speed= 0.38m/s
Time= distance /speed
= 7.5/0.38
= 0.33 mins
*Since we have used a power and free conveyor , the time it takes for hooking the pallets and
boxes to the conveyor rack is assumed to be 0.1 mins.
Hence total time for empty pallet travel (including time for hooking pallets onto conveyor) is:
T= 0.33+0.1
=0.43mins

Total time for one product to complete production including travel time:
Time= work content time + total starvation time + empty travel time
= 19.41 + (0.397+1.932+0.0947) + 0.43
=21.26 mins

Determination of the number of pallets:

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The above flowchart gives a schematic of how the processes will occur on the factory.

*If the first product takes 21.26 mins to reach the end of production line just before it is put back
onto station 1, then the number of pallets in line after the first product manufactured is:
No# of pallets = total time/time at station 1

= 21.26/1.25 ( after every 1.25 mins a casing is loaded onto pallet and sent to station 2

= 17.01 ===> 18 pallets

*Also noting that right after the first casing put on station 1 is sent to machine 1 of station 2, a
second casing from station 1 is also sent to machine 2 of station 2 with a time lag of 1.25 mins.
This product follows a second channel and is in (21.26-1.25)mins of its production. Hence the
total number of pallets in line to this 2nd product is:

No# of pallets = total time/time at station 1

= (21.26-1.25/1.25

Hence the total number of pallets required = 18+17= 35

However for a smooth flow of production line 2 extra pallets are added hence total number of
pallets= 37

Determining the number of boxes:

The time after which the boxes are sent after first cycle is:

Time = no# of product x cycle time

= 20 x 3.73

= 74.6 mins

*Since there are two machines at station 2, 3 and 4 hence 6 boxes is sent every 74.6 mins.

It takes 21.26 mins to for the boxes to travel from station 1 to station 8 and back to station 1,
hence 6 boxes are enough as they would return in time for the next delivery. Also this is the
reason why a secondary conveyor was not used for the component boxes to return as an optimum
design.

Material handling system costing:

Unit Materials Price/unit Total
9 1.5m conveyor \$500 \$4,500
10 3m conveyor \$875 \$8,750
4 Push mechanism \$350 \$1,400
4 limit switch \$200 \$800
1 conveyor turn table \$500 \$500
1 Over-head lift system \$2,000 \$2,000

Total \$17,950

The total cost of the material handling system is \$17,950 where the cost of power and free
conveyors price was assumed similar to the price provided in the price list.

Conclusion
The design of the battery factory was successfully done with the necessary calculations. The
initial given problem was improved by analysis and made to accomplish the desired production
rate. This been done by calculating the required number of machines needed to reach the
demand. The bottleneck station was identified and calculations were made according to the
maximum processing time. Key learning was the proper use of conveyor systems to prevent
starvation and blockage. The initial design had a lot of blockages and starvations however by the
effective use of conveyors with the calculated speeds, the blockages were successfully removed.
However, some designs are limited by practical aspects such as the conveyor speed, hence there
were some starvation still in the system. This was only in the readjustment line which occurred
only 15 % of the time therefore would not cause much problem. Furthermore, by a clearly
displayed analysis on the pallet and boxes used, the number of pallet and boxes were
successfully determined. Moreover, as the main factor is costing which drives all other factors, a
costing analysis was also done for the material handling system. Finally, by the completion of
this assignment, a clear understanding of how a production analysis is done is obtained and the
foundations to working out a factory planning and layout is achieved succesfully.