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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Children who come to school with a solid


foundation in their mother tongue develop
stronger literacy abilities in the school
language (Cummins, 2011)

Introduction

Language is regarded as a tool that facilitates all facets of communication. It

governs almost if not all the activities of man. In the paradigm of education, language

plays a vital rule in the instruction and classroom management of every school around

the world. Being considered as system, every language has a distinctive variety of

structure. It is therefore fascinating that the study of languages and their interplay is

flourishing even at the present era.

According to Guvercin (2011), every language spoken in the world

represents a special culture, melody, color, and asset and to everyone the mother

language is certainly one of the most precious treasures in our lives. Its a duty and

responsibility to preserve it and pass it down from generation to generation. Whether

urged by necessity or because of other reasons, learning another language brings a lot

of advantages in life.

A new language opens a new window in our world view and makes us more

aware, open-minded, and respectful to other cultures, lifestyles, customs and beliefs.

Moreover, knowing another language has been proven to contribute to helping

understand ones mother tongue better.

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Consequently, Krashen (2004) postulates "Your children will learn English much

more effectively if they continue to develop their first language at the same time." ESL

students in international schools learn English more quickly and effectively if they

maintain and develop their proficiency in the mother tongue. It is viewed that language

is one of the valuable gifts which have been passed to children.

The first language is significant and builds the basis for all later language

progresses. Parents, family members and early childhood professionals have very

important role on the development and maintenance of the first language. Studies

shows that knowing one language can assist the child to comprehend how other

languages work. First or home language is particularly important for the childs

development of a positive self-concept and well-being.

The mother tongue opens the door, including its own grammar, to all grammars,

in which it awakens the potential for universal grammar that lies within all of us. It is the

valuable asset people bring to the task of language learning. For this reason, the mother

tongue is the master key to foreign languages, the tool which gives us the fastest,

surest, most precise, and most complete means of accessing a foreign language.

Successful learners capitalize on the vast amount of linguistic skills and world

knowledge they have accumulated via the mother tongue. For the beginner, becoming

aware of meanings automatically involves connecting them with the mother tongue

until the Foreign Language has established an ever-more complex network for itself

(Butzkamm, 2003).

Nelson Mandela once said If you talk to a man in a language he understands,

that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language that goes to his heart.

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Significantly, mother language has such an important role in framing our thinking,

emotions and spiritual world, because the most important stage of our life, childhood, is

spent in its imprints. A strong bond between a child and his parents (especially mother)

is established by virtue of love, compassion, body language, and also through the most

important one, which is the verbal language. When a person speaks their mother

tongue, a direct connection establishes between heart, brain and tongue. Our

personality, character, modesty, shyness, defects, our skills, and all other hidden

characteristics become truly revealed through the mother tongue because the sound of

the mother tongue in the ear and its meaning in the heart give us trust and confidence.

Here in the Philippines, the usage of two languages Filipino and English is

adhered. The unique set-up in our education system has created many issues on how

can a learning environment which is favorable and less hostile to our learners, be

created. The pedagogical study on how learning can be made easy through native

language or dialect is best known to be the use of mother tongue as medium of

instruction in certain levels in schools. The Philippine Constitution points out what

national education objectives should be. Hence, being the fundamental law of the land,

the Constitution with provision relevant to education becomes the point of reference in

the formulation of educational objectives. Section 5 Republic Act No. 10157 mandated

and declared the policy of the state to adopt the mother tongue based- multilingual

education (MTB-MLE) method. The mother tongue of the learner shall be the primary

medium of instruction for teaching and learning from the kindergarten to Grade 3 levels.

Many theories presuppose the assumption that first language is not a destructive

element to the process of acquisition of the second language rather than viewing it as

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interference from the first language. Though first language is a spring board and basis

to acquisition of the second language still debates on issues continue to exist. Cummins

(1981) explains why second language children may have difficulty learning content in

all-English classroom. Cummins proposes that classroom language used in content

teaching can be organized along two dimensions, each on continuum.

The researcher is propelled in her quest to find out the variables that affect

learners in their English class. Also, being an educator more particularly as an English

teacher there has been a challenge to explore innovative steps in using learning tools

and strategies that will facilitate learning of the English language. Since, by observation

there can be chances that native/mother tongue can be an aid to subject areas i.e.

Science and Mathematics, there should also be a further concrete study on how mother

tongue be an effective tool in learning the English language.

Furthermore, the researcher believes that by creating an effective system that

will use mother tongue as a tool in learning a new language, is an advantage not only

to the learners but also the educatorsteachers. The very core purpose of this study is

to create a learning environment that is learner friendly and not hostile nor

discriminatory to learners second language or dialect. Thus, there should be less

disregard of the mother tongue in learning the English Language.

The outcome of this study will bring about better understanding of the unique

learning environment using the mother tongue. It will serve as basis in crafting

curriculum centered to enhance and strengthen learners capacity to learn English as

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second language. There will be a great impact to educators on how they can maximize

local dialect in their lessons and teachings.

Theoretical Framework

A students language is part of who she or he is. Rejecting it is interpreted as

personal rejection. Everyone speaks a dialect, which is determined by place of birth,

socioeconomic status and other factors (Shuy, 1973).

The approaches that the researcher saw fit to use in the conduct of her study are

Krashens Input or Monitor Model particularly Affective Filter Hypothesis and Cummins

Model on Learners Cognitive and Linguistic Abilities and Linguistic Interdependence

Theory, since this study investigates the usage of Mother Tongue Language as a tool in

enhancing students literary competence. The two approaches are used to shed light

and guide the researcher in understanding how Mother Tongue Language can facilitate

better learning environment and foster strategies focused on the learners.

Affective Filter Hypothesis was first proposed by Dulay and Burt (1977, cited in

Krashen, 1982) relates to emotional variables including anxiety, motivation and self-

confidence. These are crucial because they can block input from reaching the black

box or Language Acquisition Device (LAD), as shown in Fig. 1 below.

F
I Language
L Acquisition
Input T Competence
E
Device
R

Figure 1. The Affective Filter

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Learners have an affective filter that determines their orientation to language

learning and their predilection to take advantage of acquisition opportunities. Those with

high or strong filters will be unable to use all available input because psychological

factors intervene. Those with lower or weak affective filters shaped by stronger

motivation, better self-confidence, and lower anxiety will be more likely to seek input

and more open to using it.

Apparently, the lower the affective filter, the more the learner can exploit the

possibilities for acquisition available in the environment; the filter must be low enough

to allow the input in. A high affective filter blocks some of the comprehensive input;

less input enters the learners LAD. A lower affective filtera learning setting where

students are relaxed, feel secure and confident, and where a spirit of cooperation, and

mutual respect are fosteredincreases input and proficiency in the target language (as

cited in Alawi, 2013).

In Krashens model of second language acquisition, the affective filter plays a

critical mediating role; it determines whether or not the learner will seek and be able to

take advantage of all the available input. If the learner is anxious, lacks interest in, and

motivation to, acquire the language, or lacks confidence in his ability to learn,

acquisition will be hindered and may be almost precluded if the filter is high.

Moreover, according to this hypothesis, the filter serves as a neurological

function such that in learners with a strong affective filter even if they understand the

message, the input will not reach that part of the brain responsible for language

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acquisition. Such restriction (strong affective filter) hinders or block the input to be

processed which resulted to zero learning.

Consequently, the affective filter is the sole reason that learners who obtain a

great deal of comprehensive input still stop shortof the native speaker level; it is

hence the cause of fossilization, or reaching a plateau at a level below native speaker

competence.

In congruent to Kraskens theory, Cummins (1981) early work, while not

disregarding the social factors that affect language acquisition, emphasizes the

interrelationships that may exist between two languages of a bilingual. This formulation,

the efficiency of second language acquisition is predicated on the level of second

language development. To understand how second language acquisition occurs, the

connection between the first and second language must first be understood.

According to Cummins Linguistic Interdependence Theory, individual appears to

use their two languages as though they were unrelated; in reality, however, there is a

common operating system of underlying proficiency beneath the surface aspects of the

language.

Cummins hypothesis states that the level of second language competence

which a bilingual child attains is partially a function of the type of competence the child

has developed in first language at the time when intensive exposure to second

language begins. Appropriate input in either language helps the entire system to

develop, but if a child is forced to operate in the less developed language without

adequate support, academic functioning is likely to suffer across all areas. This

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prediction of failure is also true for students who have poorly developed proficiency in

both their languages. The nature of first language skill is thus a predictor of second

language potential or success.

Basing support for the common underlying proficiency model on evaluations of

successful bilingual programs, studies relating age on arrival to second language

acquisition, and research linking continued use of primary language at home with

improved school achievement in second language, Cummins concludes that children

who experience extensive, natural first language development at home or in school tend

to make better progress in school that comparable students whose first language is not

maintained.

It can thus be inferred that skills learned in the first language transfer into the

second language, thus establishing the commonality of the underlying language

proficiency.

Furthermore, Cummins posited the existence of two different thresholds of

relationship, a lower and a higher, between a bilinguals languages. There may be a

threshold levels of linguistic competence which bilingual children must attain both in

order to avoid cognitive deficits and to allow the potentially beneficial aspects of

becoming bilingual to influence their cognitive growth.

To avoid disabling difficulties in linguistic development and sustain normal

cognitive growth, potentially bilingual children had to reach a native level of language

skill in at least of the two relevant languages. Failure to do so could result in such

inadequate development of language that negative cognitive effects might ensure; if the

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child did not possess age-appropriate skills in at least one of the two languages, neither

language could then serve as a foundation for cognitive growth. Thus, strong skills in at

least one of a bilingual childs two languages are essential to avoid deficits.

While reaching a native-like level in one of the languages, though, would not

necessarily guarantee that a child would reap the potential benefits of being a bilingual.

Having age appropriate skills in one language is enough to safeguard against deficits,

but it is not enough to enhance intellectual function (Cummins, 2011).

Consequently, dominant bilinguals could be expected to show neither positive

nor negative effects in terms of cognitive and academic development; academically,

they are expected to be comparable to similar unilinguals in academic achievement. In

terms of intellectual skills, they would show no deficit, since one language was strong;

however, if only one of the two languages was fully developed in domain relevant to

formal education, they would show no particular intellectual advantage. Enhanced of

cognitive function can occur when students reach higher threshold, the levels of first

and second language proficiency associated with intensive study and experience using

the language for various purpose.

Therefore, in terms of principal theoretical emphasis, Krashens theories and the

methodologies they have informed are more relevant to oral skills, while Cummins

models are mainly concerned with text and literacy based dimensions of language

proficiency (McLaughlin, 1982).

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Conceptual Framework

Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of the study. Two sets of selected Grade 3

pupils, the first set of respondents composed the experimental group (exposed to

Mother Tongue Based Language) while the second set of respondents were marked as

the mainstream group (all English class). The researcher then assessed the literary

competence of the pupils using Mother Tongue and English as language of instructions.

The results indicate whether or not the MTBL learners/respondents compared to the

other achieved the objective of increasing or improving their literary competence.

Selected Grade 3
Pupils/Learners

Mother Tongue Mainstream/All English

Based Instruction Based Instruction

Figure 2. Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework


Increased/Improved
Literary Competence
Statement of the Problem

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This study aimed to show the effectiveness of Mother Tongue Based Language

as a tool or strategy in enhancing learners literary competence of selected Grade 3

pupils.

Specifically, this study is an effort to find answers to the following questions:

1. What is the literary competence of the selected Grade 3 pupils based on the

Pre-test?
1.1 Using Mother Tongue as language of instruction
1.2 Using English as language of instruction
2. What is the literary competence of the selected Grade 3 pupils based on the

Post-test?
2.1 Using Mother Tongue as language of instruction
2.2 Using English as language of instruction
3. Is there a significant relationship between Mother Tongue vis--vis using All

English Instruction?

Significance of the Study

This study could serve as a source of insight on how innovative measures and

strategies can be integrated i.e. the use of Mother Tongue Based Language in real

classroom setting that could facilitate greater chance of understanding and promote

more learner friendly learning environment.

Furthermore, the findings of this study would provide English teachers and

curriculum developers with vital information that would aid to the development of

instructional and learning materials using Mother Tongue Based Language as a tool or

strategy in teaching Literature and learning the English Language as a whole.

Particularly, English teachers and their students, school administrators, and other

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researchers in the same field should profit from fresh information generated by the

inquiry.

Students. The findings of this study may ignite the appreciation of the use of

mother tongue in their learning of the English language. They will also learn to enrich

their native language along with their newly acquired language. By giving them

opportunity to explore their native language, they can be more proficient in both

languages. As such the aim for meaningful learning is achieved using the native

language or the mother tongue.

Classroom Teachers. The results of this study, particularly the status or level of

competencies of the students, hopefully shed light on areas where more serious effort

need to be invested, and gives the idea that the use of mother tongue can be an

effective tool in enhancing students literary competencies.

School Administrators. The results of this study may give them an emphasis of

the necessity and desirability of conducting evaluation to teachers, on how teaching

strategies should suit in with the kind of learners. Through constant monitoring and

communications with the teachers, a cooperative learning environment will be

established.

Researchers. Lastly, this study may serve as a guide or reference to future

researchers who want to investigate problem akin to what this study has presented.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

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This study focuses on the usage of Mother Tongue Based Language as tool or

strategy in enhancing or improving the literary competence of selected Grade 3 pupils of

Ibn Siena Integrated School Foundation Inc. (ISISF) located in Marawi City.

The researcher limits the study on literary competence particularly on reading

and writing skills of the respondents. Written literary materials in English are used in the

conduct of the experiment.

As means to measure the effectiveness of Mother Tongue Based Language, a

rubric is designed to adduce quantitative data that would be the basis of the findings of

this study. By measuring the effectiveness means getting the significant relationship

between the All English instruction and the Mother Tongue Instruction. In such case

interpretation of data would be then reliable and relevant to end up with conclusions that

support the theories and hypothesis presented in this study.

Definition of Terms

For better understanding of the study, some important terms are defined

conceptually and operationally:

Bilingualism. It is the ability to speak two languages. It may be acquired early by

children in regions where most adults speak two languages (http://www.merriam-

webster.com/dictionary/bilingualism). In this study, it refers to the ability of the

respondents to speak both Meranaw and English.

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Dialect. As critical term, this refers to variety of a language spoken by a group of

people and having features of vocabulary, grammar, and/or pronunciation that

distinguish it from other varieties of the same language. Dialects usually develop as a

result of geographic, social, political, or economic barriers between groups of people

who speak the same language. When dialects diverge to the point that they are

mutually incomprehensible, they become languages in their own right

(http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dialect). In this study this refers to the

language spoken by the respondents which is the Meranao/Maranao.

Language. In its technical sense, it refers to system of conventional spoken or

written symbols used by people in a shared culture to communicate with each other. A

language both reflects and affects a culture's way of thinking, and changes in a culture

influence the development of its language (http://www.merriam-

webster.com/dictionary/language). In this study, it is used as it is defined.

English Language Learner. Used to be referred to as Limited English Proficient

(LEP). The terms refers to students who receiving services of language assistance such

as English as a Second Language. Includes students who were not born in the United

States and/or students whose primary language is non-English

(http://teaching.about.com/od/gloss/g/English-Language-Learner.htm). In this study, it

refers to the students/respondents.

Literary Competence. In the prevalent teaching-learning situation was defined

as comprising the following abilities: a.) Capacity for independent reading and analysis

of literary texts, b.) Ability to interpret and evaluate findings, and c.) Formulate a

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coherent critical argument (ictl.intimal.edu.my/ictl2009/proceedings/.../2B-06-

P56%20(India).doc). In this study it refers to respondents abilities used in an activity

designed to facilitate language learning.

Meranaw. This refers to Moro people inhabiting the area around Lake Lanao and

certain parts of central Cotabato province, Mindanao, Philippines, and northern Borneo.

Also it refers to the Austronesian language of the Maranao people (http://www.merriam-

webster.com/dictionary/maranao). In this study, it refers to the native language or

mother tongue of the respondents.

Mother Tongue. This refers to a person's native language--that is,

a language learned from birth (Oxford Dictionary, 2012). In this study, it denotes not

only the language one learns from one's mother, but also the speaker's dominant and

home language, i.e. not only the first language according to the time of acquisition, but

the first with regard to its importance and the speaker's ability to master its linguistic and

communicative aspects. In this study, it refers to Meranaw.

Multilingualism. It refers to the ability to speak and understand several

languages (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/multilingual). In this study it

refers to learners/respondents ability to speak the different languages/dialects spoken in

the region i.e. Filipino, Bisaya, Meranaw, Arabic and English. In this study, it refers to

respondents ability to speak and understand other languages/dialects (Arabic, English,

Filipino, Meranaw) used in school.

Rubric. In technical use, it refers to a guide listing specific criteria for grading or

scoring academic papers, projects, or tests (http://www.merriam-

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webster.com/dictionary/rubric?show=0&t=1406390065). In this study, it refers to a

written description of what is expected from students/respondents in order for them to

meet a certain level of performance.

Second/Foreign Language. This refers to any language used in a country other

than ones own; a language that is studied mostly for cultural insight

(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/foreign+language). In this study it refers to the

language that the respondents seek to acquire in this case the English language.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents a critical review of literatures that have a direct or indirect

bearing on the study. The materials included provide theoretical scaffolding, empirical

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evidence and ideas concerning methodology that could be drawn on, or brought to bear

in the analysis and interpretation of data. This part also reviewed actual studies

conducted related to this study.

Related Literature

Children who come to school with a strong foundation in their mother tongue

develop stronger literacy abilities in the language used at school. When parents or

caregivers are able to spend time with their children and tell stories or discuss issues

with them in a way that develops their mother tongue vocabulary and concepts, children

come to school well prepared to learn the language of their immigrant country and

succeed educationally (Cummins, Jim. Bilingual Children's Mother Tongue Why Is It

Important for Education?).

Every language spoken in the world represents a special culture, melody, color,

and asset, to everyone the mother language is certainly one of the most precious

treasures in our lives. Its a duty and responsibility to preserve it and pass it down from

generation to generation. Whether we are urged by necessity or because of other

reasons, learning another language brings a lot of advantages in our life. A new

language opens a new window in our world view and makes us more aware, open-

minded, and respectful to other cultures, lifestyles, customs and beliefs. Moreover,

knowing another language has been proven to contribute to helping us understand our

mother tongue better. (Hurisa Guvercin, Mother Tongue: The Language of Heart and

Mind)

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Consequently, it is important to emphasize that language is defined as the

system of human communication which consists of the structured arrangement of

sounds (or their written representations) into larger units-e.g. morphemes, words,

sentences, and utterances. The state-of-the-art teaching of language is based on a

communicative method which emphasizes the teaching of English through English.

However, the idea of neglecting the native tongue is too stressful to many learners who

need a sense of security in the experience of learning a foreign language.

Moreover, the use of the native language was discredited in favor of English

through English (intralingual approach).However there seems to have been a recent

swing of the pendulum towards a more flexible proposal which agrees that the more

English is used in the classroom, the better but considers L1 as an important

teaching/learning tool. The learners mother tongue has a vital role in a communicative

foreign language classroom.

Although there has been no law implemented punishing students who are using

their native language (for example in a foreign country) there is a strong message that is

implicit to them that if they want to be accepted by the teacher and the society they

need to surrender their language and culture.

The ability to converse in a language is developed through the mother tongue.

The child will get familiarized with the nuances of a language, how to learn it and use it,

and this will enable him or her to learn other languages as well. A strong foundation in

their first language will contribute to learning another language and help them develop

stronger literacy skills in the school language, because childrens literacy knowledge

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and abilities transfer across languages from mother tongue to the language the child is

learning at school. When children continue to develop their abilities in two or more

languages throughout their primary school years they gain a deeper understanding of

language and gradually acquire knowledge about how it can be manipulated and

applied in different ways. They explore the similarities and differences between

languages.

Unfortunately, for many bilingual children who have little mother tongue support

at home, once they start school their mother tongue is gradually replaced by the

majority or dominantly used language, especially in the early school years. Some

parents and educators believe that in order for children to learn a second language

quickly and succeed at school children should use the majority language not only at

school, but even at home. In fact the opposite is true. Children can learn two or more

languages at the same time. Children who learn to speak fluently two or three

languages in some countries where more than one language are spoken.

Researches show that children from immigrant families learn the social majority

language in the early years at school very quickly, although it takes longer to learn

academic language, and can lose their ability to use their mother tongues easily. They

can lose it even in the home context if the mother language is not used constantly at

home or among peers of the same community. They may retain comprehension, but will

use the majority language with siblings, friends, and parents.

It is observed that kids from the same minority community speak the majority

language instead of their mother tongue among themselves, even when they are

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outside school. Preferring second language to first language most often occurs because

children do not know how to express themselves fluently in their mother tongue in

certain contexts and situations. They lack vocabulary and literal expressions in the

mother tongue and find it easier to express themselves in the majority language. As

children grow up, parents see the linguistic gap between them and their children has

widened and leading to an emotional disconnection.

Significantly, mother tongue promotion in the school helps develop not only the

mother tongue but also childrens ability in the majority school language. Cummins

(2011), revealed that the level of childrens mother tongue is a strong predictor of their

second language development. He emphasizes that children who come to school with a

solid foundation in their mother tongue develop stronger literacy abilities in school

language. When parents and other caregivers (e.g. grandparents) are able to spend

time with their children and tell stories or discuss issues with them in a way that

develops their mother tongue vocabulary and concepts, children come to school well

prepared to learn the school language and succeed educationally.

Childrens knowledge and skills transfer across languages from the mother

tongue they have learned in the home to the school language. From the point of view of

childrens development of concepts and thinking skills, the two languages are

independent. Transfer across languages can be two-way: When the mother tongue is

promoted in school (e.g. in a bilingual education program), the concepts, language, and

literacy skills that children are learning in the majority language can transfer to the home

language. In short, both languages nurture each other when the educational

environment permits children to access to both languages.

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Moreover, mother language has a very powerful impact in the formation of the

individual. Our first language, the beautiful sounds of which one hears and gets familiar

with before being born while in the womb, has such an important role in shaping our

thoughts and emotions.

A childs psychological and personality development will depend upon what has

been conveyed through the mother tongue. With this in mind, as psychologists say, it

matters tremendously that language expressions and vocabulary are chosen with care

when we talk to children.

A childs first comprehension of the world around him, the learning of concepts

and skills, and his perception of existence, starts with the language that is first taught to

him, his mother tongue. In the same manner, a child expresses his first feelings, his

happiness, fears, and his first words through his mother tongue.

A study was carried out on fifteen Italian interpreters who were working for the

European Union and translating in English and Italian. The interpreters were all

extremely fluent in English. The study revealed surprising differences in brain activity

when the subjects were shown words in their native language versus in other languages

they spoke.

About 170 milliseconds after a word was shown, the researchers recorded a

peak in electrical activity in the left side of the brain, in an area that recognizes letters as

part of words before their meaning is interpreted. These brain waves had much higher

amplitude when the word was in Italian, the language the interpreters had learned

before age five.

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The findings show how differently the brain absorbs and recalls languages

learned in early childhood and later in life, said Alice Mado Proverbio, a professor of

cognitive electrophysiology at the Milano-Bicocca University in Milan. Proverbio

attributed the differences to the fact that the brain absorbs the mother tongue at a time

when it is also storing early visual, acoustic, emotional and other nonlinguistic

knowledge. This means that the native language triggers a series of associations within

the brain that show up as increased electrical activity. Our mother tongue is the

language we use to think, dream and feel emotion.

A very concise description of L1 role in EFL context is presented by Larsen

Freeman (2000). She supports the role of the mother tongue in the classroom

procedures and summarizes the role of mother tongue in various ELT methods:

In grammar translation method the language used in the class is the students'

native language and the meaning of the target language is done by translating it into the

learners' native language.

In direct method and audio-lingual method the students' native language is not

used in the classroom since it is thought that it interferes with the students' attempts to

learn the target language.

In silent way the student native language is used during feedback sessions,

giving instructions when necessary and to help a student improve his or her

pronunciation.

In suggestopedia the teacher uses the native language in class and translation

is used to make the meaning of the conversation clear.

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In community language learning the purpose of mother tongue is to provide a

bridge from the familiar to the unfamiliar in which students' security is increased by

using their native language.

In total physical response: the lesson is usually introduced initially in the

students' native language.

In communicative language teaching judicious use of the students' native

language is permitted in communicative language teaching.

As it was mentioned, the students' native language has had different functions in

all teaching methods except in Direct Method and Audio-lingualism. Those methods had

their theoretical underpinnings and assumed language learning to be a process of habit

formation, without considering affect, background knowledge and their linguistic abilities

of the students in their L1. In addition, no attention was given to humanistic views of

teaching (Nazary, 2008).

Ellis (1997:51) stated that transfer is an interference which he says is the

influence that the learners L1 exerts over the acquisition of an L2.He argued that

transfer is governed by learners perceptions about what is transferable and by their

stage of development in L2 learning. In learning a target language, learners construct

their own interim rules (Selinker, 1971, Seligar 1988, and Ellis 1997) with the use of

their L1 knowledge, but only when they believe it will help them in the learning task or

when they have become sufficient and proficient in the L2 for transfer to be possible.

In addition spending instructional time through a minority language in the school

does not hurt childrens academic development in the majority school language. Some

parents and educators are suspicious of bilingual education or mother tongue teaching

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programs because they worry that these programs take time away from the majority

school language.

A study reveals that a well- implemented bilingual program can promote literacy

and subject matter knowledge in a minority language without any negative effect on

childrens development in the majority language. If the mother tongue is not used, we

create people who are illiterate in two languages. Children do not become sufficiently

fluent in their mother tongue (L1) in both oral and literacy if their vocabulary in L1 is

limited thus, restricting their ability to learn a second language (L2). A strong foundation

in L1 is required for learning L2. Childrens understanding of concepts is limited or

confused if learning is only L2.

Therefore, if the use of the mother tongue proves to be effective then, both the

teachers and the learners will benefit from it. However it should only be used in certain

situations. The importance of learning a foreign language (i.e. English) is not just how

many speak it but what is used for it. This calls for a challenge to the educators and

policy makers to shape the evolution of national identity in such a way that the rights of

all citizens (including school children) are respected, and the cultural, linguistic, and the

economic resources are maximized.

Related Studies

The premise on the assumption that learning two languages and using each to

learn content means the same goals for the learner in the two learning experiences,

acquiring the communicative systems of both languages and having them function as

tools for knowledge acquisition. Meanwhile, Yus (1977) as cited by Baguio (1993) study

24 | P a g e
on the Common Errors in English Composition committed by the College Freshmen in

Jamiatul Philippine-Al-Islamia, Marawi City, school year 1973-1975, revealed that there

is an interference of the Maranao dialect in the teaching of English subjects. The study

further disclosed that the home environment and limited exposure of the students are

factors that affect the language learning of the students especially in the writing skill.

Walqui (2000) as cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013) said that the specific

language can be more or less difficult to learn, depending on how different from a

similar they are to the language the learner already knows. The learners level of

proficiency in the native language-including oral language and literacy, but also meta-

linguistics development, training in formal and academic features of language use, and

acknowledge of rhetorical patterns and variations in genre and style-affects acquisition

language. The more academically sophisticated the learners native language and

abilities, the easier it will be for that learner to learn a second language. It is easier for

the learners to acquire a second language if they will be using first their mother tongue

in their learning. It is because when a learner uses his first language he can try to know

on the second language by translating a certain word from his language to the second

language.

In addition, the instrumental motivation for learning English reveals that the

language is primarily associated with certain personal goals, directly or indirectly

contributing to the individuals economic and social advancement .This is probably due

to the prestige that English holds as the language of most official and business

transactions. English is also associated with the exchange of technical information and

the use of technical technology. A study shows that English is also the language most

25 | P a g e
frequently used for reading any kind of material. The native languages are still important

for most oral communication with various types of persons, whether in the home or

outside (Feitelson 1976).

A study conducted by Benson (2004) as cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013)

states that the minority language learners should be able to continue learning in both

their first language and second language. Mother tongue based instruction indicates

better teacher and student communication. It is where both teacher and students are

likely to come from the same community which means the teachers are likely to come

from the same community which means the teachers are more likely to build trust on the

students. Hence, it will lead to learner-centered and child-friendly classroom

environment where teaching is more effective for the students.

He also emphasizes that multilingual education empowers the teachers as well,

particularly when they are more fluent in the local language than in the languages of

wider communication. Because the students can express themselves, the teacher can

more accurately assess what has been learned and identify areas where students need

further assistance. Multilingual education empowers the parents who can take an active

part in the education of their children because the language of the school and the

community is just the same. For that reason, multilingual education brings the

community closer to the school and its programs.

The Department of Education calls the use of mother tongue from pre-school to

grade three a bridge program (Brendon, 2011) also cited by Bangon and Abubacar

26 | P a g e
(2013). It is because the first language of the learner is being used as a bridge to learn

easily the second or the third language like English or Filipino.

Moreover, the Department of Education says that the local and international

studies have shown that using the first language or mother tongue inside the classroom

during the learners early years of schooling produces better and faster learners who

can easily adapt to learn a second, the Filipino and the third language which is the

English language (David, 2002) also cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013). Like what

have been said, it is more effective to use the first language of the learners. By this,

they will be more motivated to learn. It is said that they have a better performance than

those learners who are taught to read exclusively in second language.

In the Philippines, the Lubuagan Kalinga First Language Experiment was

conducted with three experimental class schools implementing multilingual education

and another three control class schools implementing the bilingual education scheme.

After tenth year, the project is being carried out by the Summer Institute of Linguistics-

Philippines, the Department of Education and the local community of Lubuagan, Kaling

Province.

The over-all results of the tests show the experimental class scored 80% mastery

of the curriculum, while the control class scored over 50% mastery (Dekker,2008) as

cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013). The result provided crucial evidence that mother

tongue instruction strengthens the learning of Filipino and English and does not hinder

the learning of content, contrary to the fears and concerns of many parents and

educators.

27 | P a g e
Currently, the introduction of Pilipino, the national language, in the schools

started a language revolution. Significantly a great number of Filipinos deplored this as

the cause of the deterioration of the Filipinos command of English. On the other hand,

those who believed that the Filipino was miseducated because he was being educated

in a foreign language considered this as a milestone in the renewal of Filipino

nationalism. It was no longer punishable (as it used to be) in the schools to speak in

Pilipino instead of English. In a few more years, and after some successful experiments

in the use of the vernacular as the medium of learning in the lower grades, other native

languages were introduced in the schools (Feitelson, 1976).

Jim Cummins (2006) as cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013) on CALP

(Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) indicates that when students learn to read

and write inn their mother tongue before learning to read and write in a second or third

language, they progress more quickly both in literacy skills in second language

acquisition.

In addition Piagets outline, at puberty, the time when a person becomes capable

of abstraction, of formal thinking which transcends concrete experience and direct

perception. Cognitively, then, one can make a strong argument for a critical period of

language acquisition by connecting language acquisition and the concrete/ formal stage

transition.

Ausbel (1964) hinted at the relevance of such connection in noting that adults

learning a second language could profit from certain grammatical explanations and

deductive thinking that obviously would be pointless for a child.

28 | P a g e
Similarly, Ellen Rosansky (1975) notes the initial language acquisition takes

place when the child is highly centered; He is not only egocentric at this time, but

when faced with a problem he can focus (and then fleetingly) on one dimension at a

time.

On the affective considerations, Alexander Guiora (1972), who has researched

extensively on personal variables in second language learning proposed the notion of

the language ego to account for the identity a person develops in reference to the

language he/she speaks. The language ego involves interaction of the native language

and ego development. He suggested that the language ego may account for the

difficulties that adults have in learning a second language. The childs ego is dynamic

and flexible through the age of puberty, thus a new language of this stage does not

pose a threat, and adaptation comes easy as long as there are no confounding

sociocultural factors such as damaging attitude toward a language or language group at

a young age. The language ego clings to the native language to protect the fragile ego

of the young adult.

As Mcnamara (1975) notes, a child suddenly transported from Montreal to Berlin

will rapidly learn German no matter what he thinks of the Germans.

Moreover, a significant findings of Bulas study (1999) as cited by Bangon and

Abubacar (2013) were: first, the students use their own language, like most Meranao

use their own. They use Meranao language in speaking to their fathers (75.98%), to

their mothers (68.36%), their peers who are their brothers and sisters (49.79%) and to

their classmates/friends (42.82%). The second language they use next to Meranao is a

29 | P a g e
combination of English and Filipino (39.83%) which they also use in speaking to their

teachers. The third language is a mixed Filipino and Meranao use at home is Meranaos

(63.84%), mixed Tagalog and English. It can be obviously seen on the result of his

findings that ones own language is more frequent on the learners. Like the result of his

findings that Meranao students are using their own language more frequent than the

second language.

Brooks (1964), as cited by Tidyman (1969) also cited by Bangon and Abubacar

(2013), the ultimate aim of the public school program of the native language instruction

should be to develop freedom and fluency in the dialects used by persons carrying on

the chief business of national society. This variant of the mother tongue can serve as a

basis for language growth and development as nothing else can. Using the native

language as an instruction in public schools can develop fluency on growth and integrity

of the language in national society.

Dekker (2002) as cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013) said about the

reservation of first language that the use of mother tongue based instruction, whatever

that may be, is one of the first vehicles in which the variety of individual personalities

jells. It is a vehicle that provides the basis for the acquisition of extra linguistic

knowledge, and what is more of their vehicles-employed for the same purpose. He

insists in his works, nonetheless, on the ordering of the mother tongue, a language of

greater regional or national efficacy, and a language of great utility around the world. By

this, educational policy accepts this reasoning, based on the maximazation of diversity

at the same time as it recognizes the inevitability of factors of efficiency and of specific

utility.

30 | P a g e
In addition, Cole (2002) also cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013), states from

the affective filter hypothesis of Stephen Krashen that the use of the first language may

help reduce learners anxiety, which facilitates their learning processes. This instruction

helps learners express themselves as they have to boast confidence in their language

and they can also enjoy themselves by participating in class activities. It is believed that

without the first language (L1), there will be no second language (L2) as well as the third

language (L3). It is because once learned the first language (L1) people may be able to

acquire the second language (L2) with the help of the first language (L1).

Communicating with the children is very important, for what language is use, it reflects

in their home language. The home language should be taught to children in order for

them to be ready in acquiring and learning their second language in school.

According to the theory of Mulira (2001) as cited by Bangon and Abubacar

(2013), native language is the one that makes the tribe. From this statement, he had

this to say about native languages.

It is universally acknowledged principle in modern education that a


child should receive instruction both in and through his mother tongue, and
this privilege should not be withheld from the child. The child should learn to
love and respect the mental heritage of his own people, and the natural and
necessary expression of this heritage is the language. Neglect of the
vernacular involves the danger of crippling and destroying the pupils
productive powers by forcing him to express himself in a language and to
the genius of his race.

Therefore, to preserve the vernacular (native language) is to preserve the tribe

that speaks it, but people cannot preserve these languages unless they receive extra

attention in schools and in the general scheme of education. He emphasizes that the

31 | P a g e
true education is impossible without a sound training in the mother tongue. He claims

that education with a wrong purpose is worse than no education at all. Likewise, the tree

is judge by its fruit, and there are signs that the tree of education in the nation stands

condemned. He also added that it should not be made that the mother tongue as a

medium of instruction till later, preferably after the first six years of schooling. It could

still be taught as a subject and this mother tongue should receive much more attention

than at present, especially in these early years. This means that using a mother tongue

for the primary years of education as medium of instruction can help achieve the true

purpose of education.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the design adopted for this study and essential details of

methodology. It includes discussion in enough details of the research design, locale of

32 | P a g e
the study, the respondents of the study, sampling technique and procedure, the

research instrument, data gathering procedure, and the statistical tools used in

analyzing and interpreting the data gathered from the field.

Research Design

This study is a quasi-experimental research investigating on the effectiveness of

using Mother Tongue Based Language in increasing/improving student/learners literary

competence.

There will be a comparative analysis of the two learning environment, where one

the experimental group used mother tongue language which is Meranao as medium

of instruction in the reading and discussion sessions of some literary piece while the

control group used the English Language. After fifteen (15) minutes discussion follows,

where respondents interact using the assigned languages for the two groups. The

researcher asked the English teachers to record the entire activity through a phone to

ensure reliability. After all literary pieces have been discussed, a written evaluation is

given and students/learners answered a two part test, a fourthy (40) item questions

comprised the objective questions and a ten (10) item questions comprised the

subjective or essay questions aimed to infer how they understand the literary piece.

Locale of the Study

The research was carried out in Ibn Siena Intergrated School Foundation (ISISF)

in Barrio Biyaba, Marawi City, which lies along the national highway, at the foot of the

rolling hills which the Mindanao State University is located.

33 | P a g e
In the last decade of the 20th century, Muslims in Mindanao, particularly

Meranaos, witnessed the birth of Ibn Siena Intergrated School Foundation (ISISF). The

advent of the ISISF may be described as the decade of phenomenal birth of the applied

integrated education concept, integrating the DepEd curriculum with that of the

Madrasah curriculum.

The ISISF takes pride in being one of the few top-performing private schools in

the area. Its products have turned in good performance in different entrance and

qualifying examinations, such as the SASE, UPCAT, and National Science High School

admission test.

Respondents of the Study

The primary respondents of the study are the grade three (3) pupils of ISISF, who

are enrolled in the School Year 2015-2016. Of the eight sections only two sections are

chosen to participate in the study, namely: Section Abbas (A) with 43 students; Section

Annas (C) with 39 students. There are 82 respondents.

Data Gathering Procedure and Instrument Used

Approval Letters from the Principal and School Administration of Ibn Siena

Integrated School Foundation were secured by the researcher before the study was

conducted.

34 | P a g e
With all the essentials for conducting the assessment in the research site, the

researcher had to start the research proper by administering two testthe pre-test and

the post test.

The pre-test was administered on October 21, 2015. The test administered was

limited to four to thirty minutes only. The checking was done by the researcher herself.

While the post-test was administered on December 9, 2015. The test

administered was limited to four to thirty minutes only. The checking was done by the

researcher herself.

To determine the literary competence of the respondents, the researcher used

literary pieces which were taken from the respondents textbook as materials in the

course of the experiment. The test consists of four parts-an objective type of test with a

total of 40 points and a written output/essay of ten points.

A two (2) item essay questions were then given to ensure maximum opportunity for the

respondents to explore on the given activity. Also, a specially designed rubric is used to

measure the answers of the respondents to the given essay questions. The results will

be the raw data for the comparative analysis of the differential values of the two learning

paradigms. Only then, the researcher derives effects of the intervention/usage Mother

Tongue Based Language to the learners in dealing with the activity and how it facilitate

increase/improvement of their literary competence.

Statistical Tools Used

35 | P a g e
The following statistical tools were used to analyze and interpret the data of the

study: a.) Percentage (%) to determine the performance of the respondents to the given

activity based on the rubric; b.) Frequency to determine the total number of respondents

with regards to their answers in the given activity; c.) Mean to determine their overall

performance of the respondents; d.) Standard Deviation to measure the spread of the

data about the mean value; and e.) T-test to determine the difference in the effects of

using Mother Tongue Based Language in increasing/improving learners literary

competence. All calculations were done using Excel and SPSS.

CHAPTER IV

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter presents the findings of the present study. It aims to describe and

compare the effectiveness of mother tongue in improving the learners literary

36 | P a g e
competence. This chapter entails analyses of the data gathered for a thorough

presentation.

I. Pre-test Results

Table 1
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Pre-test (Group 1)
Pretest Standard
Frequency Percent Mean
(Group1) Deviation
25 1 7.1
27 1 7.1
29 1 7.1
31 1 7.1
35 3 21.4
36 2 14.3 34.6429 4.9085
37 1 7.1
39 2 14.3
40 1 7.1
41 1 7.1
Total 14 100

Table 1 presents the results of the pre-test conducted with the pupils in

Group 1, which was intended to determine the literary competence of the

learners. As can be seen on the table above, the lowest score is 25, which is

the cut-off for passing while the highest score for the pre-test in this group is

41. However, only one pupil or 7.1% was able to obtain this score, followed

by 3 who obtained the score of 35 or 21.4%, and further followed by equal

percentages of 14.3% or two each who obtained scores of 39 and 36

respectively. The mean score for the pre-test for the experimental group is

34.6429 with a standard deviation of 4.9085.

37 | P a g e
The data implies that the experimental group did well for the pre-test,

garnering scores above the passing score for the most part. This further

implies that the section of the control group are having a good performance

in their English subject. In the context of this study, it is worth mentioning that the

pupils and the teachers mostly belong to the same cultural and ethnic background, and

this enables teachers to reach out to the pupils more than if they were from another

cultural community. Benson (2004) as cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013) states that

it is where both teacher and students are likely to come from the same community

which means the teachers are likely to come from the same community which means

the teachers are more likely to build trust on the students. Hence, it will lead to learner-

centered and child-friendly classroom environment where teaching is more effective for

the students. Because the students can express themselves, the teacher can more

accurately assess what has been learned and identify areas where students need

further assistance. Multilingual education empowers the parents who can take an active

part in the education of their children because the language of the school and the

community is just the same. For that reason, multilingual education brings the

community closer to the school and its programs. It also creates a sense of

belongingness to those who are in that community.

Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Pre-test (Group 2)

38 | P a g e
Pretest Standard
Frequency Percent Mean
(Group2) Deviation
23 1 7.1
26 1 7.1
33 3 21.4
35 3 21.4
34.7857 5.3375
36 2 14.3
38 1 7.1
40 1 7.1
42 2 14.3
Total 14 100

Table 2 presents the results of the pre-test conducted with the pupils in

Group 2 which was intended to determine the literary competence of the

learners. As can be seen on the table above, the lowest score is 23, which is

below the cut-off for passing. This was obtained by one pupil, or 7.1%. The

highest score for the pre-test in this group is 42, which was obtained by 2

pupils or 14.3%. One pupil or 7.1% obtained the score of 40, while 2 pupils

or 14.3% obtained the score of 36. This is followed by 3 pupils or 21.4% who

obtained the score of 35. Another 21.4% or 3 pupils obtained the score of

33. The mean score for the pre-test for the control group is 34.7857 with a

standard deviation of 5.3375.

The results for the control group imply that this group did slightly

better than the experimental group, based on their scores. The data further

suggests that compared to the experimental group, the control group is

having a better performance in their English subject. It could be that like in

the experimental group, the Mother Tongue- based instruction is working for

these pupils. Local and international studies have shown that using the first language

39 | P a g e
or mother tongue inside the classroom during the learners early years of schooling

produces better and faster learners who can easily adapt to learn a second, the Filipino

and the third language which is the English language (David, 2002) also cited by

Bangon and Abubacar (2013). Like what has been said earlier, it is more effective to use

the first language of the learners. By this, they will be more motivated to learn. It is said

that they have a better performance than those learners who are taught to read

exclusively in the second language, because concepts and ideas learned using the

mother tongue in the earlier year will be easily transferred when the learners tackle the

second language. In this way, these learners have a better grasp of the subjects they

learn at school, and they will be in a better position to apply what they have learned

more effectively. This may contribute to a much better performance in school.

II. Post-test Results

Table 3
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Post-test (Group 1)

Posttest Standard
Frequency Percent Mean
(Group1) Deviation
29.00 1 7.1
30.00 1 7.1
32.00 1 7.1
34.00 1 7.1
35.00 1 7.1
36.9286 4.3583
36.00 1 7.1
38.00 2 14.3
40.00 3 21.4
41.00 1 7.1
42.00 2 14.3
Total 14 100

40 | P a g e
Table 3 presents the results of the post-test conducted with the pupils

in Group 1(experimental group) which was intended to determine the literary

competence of the learners after the intervention program. As can be seen

on the table above, the lowest score is 29, which is 4 points above the cut-off

for passing. This was obtained by one pupil, or 7.1%. The highest score for

the post-test in this group is 42, which was obtained by 2 pupils or 14.3%.

One pupil or 7.1% obtained the score of 41, while 3 pupils or 21.4% obtained

the score of 40. This is followed by 2 pupils or 14.3% who obtained the score

of 38. The mean score for the post-test for the experimental group is

36.9286 with a standard deviation of 4.3583, which is higher than what was

obtained by this group on the pre-test given before the intervention.

The results imply that the intervention activity was able to help the

pupils improve their literary competence. The results also suggest that by

creating an environment where the pupils feel less threatened and feel more

at ease, they can absorb more and learn more because their affective filter is

lowered or weakened. Those with high or strong filters will be unable to use all

available input because psychological factors intervene. Those with lower or weak

affective filters shaped by stronger motivation, better self-confidence, and lower anxiety

will be more likely to seek input and more open to using it. The lower the affective filter,

the more the learner can exploit the possibilities for acquisition available in the

environment; the filter must be low enough to allow the input in (as cited in Alawi,

2013).

41 | P a g e
In Krashens model of second language acquisition, the affective filter plays a

critical mediating role; it determines whether or not the learner will seek and be able to

take advantage of all the available input. If the learner is anxious, lacks interest in, and

motivation to, acquire the language, or lacks confidence in his ability to learn,

acquisition will be hindered and may be almost precluded if the filter is high.

In addition, the results echo Cummins hypothesis that the level of second

language competence which a bilingual child attains is partially a function of the type of

competence the child has developed in first language at the time when intensive

exposure to second language begins. When a child is encouraged to learn in the less

developed language with previous adequate support from his first language, academic

functioning is likely to suffer across all areas. The nature of first language skill is thus a

predictor of second language potential or success. Studies relating to learners age on

arrival to second language acquisition, and research linked continued use of primary

language at home with improved school achievement in second language, and

Cummins concludes that children who experience extensive, natural first language

development at home or in school tend to make better progress in school than

comparable students whose first language is not maintained.

42 | P a g e
Table 4
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Post-test (Group 2)

Posttest Standard
Frequency Percent Mean
(Group 2) Deviation
34 1 7.1
35 1 7.1
36 2 14.3
37 2 14.3
38 1 7.1
38.5714 2.8478
39 1 7.1
40 2 14.3
41 1 7.1
42 2 14.3
43 1 7.1
Total 14 100

Table 4 presents the results of the post-test conducted with the pupils

in Group 1(control group) which was intended to determine the literary

competence of the learners after the intervention program was given to the

experimental group. As can be seen on the table above, the lowest score is

34, which was obtained by one pupil, or 7.1%. The highest score for the post-

test in this group is 43, which was obtained by 1 pupil or 7.1%. The mean

score for the post-test for the control group is 38.5174 with a standard

deviation of 2.8478 which is higher than what was obtained by this group on

the pre-test. In spite of not having undergone the intervention, the control

group posted improved performance on the post-test.

The results imply that even without the intervention activity that was

given to the experimental group. the experimental group did better than the

43 | P a g e
control group in the post-test. This is not much surprising considering that

the control group is the first section while the experimental group is a lower

section. In schools throughout the country, pupils are grouped according to

grade point averages or final grades obtained in the previous year, this

determines what section they will be placed.

Table 5
Summary of Statistics

Summary of Statistics
Group1 (n=14) Group2 (n=14)
Score Standard Standard
Mean Mean
Deviation Deviation
Pretest 34.6429 4.9085 34.7857 5.3375

Posttest 36.9286 4.3583 38.5714 2.8478

Table 5 shows the summary of statistics for the pre-test and post-test.

As can be seen in the table, in spite of the lower post-test results obtained by

the experimental group compared to the control group, it can be observed

that the experimental groups performance improved in the post-test as

compared to their pre-test results. This means that the intervention activity

must have had some positive effect on the pupils who underwent it.

The results reflect Jim Cummins (2006) as cited by Bangon and Abubacar (2013)

on CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) who said that when students

learn to read and write in their mother tongue before learning to read and write in a

second or third language, they progress more quickly both in literacy skills in second

language acquisition. If students do indeed learn better when taught in their first

44 | P a g e
language during their formative years, then this could result in positive learning

outcomes and a better performance in learning the English language. This could also

mean a better performance overall academically. If the student-respondents,

specifically the group that did not do well in the pre-test, had been given mother tongue

based education in their early years, then their level of English proficiency would have

been very much different from what they have shown in the study.

II. Relationship Between Pre-test and Post-Test

Table 6.
Relationship Between Pre-Test and Post-Test
Correlation
Relationship p-value Remarks
coefficient
Post-test Pre-test r= 0.339 0.077 Not significant

Table 6 presents the relationship between the post-test and pre-test scores of the

respondents. There was no significant relationship between Mother Tongue vis--vis

using all English Instructions, as shown by the correlation coefficient of r=

0.339,which has a p- value of 0.077, greater than the set 0.05 level of significance. The

results imply that for this sample, mother tongue has not much or has no bearing at all

on the results of both tests using all English instructions. It can be inferred that the

results can be explained by the fact that the two groups of students were not able to

undergo MTBL in their lower primer grades, because they began schooling years before

MTBL was implemented in the countrys schools. Again, if they had undergone such

learning in their younger elementary years, then they would have had a much different

performance in the tests given in the course of the data gathering.


45 | P a g e
Table 7
T-Test Showing Difference Between Mean Scores of Control and Experimental
Groups in The Pre-Test

Pretest Levenes Test for t-test for Equality of Means


Equality of t df Sig. (2- Mean Std.
Variances tailed) Differen Error
F Sig ce Differen
ce
Equal .005 .943 -.074 26 .942 -.14286 1.93801
Varianc
es
Assume
d
Equal -.074 25.820 .942 -.14286 1.93801
Varianc
es not
Assume
d

Table 7 shows the T-test results showing difference between mean scores to find

out whether there is any significant difference between the means scores of the control

and experimental groups in the pretest (before the intervention). Levenes Test was

used as the basis for comparison. Based on the table above, the hypothesis is not

rejected. The test statistic used in not rejecting Ho is the F-test and has a value of

0.005 and a p-value of 0.943 which is greater than 0.05 level of significance. The result

is not significant. Thus, it can be concluded that the two groups (experimental and

control) do have the same variance. In comparing the means of the two groups, it can

be seen also from the table above that the t-value (for experimental and control) is

-0.074 and a p-value of 0.942 which is greater than 0.05 level of significance, thus the

hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the means scores of the

46 | P a g e
control and experimental groups in their pretest before the intervention is not rejected.

Therefore, the result is not significant. It means on the average, the mean scores of the

experimental and control groups before the intervention are significantly the same. It

means at the start or before the intervention, the two groups have the same pretest

mean. This may imply that, from the outset, the level of literary competence of the pupils

from both control and experimental groups is nearly the same.

The results further shows the need for MTBML. The first language is significant

and builds the basis for all later language progresses. Parents, family members and

early childhood professionals have a very important role on the development and

maintenance of the first language. Studies shows that knowing one language can assist

the child to comprehend how other languages work. First or home language is

particularly important for the childs development of a positive self-concept and well-

being.

Table 8
T-Test Showing Difference Between Mean Scores of Control and Experimental
Groups in The Post-Test

Post- Levenes Test for t-test for Equality of Means


test Equality of t df Sig. (2- Mean Std.
Variances tailed) Differen Error
F Sig ce Differen
ce
Equal 3.289 .81 -1.181 26 .248 - 1.39141
Varianc 1.64286
es
Assume
d
Equal -1.181 22.389 .250 - 1.39141
Varianc 1.64286
es not
Assume
d

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Table 8 shows the T-test results showing difference between mean scores to find

out whether there is any significant difference between the means scores of the control

and experimental groups in the post-test (after the intervention)

Levenes Test was used as the basis for comparison. Based on the table above,

the hypothesis is not rejected. The test statistic used in not rejecting Ho is the F-test

and has a value of 3.289 and a p-value of 0.081 which is greater than 0.05 level of

significance. The result is not significant. Thus, it can be concluded that the two groups

(experimental and control) do have the same variance. In comparing the means of the

two groups, it can be seen from the table (above) that the t-value (for experimental and

control) is -1.181 and a p-value of 0.248 which is greater than 0.05 level of significance,

thus the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the means scores of

the control and experimental groups in their post-test after the intervention is not

rejected. Therefore, the result is not significant. It means on the average, the mean

scores of the experimental and control groups after the intervention are significantly the

same. It means after the intervention, the two groups have different post-test mean,

however, the difference is not significant. This may imply that, even after the intervention

activity, the level of literary competence of the pupils from both control and experimental

groups is still nearly the same. This can imply that the results can be explained by the

fact that the two groups of students were not able to undergo MTBL in their lower primer

grades, because they began schooling years before MTBL was implemented in the

countrys schools. If they had undergone such learning in their younger elementary

years, then the results in the study would have been more varied.

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Table 9
T-Test Showing Difference Between Mean Gain Scores of Control and
Experimental Groups After the Intervention

Gain Levenes Test for t-test for Equality of Means


Equality of t df Sig. (2- Mean Std.
Variances tailed) Differen Error
F Sig ce Differen
ce
Equal .000 1.000 -.766 26 .450 - 1.95726
Varianc 1.50000
es
Assume
d
Equal -.766 25.389 .450 - 1.95726
Varianc 1.50000
es not
Assume
d

Table 9 shows the T-test results showing difference between mean scores to find

out whether there is any significant difference between the mean gain scores of the

control and experimental groups after the intervention. Levenes Test was used as the

basis for comparison. Based on the table above, Ho is not rejected. The test statistic

used in not rejecting Ho is the F-test and has a value of 0.000 and a p-value of 1.000

which is greater than 0.05 level of significance. The result is not significant. Thus, it can

49 | P a g e
be concluded that the two groups (experimental and control) do have the same

variance. In comparing the means of the two groups, it can be seen from the table

(above) that the t-value (for experimental and control) is -0.766 and a p-value of 0.450

which is greater than 0.05 level of significance, thus the hypothesis that there is no

significant difference between the mean gain scores of the control and experimental

groups after the intervention is not rejected. Therefore, the result is not significant. It

means on the average, the mean gain scores of the experimental and control groups

after the intervention are significantly the same. This may imply that, even after the

intervention activity, the mean gain scores of the pupils from both control and

experimental groups are still nearly the same. This again may be explained by the fact

that both sets of pupils were not subjected to the MTBL while in their lower elementary

years in school. The results would have been much different had they undergone such

learning.

All in all, the resuts point to the importane and the need for MTBL in the schools

for the reason that the mother tongue is the valuable asset people bring to the task of

language learning. For this reason, the mother tongue is the master key to foreign

languages, the tool which gives the fastest, surest, most precise, and most complete

means of accessing a foreign language. Successful learners capitalize on the vast

amount of linguistic skills and world knowledge they have accumulated via the mother

tongue. For the beginner, becoming aware of meanings automatically involves

connecting them with the mother tongue until the Foreign Language has established

an ever-more complex network for itself (Butzkamm, 2003).

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Chapter V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary and findings of the study, conclusions drawn

from the data, and the recommendations of the researcher for further action or study.

Summary of the Findings

This study was a quasi-experimental research investigating the use of Mother

Tongue Based Language as tool or strategy in enhancing or improving the literary

competence of selected Grade 3 pupils of Ibn Siena Integrated School Foundation Inc.

(ISISF) located in Marawi City. Specifically, this study was an effort to find out the

literary competence of the selected Grade 3 pupils based on the Pre-test and Post-test

and whether there was a significant relationship between Mother Tongue vis--vis using

all English instruction.

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There was a comparative analysis of the two learning environment, where one

the experimental group used mother tongue language which is Meranao as medium of

instruction in the reading and discussion sessions of some literary pieces while the

control group used the English Language. The sessions were recorded through

electronic means to ensure reliability. After all literary pieces were discussed, a written

evaluation was given and students/learners answered a two part test of fifty (50) items

containing questions which sought to probe their understanding of the literary selections

tackled.

It was found out that in the pre-test, the experimental group obtained passing

scores while the control group obtained higher scores and therefore a higher mean

score. After the intervention activity that was given to the experimental group, the

experimental group performed better and obtained higher post-test scores than their

pre-test scores. However, the control group obtained much higher scores than the

experimental group in the post-test. There was no significant relationship between

Mother Tongue vis--vis using all English Instructions. There was no significant

difference between the means scores of the control and experimental groups in their

pre-test before the intervention. There was no significant difference between the means

scores of the control and experimental groups in their post-test after the intervention.

There is no significant difference between the mean gain scores of the control and

experimental groups after the intervention. The results all point the need and the

importance of MTBL in schools as a tool for helping students learn the English language

more effectively.

Conclusions

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Based on the results of the study, the researcher has drawn some conclusions.

First, the results of the intervention activity, as seen from the pre-test and post-test

scores of the experimental group, are positive. Their scores on the tests show some

improvement, meaning that the intervention activity has been helpful for them, it can

even be concluded that the control group would also do better if they had undergone the

intervention activity. This further means that Mother Tongue based learning is indeed

helpful when it comes to learning a second language such as English. If the succeeding

generations of pupils will be continuously given MTBL, then it may be predicted that

they will be better poised to master the basics of whatever there is to learn in the

curriculum. Finally, on the whole, since there was no significant relationship and

differences between the control and experimental groups in terms of mean scores

before and after the intervention and mean gain scores after the intervention, their level

of literary competence is the same, since the groups were from a generation of students

who were not able to undergo MTBL during their younger elementary years.

Recommendations

1. The Department of Education and the schools, public or private, should

rigorously continue the Mother-Tongue Based Learning for their primary level

pupils.

2. Teachers in the private sector should regularly undergo training in MTBL so that

they will be enabled to teach using it in their classrooms.

3. More childrens literature in the mother tongue should be produced and made

widely available so as to act as support materials for the pupils; this will help

foster the idea of reading for pleasure, since reading for recreational purposes is a

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good way of developing literary competence and competence in the mother

tongue. It will also reinforce what is learned in MTBL. Likewise, for the same

reasons, children should also have a variety of reading material in the English

language available to them.

4. Teachers in the primary grades and parents with young children should be

made aware of the important role that literary competence plays in their childrens

language development and personal development.

5. Future researchers may consider conducting a similar study but in a different

locale, a different grade level, or with a larger sample.

6. A comparative study on literary competence among pupils in public and private

schools may be considered.

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