697 views

Uploaded by Ashok Kumar

Ultimate Moment Capacity of RC Beams

- ASTM D6272.doc
- 65120820-Columns-Biaxial-Bending.pdf
- 4
- Chap 5 Analysis and Design of T-beams and Doubly Reinforced Beams
- 4 Pure Bending
- Tieu Chuan Uon 3D (790)
- Lecture Note
- Wind Load Design NSCP 2015
- Fardis Paper Otani
- Spang - Egger - Action of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts in Jointed Rock and Factors of Influence
- Consolidation Test - 023
- 4 Pure Bending JKF
- Ch 4 Pure Bending-110104143548-Phpapp02
- T BEAM
- Load Calculation and Design of Purlin
- Commented - Assignment 1
- Ch17 Arches
- 2005.06 Design of Shear Tab Connections for Gravity and Seismic Loads
- Kono-trilinealizacion.pdf
- ME 2254 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS april.may 2011.bak

You are on page 1of 26

Beams

Analysis of flexural behaviour

When load is initially applied to a beam all sections are uncracked unless

there has been a history of restrained shrinkage. When the load reaches its

serviceability limit state and the peak moment regions are cracked, there

are still extensive regions where the moment is not large enough for the

cracks to form.

P<Pcr

Moment at midspan

Bending Mu

Moment Mcr

My

P>Pcr

Mcr

Moment Mcr

My

Uncracked region cracked region Uncracked region

RMIT University

Last week we looked at analysis of RC beams for Flexure in service limit state

Uncracked elastic section analysis of RC beams

o o

C

dn

d

Tc

st st

Ts

ct

Ast Stress Internal

Beam Cross Strain Stress

in concrete in steel Forces

section

Cracked elastic section analysis of RC beams

RMIT University

Post-cracking, service load behaviour

Cracked elastic section analysis of RC beams

o o

C

dn M

d z

st st Ts

Ast Cross

Beam Strain Stress Internal

section

Forces

RMIT University

Analysis of flexural behaviour

When load reaches its ultimate limit state and the peak moment

regions are cracked and overloaded, the reinforcing steel has yielded,

and the ultimate moment capacity of the beam at the section of

maximum moment is reached.

P>Pcr

Moment Mcr

My Mu

Uncracked region cracked region Uncracked region My

P>Pcr

Mcr

Deformation at mid-span

Bending

Mcr

Moment

My

cracked region Mu

RMIT University

Non-Linear Overload Behaviour

As the moment increases further above the working load level the

concrete and steel start to yield and stresses become non-linear. This is

known as overload behaviour up to the point where the beam develops its

ultimate moment capacity, Mu.

The concrete stress increases less than proportionally with strain, so that

the stress block above the crack becomes progressively more curvilinear.

o = fc

fc

fc

Stress

fc

Ec

Strain

cpeak

Typical Stress-strain curve of Concrete

RMIT University

Failure

Beyond peak load : concrete crushing after steel yielding

RMIT University

Condition at Ultimate Moment, Mu

At Ultimate Moment, M u, the stress and strain profile at the cross section is

represented as:

u

Note: dn= ku.d

kud C dc

Mu

d zu

st>sy fst=fsy T

the steel reinforcement will exceed its yield strength before the concrete in the

extreme compressive fibre crushes. (and we limit the ultimate compressive

strain u = 0.003)

Stress

fsy failure

Idealised Stress-

strain curve of steel Yield Plateau

Strain

sy

RMIT University

Condition at Ultimate Moment, Mu

The steel reinforcement has yielded ie it carries a stress equal to the yield

strength of the steel, Therefore the internal tensile force is now a constant

value (T = Ast .fsy) which will remain unchanged with increase in external load

The concrete compressive region above neutral axis depth is highly stressed

and at point of crushing

The compressive C force and the tensile T force are equal in magnitude and

for a resisting couple moment with a lever arm z= d-dc

For equilibrium we have T= C and Mu = Tz = Cz

RMIT University

Rectangular Stress Block AS3600-2009

As shown previously the concrete compressive stress profile is non-linear at ultimate

AS3600 allows for the non-linear concrete stress profile to be simplified with the

rectangular stress block given in Clause 8.1.3 and u = 0.003

u

2fc dc

kud kud kud C Neutral axis

d z

st>sy s=fsy s=fsy T Note: dn= ku.d

Strain Actual stress profile Rectangular Stress Block

= 1.05-0.007f

1.05-0.007fc ( 0.67 0.85 )

2 is used to determine the magnitude of the uniform compressive stress ie. rectangular

stress block assumptions given in AS3600-2009 Clause 8.1.3

RMIT University

Rectangular Stress Block AS3600

u

2fc dc

kud kud kud C Neutral axis

d z

st>sy s= fsy s=fsy Note: dn= ku.d

T

Strain Actual stress profile Rectangular Stress Block

(Remember 2 = 0.85 for fc 50MPa )

and acts at depth dc = 0.5dn

The resultant tensile force, T = Astfsy

Equating C = T gives neutral axis depth dn, with dn we can determine the location of the

compressive force dc this in turns allows the internal lever arm z=d-dc and the moment

capacity Mu to be calculated

RMIT University

Neutral Axis parameter ku

To calculate the ultimate moment capacity Mu, it is often convenient to use

the dimensionless neutral axis depth parameter ku = dn/d

This term can be used in lieu of dn to specify the neutral axis depth and is

also an indicator of ductility

To derive equations for Mu we equate T = C

The resultant compressive force

C = 0.85fckudb

and acts at depth

dc = 0.5dn

The resultant tensile force

T = Astfsy

RMIT University

Moment Capacity of a singly reinforced Section

Equating C = T gives

1 f sy Ast

ku =

0.85 f 'c bd

Which gives Mu= Tz = fsyAstd(1-0.5ku)

Substituting for ku :

Ast f sy

M u = f sy Ast d 1 0.6

bdf 'c

f sy 2

M u = f sy 1 0.6 bd

f 'c

RMIT University

Moment Capacity of a singly reinforced Section

The moment capacity of the section shown below is to be calculated using the

limiting strain criterion u = 0.003 and the AS3600 rectangular stress block. The

concrete strength fc is 40MPa so that = 1.05-0.007(40) = 0.77

B=300

D=600mm d

Ast = 3N28

Clear cover to main bars = 30mm

RMIT University

Failure mechanism of R/C beam

There are three possible failure mechanisms which determine the ultimate

moment capacity. They are:

Failure through steel reinforcement. That is, reinforcing bars reaching their

yield capacity well before concrete starts to crush

Failure through concrete reaching its compressive strength prior to steel

reinforcement yielding

Both materials reaching their capacities simultaneously (less probable in

practice)

The mode of flexural failure of a reinforced concrete beam is dependent upon

the quantity of the steel reinforcement present. It is for this reason that the

code AS3600 specifies limits on both the minimum and maximum allowable

reinforcement ratios.

RMIT University

Failure

Beyond peak load : concrete crushing after steel yielding

RMIT University

Ductility

A region of a beam is ductile if it undergoes large plastic deformations

prior to failure.

Ductility is characterised by an extended flat plateau in the moment

curvature relation.

Good ductility achieved if the quantity of reinforcement is kept small.

M / f'cbd2

= 0.0375

= 0.030

0.2

= 0.0225

= 0.015

0.1

= 0.0075

Curvature

5 10

RMIT University

Ductility and ku (neutral axis parameter)

N

kud A

kubd

N A kud

N A

is considered as 0.003 (0.3%) and also independent of the concrete

strength. Steel reinforcement strain at yield, st is considered as 0.0025

(0.25%) for N500 or L500 steel

RMIT University

Under-reinforced, over-reinforced and balanced sections

We know that the failure through steel (ie yielding) is ductile in nature and

therefore desirable. This means condition given in figure (1) should be

encouraged where st>sy = 0.0025. Such as beam is called under-

reinforced.

reinforced

Condition shown in figure (2), where steel and concrete both reach their

limiting values at the same time is called the balanced failure

failure and regarded

as the point where beam changes from being ductile to being brittle

We also know that failure through crushing concrete is sudden and brittle in

nature and therefore undesirable and should be avoided as the steel strain is

less than st<sy=0.0025. The beam is then called over reinforced

reinforced.Figure

(3)

Although balanced failure is also not desirable as it is close to being brittle,

however in theory, this will allow us to demonstrate the margin which we can

base our design recommendations

The neutral axis parameter kub (under balanced failure) is therefore a good

parameter to use as a guide.

RMIT University

How do we find the kub value?

u=0.003 From Similar triangles we get

kub d

kubd =

N A 0.003 0.0025+0.003

d

0.003

kub = = 0.55

0.0055

st+u = 0.0025+0.003

Therefore,

When kub = 0.55 - balanced

ku 0.55 - under reinforced

ku 0.55 over reinforced

RMIT University

Minimum ductility requirements in AS3600-2009

1. Clause 8.1.5 states that the neutral axis depth parameter ku must not be

greater than 0.36 to ensure ductility

(When ku is very close to, yet less than 0.55, still there will be very little

warning of failure. In other words member is not as ductile as we would

like it to be. Leaving a safety margin, the design code AS3600 prescribes

to limit ku 0.36 to regard the beam as ductile).

Hence the designer must also calculate ku and satisfy the ductility

requirement

RMIT University

Minimum strength requirements in AS3600-2009

Clause 8.1.6 places a lower limit on the steel content. The intention is to avoid

steel fracture and hence sudden collapse and cracking.

M u ,min = 1.2 M cr = 1.2. f 'ct . f .Z

Where fct.f = 0.6fc

Z is the elastic section modulus and for a rectangular section is

Z=bD2/6

Minimum required tensile reinforcement is given by

2

Ast D f 'c t . f

b

bw d d f sy

Where b = 0.2 for rectangular sections

RMIT University

Moment Capacity of a Doubly Reinforced Section

Note: dn= ku.d

b u dsc

dsc 0.85fc Cs

kud dc

kud sc Cc C Mu

dst zc zs zu

st>sy fst=fsy

T = Ast.fsy T

Cc= Ts Cs

Tentatively assuming both steels have yielded

1

dn = ( f sy Ast f sy Asc )

0 . 85 f 'c b

With this value of dn and u=0.003, the strain distribution in the section is fixed

and the strains in the compressive and tensile steels can be determined

d st d n

d d sc s = u

sc = u n dn

dn

If the steel strains are in fact at yield then all internal forces are known and M u

is calculated as

M u = Ts d st Cc d c C s d sc

If the compressive steel is not at yield a trial value for d n is chosen until Cc=Ts-

Cs

RMIT University

Example Moment Capacity of a Doubly Reinforced Section

Determine the moment capacity Mu of the section shown below. The section

contains both tensile and compressive reinforcement.

Concrete strength fc=30MPa, = 0.836

60

550

RMIT University

Design Consideration for Ultimate Moment Capacity of Beam Section

In designing the beam for strength in flexure, AS3600 clause 8.5.1 requires

that M* Mu and ku 0.36 to ensure ductile failure ( assumes under

reinforced section)

= 0.8 for bending

In actual fact the beam section details such as reinforcement are not known

at this stage of the design but what is known is the design moment M M** which

is obtained from an analysis of the structure for various load combinations

The beam section then needs to be proportioned ie. determine the amount of

reinforcement needed to ensure the ultimate moment capacity is not

exceeded

Design tables for proportioning steel have been set-up for example by C&CA

and in house spreadsheets.

RMIT University

To proportion beam section

M * < M u

* Ast f sy 2

M < f sy d 1 0.6

bd

bd f 'c

*

M Ast Ast f sy

2

< f sy

1 0 . 6

bd bd bd f 'c

The steel proportion p can be used as a useful non-dimensional measure of the

amount of tensile steel reinforcement in the section

p=Ast/bd , submit this into the above equation to give

*

M f sy

2

< f p

sy

1 0 . 6 p

bd f 'c

Alternatively

*

M M u

2

<

bd bd 2

RMIT University

- ASTM D6272.docUploaded bybeni firiya
- 65120820-Columns-Biaxial-Bending.pdfUploaded byDiego
- 4Uploaded byBerk Demir
- Chap 5 Analysis and Design of T-beams and Doubly Reinforced BeamsUploaded bySetsumii Shiizukaa
- 4 Pure BendingUploaded byBharat Jajoria
- Tieu Chuan Uon 3D (790)Uploaded byvongoctu2016
- Lecture NoteUploaded bymoha sher
- Wind Load Design NSCP 2015Uploaded byPaul Marion Demapelis
- Fardis Paper OtaniUploaded byAndrei Murariu
- Spang - Egger - Action of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts in Jointed Rock and Factors of InfluenceUploaded bygianniorlati
- Consolidation Test - 023Uploaded bynepster6205
- 4 Pure Bending JKFUploaded byRabeet Rao
- Ch 4 Pure Bending-110104143548-Phpapp02Uploaded bytvmehta01
- T BEAMUploaded byirshad313
- Load Calculation and Design of PurlinUploaded bySushmit Sharma
- Commented - Assignment 1Uploaded bypinakin1
- Ch17 ArchesUploaded byErnie Ernie
- 2005.06 Design of Shear Tab Connections for Gravity and Seismic LoadsUploaded bygreg_mercurio_1
- Kono-trilinealizacion.pdfUploaded byJulian Miller Palacios Espinoza
- ME 2254 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS april.may 2011.bakUploaded byPunitha Kumar
- SOMUploaded bythekingofcivil
- SE Production PuUploaded byAmit Barge
- Practical Advanced Analysis for Semi-Rigid Space Frames - S.E. Kim S.H. ChoiUploaded byloox600
- BS 5950-2000 Example 001Uploaded byAnitha Hassan Kabeer
- STress StrainUploaded byM Nur Salim
- Strength of Materials56Uploaded byPranaya Nahak
- ME 2254 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS april.may 2011.bakUploaded byimamuddeen
- Ec2 Beam AnfUploaded byjonras69
- Design Guide 13_ Wide-Flange Column Stiffening at Moment Connections (See Errata Listed at End of File.)Uploaded byHui Liu
- BS 5950-2000 Example 001Uploaded bythanzawtun1981

- Hazard AwarenessUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Monorail-Capacity-Design-Check-Test-Print.pdfUploaded byAshok Kumar
- ACCA Manual J - Residential Load CalculationUploaded byViktor Minovski
- Impact Force CalcsUploaded byAshok Kumar
- How to Calculate Chess Tactics.pdfUploaded byAshok Kumar
- ADE Steel ChartUploaded byAshok Kumar
- How Will Be Train Loading System in the FutureUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Calculating Life - HOIST MagazineUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Box Girder DesignUploaded byAshok Kumar
- HP 800Uploaded byAshok Kumar
- Cica Major Inspection Verification Plate RequirementsUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Industry Checklist Cranes NewUploaded bySalman khan
- Cam Follower Comparison ChartUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Periodic Inspection Check ListUploaded byAshok Kumar
- BSC Catalogue Plain BearingsUploaded byAshok Kumar
- EOT Crane 5T x 24M SpanUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Beam Formulas With Shear and MomUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Design Loads for platformUploaded byAshok Kumar
- scaffold classes and duties calsUploaded byMohideenAlhaseb
- calUploaded byPrasaad Slv
- CraneBeam_v1_1Uploaded byMayuresh Kudve
- Space Gass ReportUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Forklift Tipper Bin 1TUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Suddenly Applied Load to Simply Supported BeamUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Stairs, Ladders, Walkways, Platforms and Handrails_Rev0Uploaded byAshok Kumar
- Horizontal Curve Belt Drift ReportUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Msh Mss Jan18Uploaded byAshok Kumar
- stairs.pdfUploaded byAshok Kumar
- WLL-ChartUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Steel ChecklistUploaded byAshok Kumar

- UDEC 5 Syllabus Fall 2013Uploaded byMoji Mmn
- BS EN 295-1 - 1991 Vitrified Clay Pipes and Fittings and Pipe Joints for Drains and Sewers.pdfUploaded bywastedsunsets
- Rc-Water-TankUploaded byPaul Karija
- jntuk_m_tech_r16_md_syllabus.pdfUploaded byBajibabu Indurthi
- Effect of processing parameters on the microstructure and properties of an Nb microalloyed steelUploaded byVizay Kumar
- Material SelectionUploaded byRaj Bindas
- BS ISO 12107-2003Uploaded byKadir Tekin
- Analysis and Design of Shear WallUploaded bymohammedzeeshan
- 2403 the Structural Design and Construction of the Mahanakhon TowerUploaded byignasius 242017020
- Surface Integrity in Hard Machining of 300M Steel Effect of Cut 2014 ProcedUploaded byhasib_07
- Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Lightweight Foamed Concrete Beams - Augustus Jun Hui, TanUploaded byTJH_1211
- Basic Metallurgy for NDT 4Uploaded byJuan Lewis
- 2014_Synthetic Fibers and TP Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polymers_Properties and CharacterizationUploaded bySubramani Pichandi
- Steel to Concrete Joints Design-manual II EnUploaded bySujeevan Tharmakulasingam
- Concrete Mixing and Testing Lab ReportUploaded bySoundMan56
- Hyperworks FatigueUploaded byParis Adrián
- B140DUploaded byMarcelo Sánchez
- Travers Copy Study 1 1Uploaded byBatu Yildirim
- 01. DEA SHED-04Uploaded bySejowan Haque Tomal
- Investigation_of_Geotechnical_Parameters.pdfUploaded byDian Page
- 12_ME_SUploaded bysudhirdatta
- Cold Formed SteelUploaded byGabyBravo
- Hit Re500 RebarUploaded bydeepteck000
- Closed 570 Exams B Rev9Uploaded bySudarshan
- AFATL-TR-72-401__Developement of 20MM and 30MM Plastic-Aluminium Cartridge Cases [1972]Uploaded bydefendercc130
- Analysis of Railway Bridge Steel Sections with Different Type of Trusses for 32.5 Tonne Axle LoadingUploaded byIJRASETPublications
- 012010_Jan10_Steelwise_Web.pdfUploaded byamachmouchi
- Subsea%2brigid%2bjumper%2bdesign%2band%2bVIV%2bfatigue%2bevaluationUploaded byDarko Nikolovski
- Dynamic Response of Deepwater Lazy Wave Catenary RiserUploaded bymghu70
- Tensile Structures CABLESUploaded bySuvarna456