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DC Generators Experiment

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Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman

Quezon City, Philippines

alenbeaducao@gmail.com [1]

michellebatad@gmail.com [2]

and separately excited DC Generators and Induction motors

was demonstrated. The separately excited DC Generator

was first set up and preliminary measurements were done on

the machines. The effects of varying the prime mover

orientation, field excitation, and electrical load with the

variations done one at a time on the output voltage of the

DC generator were then observed. Finally, the prime mover

and the self excited DC Generator were wired up, then the Fig 1. Circuit Representation of a separately-excited DC generator.

variations were also implemented, and the effects were (Source: EEE43 slides[2])

compared to the previous observations from the separately

excited DC Generator. DC machine operating as a generator is driven by a prime

mover at a constant speed and the armature terminals are

I. INTRODUCTION

connected to a load. In many applications of DC

This experiment helped the students improve their generators, knowledge of the variation of terminal voltage

knowledge and gain practical experience on the wiring with load current known as the external or terminal

and operation of the self and separately excited DC characteristics is essential. The generated excitation is

Generators. At the end of the experiment, they were able described by:

to have a better understanding on the effects of varying

the prime mover orientation, field excitation, and = (linear model)

generator loading on the output voltage of the DC

And the terminal voltage is equal to:

Generator. They were also able to compare the resulting

effects of these variations on both the self and separately =

excited machines. Lastly and most importantly, the

students made sure to practice and observe safety In a separately excited DC generator, can be easily

protocols in handling and operating the machines all varied by changing the field excitation or the field

throughout the experiment. rheostat. Since is directly proportional to , should

increase when increases given that is held constant.

Theoretical Background

Alternatively, we can alter while keeping inconstant

DC generators are functionally the reverse of DC in order to control .

motors. They use magnetic fields to convert mechanical

energy to electrical energy. The steady-state equivalent However, in generators, it is usually much more useful if

circuit of a DC generator is shown in the Figure 1. terminal voltage, , is observed when loading effects is

being considered on the generator. At no load , would

be equal to , by using the circuit in Figure 1. Once a

load is connected, it will now draw current from the

generator and the current will cause a voltage drop across

the armature windings.

This drop is directly proportional to the current drawn and MV 1007 Induction 3 Phase: 1.1 kW

this current drawn in inversely proportional to the Machine (Serial: 1400 RPM 50Hz

combined resistance of the load and armature windings. 34923) 1680 RPM 60Hz

Since this voltage drop decreases the terminal voltage Y: 380 415 V; 3.2A

supplied by the generator, a higher terminal voltage is : 220-240V 5.5A

expected, provided everything is held constant, at higher cos = 0.64

electrical load. Sec. 260V; 3 A

MV1905 Shunt 220V DC; MAX 2A; 440

Regulator (Serial: 153)

MV1105 1p Power 2.2kW 230V 10x1A

Resistor

MV1300 Power Supply 220V DC; MAX 3.5A

0-220V DC; MAX 16A

3 x 230V AC; MAX 10A

3 x (230/133V) AC; MAX

10A

EEE43 slides[2]) The equipment and their respective ratings were

taken first before starting the experiment to determine the

For self-excited DC generators, it is difficult to

maximum sustained voltage that can safely applied to the

imagine how it would generate electrical energy without

machines without risking the possibility electric

the excitation on the field windings at the start. If the

breakdown.

machine is to operate as a self-excited generator, some of

the residual magnetism in the magnetic circuit of the B. Setting Up the Prime Mover and Separately Excited DC

generator must exist. This small amount of magnetic field Generator

is enough to generate excitation and this excitation would

The three-phase induction motor served as the prime

supply power to the field and this would then increase the

mover of the DC generator. The induction motor is

magnetic field in the field winding and increase generated

connected in wye both in the rotor and stator windings

excitation further. This process continues until steady

and connected to the variable AC supply. It was then

state excitation is achieved. Due to the generator having

coupled to the sensing unit of the MV 1054 Torque meter.

to supply power to itself, terminal voltage regulation

The other end of this sensing unit was then couple to the

would be higher than a separately excited generator with

DC machine.

the same parameters.

B. Setting Up the Shunt Regulator

II. IMPLEMENTATION

The following actions were undertaken to explore The fixed resistance terminals of a shunt regulator

operation of the self-excited DC Motor. were connected to the fixed DC terminals of the power

supply while its variable-resistance terminals were

A. Determining the Equipment Ratings connected to the field winding of the DC machine. The

TABLE I MV1905 shunt regulator provided the variable DC supply

EQUIPMENT RATINGS to the field winding. The power supply was turned on and

knob of the output shunt regulator was adjusted to achieve

Equipment Rating and output voltage of 200B. Figure 3 shows the diagram

MV1028-226 DC Generator: 2.2kW 1800RPM of the final set-up.

Machine (Serial: Motor: 2kW 1700RPM

34970) Rotor: 220V 12A

Excitation: DC 220V 0.8A

TABLE III

FIELD EXCITATION (V) VS OUTPUT VOLTAGE

50 V 102 V

100 V 135 V

150 V 150 V

200 V 155 V

Fig. 3. Final set-up of the prime mover and separately-excited DC G. Effect of Generator Loading

generator

The resistive load (MV 1105) was connected to the

C. Preliminary Measurements output terminals of the generator. The field excitation was

held constant at 150 V and prime mover voltage at 200

The DC machine field excitation was set to 200V

for all measurements. The load resistance was varied by

while armature winding is open. The induction motor is

varying the MV1105. The measured prime mover speed

start at low voltage and input is varied until speed is

and output voltage are tabulate din Table 4.

around 1680 RPM. The output voltage measured on the

DC generator is 210 V and near the rated output voltage TABLE IV

VARYING LOAD RESISTANCE

of the machine.

D. Effect of the Prime Mover Orientation Load Resistance Prime Mover Output Voltage

() Speed (RPM) (V)

The direction of the rotation of the prime mover is Infinite 1756 180

changed by exchanging any two of the three phases of the 214 1705 172

supply voltage. The induction motor is started at low 75.6 1617 160

voltage. The input voltage is varied until the field 56.4 1564 155

excitation is 200V and speed is 1680 RPM. The output

voltage of the DC generator is a negative value.

H. Setting up the Prime Mover and Self-Excited DC generator

E. Effect of Prime Mover Speed

For the setup, the supply was first turn off and the MV

The field excitation is held constant at 150V while 1905 shunt regulator and resistive load were

prime mover speed is varied decreasingly by varying the disconnected. The field winding of the DC machine was

variable AC supply. The output voltage measured at then connected in parallel to its armature winding. The

varying speed is tabulated in Table 2. diagram of the final setup was shown in Figure 4 below.

TABLE II

PRIME MOVER SPEED VS OUTPUT VOLTAGE

1580 162

1466 150

1372 142

1226 125

varying the field rheostat. The output voltage was

Figure 4. Final setup of the prime mover and self-excited DC

measured at a constant prime mover speed of 1400 RPM.

generator.

The results are tabulated in Table 3.

The MV1007 wound rotor induction motor was the DC generator prime mover does not supply the proper

started at a low voltage starting. The input voltage was output voltage to the generator.

varied until the sped is around 1680 RPM. The output

The shunt DC generator develops different magnitudes

voltage measured on the DC generator was 187.4 V which

is near the rated output voltage of 220 V of the machine. and polarities of voltage when running in different

directions because by Lenzs Law, the polarity or

The direction of the rotation of the prime mover was direction of the induced voltage in the generator is

changed by exchanging any of the three phases in the dependent on whether the flux increases or decreases in

variable power supply. The output voltage measured was time. For example, if we produce a positive voltage by

-3.2667 V. The correct prime mover orientation was rotating the rotor in the counterclockwise and it can then

reverted and the prime mover speed was varied and produce a negative voltage when spun in the opposite

output voltage was measured. The results are tabulated in direction.

Table 5.

B. Effect of Prime Mover Speed

TABLE V

PRIME MOVER SPEED VS OUTPUT VOLTAGE FOR SELF-EXCITED Figure 5 shows the trend of the output voltage with

DC GENERATOR respect to a varying prime mover speed. The plot

displayed below shows that the output voltage increases

Prime Mover Speed (RPM) Output Voltage (V) as the prime mover rotates faster.

1465 158.2

1372 145.1 The speed of the prime mover, is directly proportional

to the generator voltage as stated in the equation, =

1225 125.7

, provided that the field excitation is held constant.

With a higher speed, the magnetic flux through the rotor

Then resistive load was varied while the prime mover windings changes more rapidly and higher change in flux

voltage was held constant at 200 for all measurements. with respect to time, we have a higher induced generator

The prime mover speed and output voltage was measured voltage. Based on the equation, = , since

at varying the load resistance, this are tabulated in Table increases, so increases as well.

6.

TABLE IV Prime Mover Speed vs Output Voltage

VARYING LOAD RESISTANCE ON SELF-EXCITED DC GENERATOR

170

Output Voltage (V)

() Speed (RPM) (V) 150

Infinite 1710 191.5 140

214 1663 182 130

75.6 1572 166 120

56.4 1522 157.8 110

1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700

Prime Mover Speed (RPM)

III. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

The observations from the data gathered were Figure 5. Effect of Varying Prime Mover Speed on Output Voltage

analyzed and presented in this section.

A. Effect of Prime Mover Orientation

1680 RPM, the output of the DC voltage was measured to

be 210 V. When the direction of the prime mover was

change, the output voltage became negative which means

B. Effect of Field Excitation

Effect of Generator Loading on Prime

Effect of Varying Field Excitation on Mover Speed

Output Voltage 250

Load Resistance ()

200

170

Output Voltage (V)

150

150

100

130 50

110 0

1550 1600 1650 1700 1750

90

0 50 100 150 200 250 Prime Mover Speed (RPM)

Field Excitation Voltage (V)

Figure 7. Effect of Varying Load Resistance on Prime Mover Speed

Figure 6. Effect of Varying Field Excitation on Output Voltage

From the plot shown above, the output voltage is Effect of Generator Loading on Prime

directly proportional to the field excitation. The field Mover Speed

current produces a flux in the machine core in accordance 300

Load Resistance ()

with its magnetization curve, and since field current is

directly proportional to the generator voltage as state in 200

the equation, = , given that the speed of prime 100

mover is held constant. Qualitatively, if increases then

0

the flux in the machine increases and a larger field current 150 155 160 165 170 175

means larger magnetic field produced by the field Prime Mover Speed (RPM)

winding. The larger the field means larger induced EMF

and larger generator voltage and an increases in terminal Figure 8. Effect of Varying Load Resistance on Output Voltage

voltage as well.

B. Effect of Prime Mover Orientation and Prime Mover Speed

B. Effect of Generator Loading on Self-Excited DC Generator

The plots displayed in Figure 7 and 8 shows that The output voltage of the DC generator was measured

the load resistance is directly proportional to the prime to be 187.4 V and when reversed, the output voltage

mover speed and output voltage. With decreasing load became -3.3267V. This is because the DC generator

resistance, output voltage decreases and prime mover develops different magnitudes and polarities of voltage

slows down. This is due to the fact that the load draws in when running in different directions because of the

more current with the decrease in resistance. This current Lenzs Law.

then induces a magnetic field on the rotor windings. The

magnetic field is induced to compensate for the changing The plot displayed in Figure 9 shows that the output

field the rotor windings experience. This induced field voltage increases as prime mover speeds up just like in

then generates torque that opposes the direction of the the separately-excited DC Generator. With the same

prime mover. Since the output power of the induction speeds used, the corresponding output voltages in the

machine is used to drive the generator does not change, self-excited DC generator were a bit higher than the

the speed decreases with the increases in torque to separately excited DC generator.

overcome.

Effect of Prime Mover Speed on Output Effec of Varying Load Resistance on

Voltage Output Voltage

170 250

Output Voltage (V)

Load Resistance ()

160 200

150 150

140 100

130 50

120 0

110 155 160 165 170 175 180 185

1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

Prime Mover Speed (RPM)

Figure 10. Effect of Varying Load Resistance on Output Voltage of

Self-Excited DC Generator

Figure 9. Effect of Varying Prime Mover Speed on Output

Voltage of Self-Excited DC Generator During a normal running condition, when load resistance

is decreased, the load current increases. But as load

E. Effect of Varying Generator Loading

resistance keep on decreasing, the terminal voltage falls.

The effects of adding a resistive load (MV1105) is Hence, the load resistance can only be decreased up to a

show in Figure 9 and 10. It can be shown below that the certain limit, after which the terminal voltage drastically

effect of generator loading on the self-excited DC decreases due to excessive armature reaction at very high

generator is the same as that of the separately-excited DC armature current and increase 2 losses. Beyond this

generator. The primer mover slows down and the output limit any further decrease in load resistance results in

voltage decreases as the load resistance decreases but the decreasing load current. The load characteristics of a self-

corresponding prime mover speeds were a bit lower excited DC generator is shown in Figure 11.

compared to that of the separately-excited DC generator.

Prime Mover Speed

250

Load Resistance ()

200

150

100

50

0

1500 1550 1600 1650 1700

Prime Mover Speed (RPM) Figure 11. Load Characteristics of a DC Shunt Generator (Source:

http://www.electricaleasy.com/2014/07/characteristics-of-dc-

generators.html)

Figure 8. Effect of Varying Load Resistance on Prime Mover

Speed of Self-Excited DC Generator

IV. DISCUSSION. that allows a self-excited shunt generator to be self-

exciting. In order to build up voltage in the generator, the

total resistance in the field must be less than the critical

resistance. This can be done using a tangent line drawn to

the magnetization curve starting from the origin. The

slope of this tangent line represents the critical field

resistance.

Magnetization curve of a DC generator does not start

from zero initially. It starts from a value of generated

voltage due to residual magnetism. In ferromagnetic

materials, the magnetic power and generated voltage

increases with the increase of the current flow through the

coils. When the current is reduced to zero, there is still

magnetic power left in those coils core. This is called the

residual magnetism. The core of a DC machine is made

of ferromagnetic material.

Figure 12. Magnetization (No-Load) characteristics of a DC There are three possible ways in changing the output

Machine (Source: http://www.eeeguide.com/self-excitation/) voltage, change in speed of rotation, change in field

The typical magnetization of the DC generator is current and a change in load resistance. The equations for

shown in Figure XX. It is the relation of the field current generated voltage, = and terminal voltage, =

and the armature terminal voltage on open circuit. When relates the following parameters to each other.

DC generator is driven by a prime mover an EMF is The generated voltage is directly proportional to the field

induced in the armature. It has a great importance because flux and field current. As field current is gradually

it represents the saturation of the magnetic circuit. For this increased, the terminal voltage decreases, hence by

reason this curve is also called saturation curve. Ohms Law field voltage also increases.

According to the molecular theory of magnetism the

The speed of the DC generator can be varied through the

molecules of a magnetic material, which is not

prime mover. Increasing the mechanical speed increases

magnetized are not arranged or aligned in definite order.

the induced voltage and in effect terminal voltage is

When current passed through the magnetic material then

increased. However, if the speed of the prime mover is

its molecules are arranged in definite order. Up to a

further reduced to a certain critical speed, no voltage built

certain value of field current the maximum molecules are

up is possible in a shunt generator. Speed rating is also

arranged. In this stage the flux established in the pole

based on the limit for field current, as speed is increased,,

increased directly with the field current and the generated

a higher field current is necessary to produce the same

voltage is also increased.

voltage.

The magnetization curve rises very steeply while the

It can be observed from the characteristics of a shunt

magnetic circuit is unsaturated. As the magnetic circuit

DC generator, that with an increase in load (increase in

saturates, the curve flattens out and this portion of the

load current) the terminal voltage of the machine

magnetization curve is almost linear. Above a certain

increases. However, according to the load characteristics

point the un-magnetized molecules become very fewer

of the DC generator, after it reaches its maximum value it

and it became very difficult to further increase in pole

will start to decrease due excessive demagnetizing effect

flux. This point is called saturation point. Point C is also

of armature reaction. This is because load is increased and

called the knee of the magnetization curve. A small

field current is increased as well as the flux as field is

increase in magnetism requires very large field current

series connected to the load. Thus induced voltage will

above the saturation point. The upper portion of the curve

increase and hence the terminal voltage. Terminal voltage

is bend and starting to show non-linear characteristics as

will increase till field winding reaches saturation and then

shown in Figure XX. There is a critical field resistance

dropped due to the significant effect of the armature instance, it is necessary to reverse the field

reaction which causes significant fall in load voltage. connections with respect to the armature.

In a self- excited DC generator, the build-up of voltage For a separately-excited DC generator, the shunt field

depends highly on the presence of a residual flux in the requires a separate source and it will build-up even when

poles of the generator. An internal voltage will be residual magnetism is absent. The magnitude of the field

generated at the first turn of this generator, which is given current is not affected by the changes in the load since

by = . is dependent only on the field circuit voltage and

resistance that is powered by a separate source. And the

This voltage is approximately equal to the terminal

voltage regulation is better compared to the self-excited

voltage and the output voltage by neglecting the small

machine. Voltage regulation is defined by the formula

armature resistance drop. But this voltage is also

equivalent to the voltage across the field, it causes a =

100 where is the no load terminal

current to flow in the generator's field coil. This field voltage and is the terminal voltage at full-load

current produces a magnetomotive force in the pole, condition. Ideally, one would want a 0% or a constant

which causes an increase in the flux. This increase in flux terminal voltage at different loading conditions.

aids the residual magnetism in increasing the induce On the other hand, a self-excited DC generator does

voltage , hence increasing the output voltage. When the not need a separate source but is dependent on the residual

output voltage rises, increases further, increasing the magnetism for it to start building up. It is also important

flux more, which increases until the point where to note that the direction of the residual flux must be in

produces just enough to sustain the generated voltage, the same direction with that of flux produced by the shunt

the build-up process stops. field. As previously discussed, reversal of polarity of the

shunt field terminals will produce a flux that will negate

However, there are instances when the voltage fails to the residual flux so the induced voltage will even decrease

build up and these can be due to some factors. One reason instead of building up. The field current and decreases

is the absence or lack of residual magnetism needed to with load. The generator must be operated in the

generate a voltage that can produce the field current. The saturation region to minimize the reduction in .

machine can lose its residual magnetism during shutdown Meanwhile, the voltage regulation is poorer compared to

or when not used for a long time. This can be resolved by the separately-excited generator for the field current now

separately exciting the field circuit and this process is varies with different loading conditions and since =

called flashing the field. = , terminal voltage will also significantly

Another possible cause of build-up failure is that the field change at varying field currents because they are directly

resistance is higher than the critical field resistance. The proportional. High deviation of the terminal voltage at

critical field resistance is the maximum resistance (for a full load from no load condition results in higher voltage

given speed) with which the DC generator will excite, regulation which is not a desired output.

only at values lower than the critical field resistance will The power flow diagram of a DC generator is shown

the voltage build up. The presence of a field resistance below in Figure 13.

above the maximum allowable resistance could be

because the field circuit is open circuited so this gives a

much larger resistance. By simply making sure that the

field circuit terminals are properly connected could you

solve this problem.

Improper connection or reversed polarity of field circuit

terminals could also prevent the build-up of the DC

generator. If the field connections are reversed, the lines

of flux produced by the current flow will oppose the

residual flux so that the generated voltage will decrease

rather than increase when the field circuit is dosed. In this

[4] No-Load Voltage of Shunt Generator. 2017. Image.

Available: http://www.eeeguide.com/self-excitation/

Figure 13. Power flow from the 3-phase mains input to the load

(Source: http://circuit globe.com/power-flow-diagram-of-dc-

generator-and-dc-motor.html)

was a mechanical source specifically the mechanical

energy produced by the induction motor. Since in this

experiment the DC machine acts as a generator, the we

expect to have an electrical power output. However, it can

be seen on the second phase that before the mechanical

power input is converted into electrical power,

mechanical losses and electrical is incurred due to

friction, windage, stray losses, core losses and 2 losses.

Therefore, = .

IV. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the proponents learned the effects of

the prime mover speed, field excitation, and electrical

load to the output voltage of a DC generator. It is

observed that the prime mover speed and the field

excitation voltage are directly related to the output

voltage, i.e. as the speed or the excitation voltage

increases, the output voltage increases. The proponents

also observed that the load resistor is directly proportional

to the output voltage. Also, proper handling of the

machines were observed by the students during the entire

experiment.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Umans, Fitzgerald & Kingsleys Electric Machinery 7th

ed., 2014

[2] Orillaza and A. Magabo, "Direct Current Machines", UP

EEEI, 2017. Lecture.

[3] "Power Flow Diagram of DC Generator and DC Motor",

Circuit Globe, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://circuit

globe.com/power-flow-diagram-of-dc-generator-and-dc-

motor.html. [Accessed: 20- Apr- 2017].

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