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Quartz School for Well Site Supervisors

Module 6
Drilling Fluids & SCE

Section 2
Oil Base Muds
Oil Base Mud Systems

Invert Emulsion Fluids


Invert Emulsion Fluids

Oil Base drilling fluids (OBM) = Invert Emulsion Fluids

Highly inhibitive
Resistant to contaminations (up to a certain level)
Stable at high temperatures and pressures
Provide good lubricity
Non-corrosive and non-toxic using mineral oils
(LTOM)
Invert Fluid Applications
Development Wells
Shale Inhibition
HTHP
Lubricity
Deviated Wells
Contaminates, Evaporites, and Acid Gases
Spotting Fluids
Deepwater
OBM PDC Cuttings
HISTORY of OBM

1920s - Origin of non-aqueous drilling fluids


1940s Diesel Base muds
Early 1980s - Environmental concerns lead to the use of Mineral Oil Fluids
Mid 1980s Development of low, toxicity, low viscosity oil base systems -
LVT
1990s Development of Synthetic Fluid Technology to meet discharge
restrictions
Mid 1990s Selection of base oils and development of additives to meet
HSE and discharge requirements
New Millennia Invert Fluid Technology
Invert Fluid Limitations/Considerations
Environmental Discharge Restrictions
HSE Requirements
Data Interpretation
Costs
Hydraulics Determinations
Increased Risk of Lost Circulation
Gas Solubility
Logistics
Invert Emulsion Fluid

THREE-PHASE SYSTEM - Two immiscible fluids and the solids phase


ORGANIC FLUID PHASE - continuous - external phase, base oil with
lipophilic liquid product additives
WATER - emulsified droplets as internal phase with a salt typically
CaCl2, soluble lime
SOLIDS - barite, organophilic clays, drill solids, insoluble additives - fluid
loss control products, LCM, etc. (soluble additives)
Invert Emulsion Fluids

Continuous Oil Phase


A wide variety of oils have been
developed to reduce environmental
problems

Low Toxic Mineral Oils


Synthetic Oils
CONTINUOUS PHASE
OIL BASE SYSTEMS
DIESEL - VERSADRIL
MINERAL - VERSACLEAN
ENHANCED MINERAL OIL (EMO) - VERSAVERT,
VERSATHERM, VERSAPRO
SYNTHETIC BASE SYSTEMS
PAO - NOVADRIL
IO - NOVAPLUS
LAO NOVATEC, NOVAPRO
ESTER - ECOGREEN
PARAFFIN PARALAND, PARADRIL, PARATHERM,
EMS-4000
ETHER, LAB, etc.
Synthetic Drilling Fluid

Definition:
An emulsion drilling fluid with the synthetic fluid as
the external (continuous) phase

Synthetic base oils are manufactured from materials


having a specifically defined composition when
compared with mineral oils which are directly
derived from petroleum hydrocarbons.
Synthetic Drilling Fluid
Factors influencing choice of a synthetic fluid:

Toxicity
Biodegradation
Bioaccumulation
Sea Bed Study Performance
Health and Safety
Drilling Performance
INVERT SYSTEMS Base Oil Comparisons

Sipdrill 2/0: Linear Paraffin


SG: 0.7605
cP: 1.76

EDC 95/11: Mineral Base Oil


SG: 0.814
cP: 3.50

EDC 99: Low Viscosity Mineral Base Oil


SG: 0.8114
cP: 2.28
Oil & Synthetic Base Fluids
Base Specific Viscosity, Flash Pour Aniline
Fluid Gravity CST @104 Point Point Point
F F F
Diesel Oil 0.85 3-4 150 14 149

LTMO 0.80 2-3 212 -0.4 169


ESTER 0.85 5-7 354 -22 77
PAO 0.80 5 -6 302 -76 225

ETHER 0.83 5-6 330 14 104


LAO 0.78 2-3 230 10 ~156

IO 0.78 2.9--3.2
2.9 266 -4 ~178
LP 0.77 1.76 >212 14 >200
Synthetic Fluid Relative Costs

Esters 100%
Ethers 95%
Olefins:
 PAO 90%
 LAO 60%
 IO 70%
Linear Paraffin's 50% Food grade
paraffins are
highly refined
oils,not synthetics
Synthetic Base Fluids
Viscosity Profile vs. Temperature
25

Ester
20 PAO A
Apparent Viscosity, cps

75/25 Ester/IO
PAO B
50/50 Ester/IO
15 IO C16C18
LAO C14C16

10

0
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
T emperature, F
WATER PHASE - Emulsion Droplets

BRINE:
CaCl2 - Reduces the activity (Aw) of the water phase

Fresh Water Aw = 1.0


NaCl Aw = 1.0 - 0.75 (26% = saturation)
CaCl2 Aw = 1.0 - 0.39 (40% = saturation)

20-30 %w/w CaCl2 (Common range for oil muds)


Aw = 0.836 - 0.641
EMULSIONS

Inverse Direct

Oil Phase Water Phase

Water Oil

Oil External Phase Water External Phase


Oil-wet solids & surfaces Water-wet solids & surfaces
Desirable for Drilling Cementing / Stimulation
SOLIDS PHASE

Weight Material
Barite, Fer-Ox, CaCO3, Ilmenite, Micromax

Organophilic clays
Drill Solids
Insoluble Additives
FLC & LCM Products

Soluble Additives
CaCl2, Lime,
CONTINUOUS PHASE - Oil Soluble

Lipophilic Liquid Additives:


Emulsifiers
Wetting Agents
Polymer Viscosifiers
Organic Thinners
OIL BASE MUD SYSTEMS
OIL BASE MUD PRODUCTS

SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents.


Act by Reducing the Interfacial Tension Between Two
Liquids or Between a Liquid and a Solid.
Emulsifiers
Soaps
Wetting Agents
The Main Difference Is:
The Surfaces They Are Designed To Act Upon And Their HLB
Number.
OIL BASE MUD PRODUCTS

SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents


Have a hydrophilic polar head and an organophilic non-polar tail.
HYDROPHILIC
HEAD

(WATER LOVING)

C LOVING)
C C C C O
(OIL
C C C C C
OH
ORGANOPHILIC TAIL
PRODUCTS
SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents
HLB Range, function and Products

Water-
Water-in -oil Wetting Detergents
Emulsifiers Agents Oil-
Oil-in-
in-Water Emulsifiers

Lipophilic Hydrophilic
0 3 6 9 12 15 18
SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents

WATER
DROPLET

OIL
SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents

INSUFFICIENT
EMULSIFIER CONCENTRATION

WATER WATER
COALESCING Wor
DROPLET DROPLET st
OF DROPLETS

as e
C
SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents

- Designed to Oil Wet solids

SOLIDS SURFACE
SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents

Contact Angle and Wettability


Non-Wetting Liquid

o > 90 Contact Angle Wetting Liquid

w < 90
Oil
Water
SOLID
WATER WET

Case 1: Solid is preferentially water wet


SURFACTANTS - Surface Active Agents

Contact Angle and Wettability


Non-Wetting Liquid
Wetting Liquid
w > 90
o < 90
Water
Oil
SOLID
OIL WET

Case 2: Solid is preferentially oil wet


OIL BASE MUD PRODUCTS

VISCOSIFIERS:
Organophilic Clays
Organic Polymers
OIL BASE MUD PRODUCTS

THINNERS:
BASE OIL
VERSATHIN - (Physical deflocculant)
Temporary fix for high viscosity due to solids
WILL NOT THIN VERSA-HRP
WILL THIN VERSAMOD
For overtreatment use clay viscosifier
VERSAWET
VERSACOAT
NOVATHIN
OIL BASE MUD PRODUCTS

HTHP - FLUID LOSS REDUCERS:

Gilsonite base
Polymer
Amine treated lignite
Oleic Acid
Dimer/trimer blend - oleic acid
Gilsonite
OIL BASE MUD PRODUCTS

Additional Invert Additives:


LIME - Ca(OH)2
HOT LIME / QUICK LIME - CaO
CALCIUM CHLORIDE - CaCl2
Optional Internal Phase Water Activity

Other Salts:
Calcium Chloride - CaCl2
Sodium Chloride - NaCl
Calcium Bromide - CaBr2
Sodium Formate - NaCOOH
Potassium Formate - KCOOH
Cesium Formate CsCOOH
Organic:
Glycol
%w/w vs Density
2.50

2.00

1.50
DENSITY

1.00 Sodium Formate


Potassium Formate
Cesium Formate
0.50 Sodium Chloride
Potassium Chloride
Calcium Chloride
0.00
0% 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 %
%w/w SALT
Brine Activity - Aw
The following equations can be used to calculate Brine Activity:

CaCl2:
Aw = 1 + 0.001264834 (%CaCl2) 0.0006366891 (%CaCl2)2 + 5.877758 x
10-6 (%CaCl2)3

NaCl:
Aw = 1 + 0.004767582 (%NaCl) 0.0001694205 (%NaCl)2

MgCl2:
Aw = 1 + 0.002444242 (%MgCl2) 0.0004608654 (% MgCl2)2

KCl:
Aw = 1 + 0.003973135 (%KCl) 0.0000747175 (% KCl)2
1

0.9

0.8

0.7
Water Activity

0.6

0.5

0.4
Sodium Formate
0.3 Potassium Formate
Sodium Chloride
0.2
Potassium Chloride
Calcium Chloride
0.1

0
0% 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 %
%w/w SALT
SHALE STABILIZATION
OF OIL BASE MUDS
Shale Stabilization
Mechanism:

Oil-Wetting of the Formation

Osmotic Stabilization
Osmosis:

The movement of water molecules from an


area of high concentration to an area of
low concentration.

Cell membranes are completely permeable


to water, therefore, the environment the
cell is exposed to can have a dramatic
effect on the cell.
Osmosis
Hypertonic Solutions:
contain a high concentration of solute relative to another solution (e.g. the
cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, the water
diffuses out of the cell, causing the cell to shrivel.

Hypotonic Solutions:
contain a low concentration of solute relative to another solution (e.g. the
cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, the water
diffuses into the cell, causing the cell to swell and possibly explode.

Isotonic Solutions:
contain the same concentration of solute as an another solution (e.g. the
cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in an isotonic solution, the water
diffuses into and out of the cell at the same rate. The fluid that surrounds
the body cells is isotonic.
Shale Stabilization
PROPERTIES
&
TESTING
OF OIL BASE MUDS
Standard API Tests for Inverts
Mud weight (lb/gal - kg/m3)
Funnel Viscosity (sec/liter) or (sec/quart)
Rheology @ 50oC, 65oC, 80oC
HTHP @ 150C or bottom hole temperature
Retort (% oil/synthetic, %water, %solids)
Pom, Psm (total ccs of .1N H2SO4 three
titrations)
Excess lime Pom (ccs) x 3.7 = kg/m3
Chlorides (whole mud) mg/l
Electrical Stability (ES) @ 50oC
Mud Weight
Mud Rheology
Rheology of Invert Emulsions

Test at 120, 150, and 180oF or as operator


requests

Run VG meter at 300 rpm while heating sample

After completing Rheology, check the heat cup


for barite settling
HTHP of Invert Emulsions

HTHP reported as 2 X filtrate ccs/30 minutes)


Run at 300oF (150oC) unless otherwise instructed
Filtrate of conventional formulations should not contain water
Filtrates of new muds may contain a small amount of water
until they have been sheared through the bit
Check filter cake for barite settling
HTHP of Invert Emulsions
Retort Analysis of Inverts
Retort Analysis of Inverts

Accuracy!
Retort allows us to determine:
% Solids
% Oil or Synthetic fluid
% Water
Salt content
Watch for trends and major changes
Titrations for Invert Emulsion

Standard titrations:
Alkalinity - Pom, Psm
Chlorides Cl - (whole mud)
Must use whole mud - (2 ccs)
(filtrate is Oil / Synthetic fluid)
Mix mud with solvent to break the emulsion
Dilute sample with distilled water and add indicator
Titrations for Invert Emulsion
Electrical Stability of Inverts
Electrical Stability of Inverts

Electrical stability is a relative value!


Electrical stability related to emulsion stability, %water,
water droplet size, temperature...
Electrical stability of new muds will be low until sheared
through the bit.
Check at 50oC/120F
Meters
Operator ramped - (old style) (reading is doubled)
Self ramping digital - (read directly) - API APPROVED
Water Activity

Invert Mud System 0.9

0.8

0.7

Water Activity
0.6

0.5

0.4
Sodium Formate
0.3 Potassium Formate
Sodium Chloride
0.2
Potassium Chloride
0.1 Calcium Chloride

0
0% 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 %
%w/w SALT

Shale
Water Activity
Gas Solubility
DISPLACEMENTS

Meet, communicate, organize


Condition displaced mud to lowest rheology and displacing fluid
with higher rheology
Do not begin until all displacing fluid is on location.
Spacer to cover 500 to 1,000 of annulus
Pump at a rate approaching turbulence
Do Not Stop circulating once displacement has started
Rotate / Reciprocate Pipe
DISPLACEMENTS (Cont.)

Place bit near bottom as oil mud clears.


Change screens.
Add Wetting agent.
Monitor with Stability meter.
Invert Systems Solids Management

Rig Preparation

Solids Removal Equipment

Disposal
Shaker Performance

OLD GENERATION NEW GENERATION


SHAKER TECHNOLOGY SHAKER TECHNOLOGY
PROBLEMS
WITH OIL BASE MUD
Problems: Oil / Synthetics

Insufficient Viscosity
Excessive Viscosity
Solids Contamination
Salt Water Flows
Water Wet Solids
Carbon Dioxide - CO2
Hydrogen Sulfide - H2S
Massive Salts and Salt Stringers
Barite Sag / Settling
Lost Circulation
Insufficient Viscosity

Barite Settling
Inadequate Hole Cleaning
Treatment:
Add Viscosifiers - Clay, Polymer,
Rheology Modifier
Add Water (Brine)
Shear Mud
Excessive Viscosity

Solids - High, Fines, Water-Wet


High Water Content
High Temperature Instability
Acid Gases
Water-Wet Solids
Over-Treatment with Viscosifiers
Treatment:
Remove / Dilute - Solids, Water Content.
Add - Emulsifier, Wetting Agent,Versathin, Lime,
Increase mud weight
Solids Contamination

High Viscosity
Thick Filter Cake
Treatment:
Finer mesh shaker screen
Tandem centrifuges
Dilute with base fluids and add emulsifier
Wetting agent
Salt Water Flows

Increased %water
Decreased oil:water ratio
High viscosity
Water wet solids
Lower Electrical Stability
Water in HTHP filtrate
Treatment:
Add Oil to restore OWR
Emulsifier and lime
Wetting agent for weight up or water wet solids
Barite to adjust weight and stop influx
Water Wet Solids

Increased viscosity
Decreased Electrical Stability
Grainy appearance
Settling
Shale shaker screen blinding
Test
Treatment:
If brine phase salt saturated with divalent salt,
add fresh water
Wetting agent
Carbon Dioxide CO2

Decrease in POM
Decrease in lime content
Decrease in Electrical Stability
Treatment:
Add lime to maintain an excess, use caution to control
excess lime in ester based fluids
Increase mud weight to control influx
Hydrogen Sulfide, H2S
Sulfides detected with Garrett Gas Train
Decrease in POM
Decrease in lime content
Decrease in Electrical Stability
Mud may turn black
Treatment:
Inorganic zinc scavenger (ZnO, Ironite Sponge, Safe-
Scav HS)
Maintain excess lime content
Increase mud weight to control influx
Massive Salts & Salt Stringers
Salts are insoluble, may become a low gravity solids
problem

Formation CaCl2 and MgCl2 may cause water wetting of


solids

Sticking from plastic flow (not differential)

Displace annulus from bit to free point with fresh water


spot
Barite Sag / Settling

Sag, uneven mud weights on bottoms up after trips


Treatment:
Increase Low Shear Rate Viscosity with clay
Settling, static conditions and pits
Normal, increase Low Shear Rate Viscosity
Excess wetting agent (hard pack), add organophilic clay and
polymer. Do not add wetting agent.
Water wet barite indicated by tests - add wetting agent
Barite Precipitation SAG

Variation
Variation in
in mud
mud density
density
...
...
Invert Emulsion Fluid
Mud Weight Out (lb/gal)
19
Mud Weight In = 17 lb/gal
18.5 Samples from Shaker Underflow

18
Pressurized Balance
17.5

17
Baseline Weight
16.5

16

15.5
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
Circulating Time (min)
M-I/Mobil Study (1990) - Barite Sag

Primarily a dynamic settling problem

Minimized by elevating LSRV and gels


Affected by annular velocity and pipe movement
Requires proper mud treatment and operational
procedures
M-I/Mobil Study (1990) - Barite Sag

Can lead to common drilling, cementing, logging


problems

Can occur in directional wells in all types of


weighted muds

Must be systematically checked on trip reports


Boycott Settling

Clarified Fluid
Suspension Zone

Sag (Sedim ent) Bed

Slum p
Sag Chronology

Mud sags under dynamic conditions


Sag slumps under any flow conditions
Mud sags and slumps faster at intermediate
angles
Sag slumps faster while pumping slowly or
tripping
Circulate low MW, then high MW, then regular MW
Lost Circulation

Compressibility increases density at depth and


the likelihood of fracturing formation
LCM such as Cellophane and cane fiber can
break emulsion
Treatment:
VERSAPAC
Mica, MIX-II, nut hulls
Reverse gunk squeeze (organophilic clay in
water - No Cement)
FORM-A-SET
FORM-A-PLUG
Invert Emulsion Fluids
Key Hydraulics Issues

Lost Circulation
Downhole Hydrostatic Pressure
Rheology and Pressure Loss under
Temperature and Pressure
Pump-Pressure Variation
Temperature Profile
Surge/Swab Pressure
Hole Cleaning
Basic Concepts

 Virtual Rheology
best available rheological data for this drilling fluid
 Virtual Hydraulics
analysis by finite difference (variable downhole
properties)
 Visual Rheology and Visual Hydraulics
real-time, downhole predictions and display
Virtual Rheology

Fann 34 HTHP Field Viscometers Conventional

Fann 35A

Rig
Virtual
Data
Hydraulics

Rheology
Fann 50

Fann 75
HTHP Lab
Viscometers
Huxley-Bertram
Virtual Hydraulics
Equivalent Static Density
PVT (Pressure, Volume, Temperature) Data
Mud Composition, Base Fluid
Temperature Profile, Well Profile

Equivalent Circulating Density


Mud Rheology under Temperature and Pressure
Temperature Profile
Well Profile, Well Geometry, Eccentricity

Pump Pressure
Mud Rheology under Temperature and Pressure
Laminar/Turbulent Friction Factors
Well Profile, Well Geometry
Fann 75
Virtual Rotary Drilling Hydraulics
Virtual Rotary Drilling Hydraulics
SPECIAL EXPL & PROD CO
Snapshot
MD 16025 ft

PROPOSED S.T. 63 TVD 15224 ft Virtual Hydraulics


SOUTH TIMBALIER BLK 63 Date 09-19-1995

OFFSHORE, LOUISIANA

Depth Equiv Mud Wt (lb/gal) PV and YP Temp (F) Velocity (ft/min)

(ft) 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 200 400 0 200 400

DRILLING FLUID

1000 Mud Type NOVAPLUS

Mud Weight 10.2 lb/gal


2000
Test Temp 120 F

SYSTEM DATA
3000
Flow Rate 430 gal/min

4000 Nozzles 14-12-12-12


10.05
4600 PRESSURE LOSSES (psi)

5000 Drill String 2894

Bit 751
6000
Annulus 284

Surface Equip 55
7000
Total System 3985

8000 ECD's (lb/gal)

Casing Shoe 10.63


9000 Total Depth 10.64

10000 VRDH - Version 1.00

11000

12000
Pressure Loss (%)

0 25 50 75 100
13000

14000 Drill String

15000 Bit

9.875
16025 16000
Annulus
15224 ECD PV
17000 ESD YP
Virtual Hydraulics Summary
Features
Uses best available data for THIS mud to determine variable
downhole rheological properties
Considers effects of temperature and pressure on
downhole density

Benefits
Accurately predicts pump pressures, ESD, and ECD for
synthetic-base muds
Minimizes potential for drilling problems
Increases confidence when planning and running synthetic-
based muds
INVERT EMULSION FLUIDS

SUMMARY
Summary
Fluids
Systems
Products and Functions
Formulations
Properties
Testing
Problems
OBM Applications

OBM/SBM are used in almost every continent


with excellent success
Best available drilling fluid for shale inhibition
and shale stabilization
OBM/SBM are used for high temperature /
high pressure wells, due to excellent
temperature stability and solids tolerance
(400+ oF and 21 lb/gal)
What is an Emulsion and why is it important for
in formulating a drilling fluid?
What is the role of Salinity in an OBM?
Describe the effect of Pressure & Temperature
on the density of an OBM.
What is the role of the Wetting Agent?
Name 3 primary applications for an invert
emulsion fluid.
List the 5 primary measurements
which characterize a drilling fluid.
What differences exist between a
WBM and an OBM?? Advantages?
Disadvantages? of each?
Invert Fluid Advantages

Wellbore Stabilization (Shales & Salts)


Lubrication Properties
Temperature Stability
Tolerance to Contaminants
Economics Re-Usable
Corrosion Control
Drillability
Selection Criteria
Invert Emulsion Fluids

Long Reactive Shale Sections


Highly Deviated Wells
High Temperature Environments
Salt Sections
Contamination
Invert Emulsion Fluids
...set the Industry Performance Standards for..

Optimum Wellbore Stability


Fast Drilling Rates
High Return on Investment
Long Lasting Environmental Impact
Poor Health and Handling
Problems
Invert Fluids
Rheology & Density Control
Barite Sag
Lost Circulation
Environmental Compliance (disposal)
HES (handling) concerns
Economics
Well Control (Gas Solubility)
Elastomer Compatability