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EE 143

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1. A 5-MVA, 6.6-kV, 3-phase, wye-connected synchronous generator has the following test

results:

Open-circuit curve:

Generated emf (line), kV 3 5 6 7 7.5 7.9 8.4 8.6 8.8

Field current, A 25 42 57 78 94 117 145 162 181

Short-circuit curve: Field current is 62 A at rated armature current.

Assume that the air-gap line passes through the origin and the first point of the open-

circuit curve. The armature resistance and leakage reactance are 0.25 and 2.64 ,

respectively.

Find the unsaturated synchronous reactance. For rated terminal voltage at rated load

0.85 power factor lagging, find (b) the saturation factor k and (c) field current.

2. The following readings were taken from the results of an open- and a short-circuit test

on a 9375-kVA three-phase Y-connected 13,800-V (line-to-line) two-pole 60-Hz turbine

generator driven at synchronous speed:

Field current, A 169 192

Armature current, short-circuit test, A 392 446

Line voltage, open-circuit characteristic, V 13,000 13,800

Line voltage, air-gap line, V 15,400 17,500

The armature resistance is 0.064 /phase. Find (a) the unsaturated value of the

synchronous reactance, (b) the saturated synchronous reactance (approximate), and (c)

the short-circuit ratio.

armature resistance and a leakage reactance of 1 /phase. Other pertinent data are as

follows:

Short-Circuit Characteristic: Ia = 7 If

Air-gap Line (V/phase): E = 33 If

21,300 I f

Open-Circuit Characteristic (V/phase): E

430 I f

The equation for the open-circuit characteristic is not valid for values of If about the

origin. For a constant terminal voltage of 14 kV and a constant real-power load of 35

MW, determine the range over which the field current can be varied if the armature

current is not to exceed its rated full-load value.

B. Power-Angle Curve

impedance of 2 + j15 per phase. Operating with an e.m.f. (line-to-line) of 2500 V, it

just falls out of step (lose synchronism) at full-load power. To what new value must the

e.m.f. (line-to-line) be adjusted so that it will just remain in synchronism at 150% full-

load power. With this new e.m.f., what will then be the output current and power factor

at full-load?

has a synchronous reactance Xs of 34.0 ohms and negligible armature resistance. This

motor is connected to a 250-kva, 2300-volt, three-phase, 60-Hz, synchronous generator

through a line of 5 ohms inductive reactance and negligible resistance. The synchronous

reactance of the generator is 22.0 ohms. If the terminal voltage of the motor is 2300

volts, input power is 60.0 kw and the excitation voltage of the motor is 1700.0 volts per

phase, determine: (a) The terminal power factor of the generator and the terminal

voltage and excitation voltage of the generator. (b) With the excitation voltage of the

generator maintained constant, what will be the maximum developed power possible in

the motor?

synchronous motor has reactances Xd = 1.95 /phase and Xq = 1.40 /phase.

Neglecting all losses, (a) compute the maximum mechanical power in kilowatts which

this motor can deliver if it is supplied with electric power from an infinite bus at rated

voltage and frequency and if its field excitation is held constant at that value which

would result in unity-power-factor operation at rated load. The shaft load is assumed to

be increased gradually so that transient swings are negligible and the steady-state

power limit applies. Also, (b) compute the value of the power angle corresponding to

this maximum power operation.

C. Electromechanical Dynamics

power system. The motor has the following characteristics:

Moment of inertia J (motor and load) = 444 kg-m2

Synchronizing power coefficient Ps = 11.0 kW/elec. deg.

Damping torque coefficient Td = 2398 N-m/(mech. rad/s)

One-half rated mechanical load is suddenly thrown on the motor shaft at a time when it

is operating in the steady-state but unloaded. (a) Determine the linearized

electromechanical equation, in power form. (b) What is the steady-state power angle

after the transient? (c) What is the maximum angle during the transient? Express all

angles in electrical degrees.

2. A 900-rpm 60-Hz synchronous motor is running in the steady state with a 50-hp load.

The synchronizing torque is 40 newton-meters per electrical degree. The total moment

of inertia of the motor shaft is 76 kilogram-meter2 and the damping coefficient D is 240

newton-meters per mechanical radian per second. A 100-hp load is suddenly applied.

Determine the torque angle (as a function of time) for all time after the 100-hp load is

applied.

D. Parallel Operation

1. Three physically identical synchronous generators are operating in parallel. They are all

rated for a full load of 3 MW at 0.8 PF lagging. The no-load frequency of generator A is

61 Hz, and its speed droop is 3.4 percent. The no-load frequency of generator B is 61.5

Hz, and its speed droop is 3 percent. The no-load frequency of generator C is 60.5 Hz,

and its speed droop is 2.6 percent. Assume that the speed governors kept fixed.

(a) If a total load consisting of 7 MW is being supplied by this power system, what will

the system frequency be and how will the power be shared among the three

generators?

(b) What minimum total-load and maximum total-load that can be supplied with all

three generators on-line, without any one of the generators overloading or

motoring.

transformers with a 3-phase 5000-kVA 13,200-volt synchronous generator. The first

generator has four poles and is driven by a turbine whose speed falls from 1830 rpm at

no-load to 1788 rpm at a load of 1500 kW on the generator. The second generator has

two poles and is driven by a turbine whose speed falls from 3684 rpm at no-load to

3552 rpm at a load of 5000 kW on the generator. When the combined load on the two

generators is 6000 kW, what is the load on each generator and what is the operating

frequency?

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