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Anastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)

Index

Pictures

Identity

Summary of Invasiveness

Taxonomic Tree

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Description

Distribution

Distribution Table

Risk of Introduction

Habitat

Habitat List

Hosts/Species Affected

Host Plants/Plants Affected

Growth Stages

Symptoms

Symptoms List

Biology and Ecology

Climate

Latitude/Altitude
Natural Enemies

Notes on Natural Enemies

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Pathway Causes

Pathway Vectors

Plant Trade

Impact Summary

Impact

Risk and Impact Factors

Detection and Inspection

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Prevention and Control

References

Links to Websites

Contributors

Distribution Maps

Summary

Last modified

21 January 2015

Datasheet Type(s)

Invasive Species

Pest
Preferred Scientific Name

Anastrepha striata

Preferred Common Name

guava fruit fly

Taxonomic Tree

Domain: Eukaryota

Kingdom: Metazoa

Phylum: Arthropoda

Subphylum: Uniramia

Class: Insecta

Summary of Invasiveness

A. striata is a pest of various cultivated species of Myrtaceae, especially guavas


[Psidium spp.]. Its exact native range is obscure, but its presence in southern Brazil
has been detected only recently, suggesting that human activities may have aided...

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Pictures

Top of page
Picture Title Caption Copyright

Just beneath a grapefruit peel, fruit fly


larvae begin to devour the pulp. Hot-air
Larvae USDA
treatment effectively kills the costly
pest.

Caribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a


Adult USDA
grapefruit.

Caribbean fruit fly laying an egg in a


Adult USDA
grapefruit.

Line artwork
CAB
of adult
International
female

Caribbean fruit flies demonstrate a


Fruit flies on preference for an untreated, yellow-
untreated skinned grapefruit versus the gibberellic USDA-ARS
grapefruit acid-treated green one in the
background. Both are fully ripe.

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

Anastrepha striata Schiner


Preferred Common Name

guava fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

Dictya cancellaria Fabricius

Trypeta cancellaria (Fabricius)

International Common Names

Spanish: mosca de la fruta de la guayaba; mosca de la guayaba; mosca de las frutas

French: mouche de la goyave

EPPO code

ANSTST (Anastrepha striata)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. striata is a pest of various cultivated species of Myrtaceae, especially guavas [Psidium


spp.]. Its exact native range is obscure, but its presence in southern Brazil has been detected
only recently, suggesting that human activities may have aided its spread. It has also been
intercepted and trapped in the USA (Florida, California), indicating its potential for spread
via infested fruits.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page

Domain: Eukaryota

Kingdom: Metazoa

Phylum: Arthropoda

Subphylum: Uniramia

Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera

Family: Tephritidae

Genus: Anastrepha

Species: Anastrepha striata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

This species was first described in 1805 by Fabricius as Dictya cancellaria, but this name
was long unrecognized and is now considered a nomen oblitum (Norrbom, 2002). It was
described under the valid name by Schiner in 1868.

Description

Top of page

For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.

Adult

As in most other Anastrepha spp., the adults of A. striata are easily separated from those of
other tephritid genera by a simple wing venation character; vein M, the vein that reaches
the wing margin just behind the wing apex, curves forwards before joining the wing
margin. Furthermore, most Anastrepha spp. have a very characteristic wing pattern; the
apical half of the wing has two inverted 'V'-shaped markings, one fitting within the other;
and a stripe along the forward edge of the wing, which runs from near the wing base to
about half-way along the wing length.

The following description is taken from Norrbom (2002):

The body is largely orange with dark-brown and yellow markings. The setae are red-brown
to dark-brown.

Head: yellow except ocellar tubercle brown. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Three to six,
usually four to five, frontal setae; two or rarely one orbital setae, posterior seta well-
developed. Ocellar seta weak and small or minute. Antenna extended 0.70-0.85 to lower
facial margin.

Thorax: mostly orange with the following areas yellow and often contrasting: postpronotal
lobe; single medial and paired sublateral vittae on scutum, the slender medial vitta extended
nearly the full length of the scutum, broadened posteriorly, extended laterally half to 3/4
distance from the level of acrostichal seta to that of dorsocentral seta; sublateral vitta
extended from transverse suture almost to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta;
scutellum except extreme base of disc (brown area well-separated from basal seta);
propleuron; dorsal margin of anepisternum; dorsal half of greater ampulla; dorsal margin of
katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Mesonotal pattern with
the following orange areas: broad area bordering medial vitta, usually small sublateral
presutural area, usually narrow area bordering mesal margin of sublateral vitta, and area
lateral to sublateral vitta except extreme posterior margin. Dark-brown, somewhat U-
shaped mark narrowed or usually interrupted at or anterior to transverse suture. Darker
areas of pleuron orange. Subscutellum and mediotergite dark-brown, narrowly to broadly
orange medially. Mesonotum 2.91-3.41 mm long. Scutum with microtrichia relatively
dense giving a white appearance when viewed from oblique anterior angle; with short
medial presutural bare area sometimes (Brazilian and Bolivian specimens) extended
narrowly along medial vitta as far as transverse suture; always with broad non-
microtrichose areas on parts of dark-brown marks, one presutural, one postsutural between
medial and sublateral vittae and extended to or almost to the level of dorsocentral seta;
these areas are usually well-separated at transverse suture, but rarely narrowly connected;
setulae usually strongly contrasting, whitish medially, dark-brown on and lateral to non-
microtrichose areas except for patch of white setulae on lateral part of presutural non-
microtrichose area; brown setulae especially dense on non-microtrichose areas on brown
marks and sparse to absent on narrow area lateral to postsutural non-microtrichose area.
Katepisternal seta moderately developed, weaker than, but longer than postocellar seta, pale
to dark-brown.

Wing: length 6.41-7.32 mm. Vein M strongly curved apically; section between bm-cu and r-
m 1.83-2.44 times as long as section between r-m and dm-cu; section between r-m and dm-
cu 0.75-0.91 times as long as dm-cu. Crossvein dm-cu oblique, with anterior end more
distal than posterior end. Pattern mostly yellow to orange-brown and moderate brown. C-
band and S-band usually narrowly connected or separated, occasionally broadly connected,
along vein R4+5; often connected in cells r1 and/or r2+3; separated basally by hyaline area
extending width of cell br and aligned with pterostigma, and covering basal seventh to
fourth of cell dm and all of cell bm. C-band with cell bc and most of cell c yellowish, the
latter sometimes subhyaline medially or darker anteriorly and basally; with large yellow
area in base of cell sc and cells r1 and r2+3 posterior to pterostigma, extending distally to or
almost to level of apex of vein R1; most of pterostigma, usually narrow distal margin, and
base of cell br dark orange-brown to moderate-brown. S-band with middle section between
costa and vein Cu1 largely yellow to orange with narrow brown margins, darkening distally;
distal section of band slightly narrowed to moderately broad, at apex of vein R2+3 0.44-0.63
times width of cell r2+3; separated from apex of vein M. Hyaline spot in cell r1 nearly
triangular, sometimes extended to vein R4+5, but often interrupted in cell r1 or r2+3 or absent
in r2+3; its apex aligned distinctly basal to r-m. V-band with distal arm usually complete and
connected to proximal arm, but often fainter anteriorly, sometimes (especially in specimens
from Guianas and northern Brazil) partially to entirely absent; proximal arm usually
extended to vein R4+5, often fainter in cell r4+5; separated from S-band; extended basally
along posterior wing margin almost to vein A1+Cu2, but not connected to extension from
base of S-band.
Abdomen: mostly orange; posterior margins of tergites narrowly yellow, this area narrower
laterally and also on successive tergites, nearly absent on tergite five and female tergite six.

Male terminalia: dorsal posterior margin of epandrium with narrow, V-shaped, medial
indentation. Lateral surstyli moderately long, parallel; each basally with narrow, posteriorly
projecting ridge bordering medial surstylus; in lateral view slightly posteriorly curved,
extreme apex with small, but strong posterior projection; in posterior view without strong
basolateral lobe, main part somewhat triangular, with rounded subapical lateral lobe.
Proctiger with lateral fold separating sclerotized areas. Phallus 3.95-4.20 mm long; 1.27-
1.37 times as long as mesonotum. Glans 0.45-0.50 mm long; acrophallus relatively stout.

Female terminalia: oviscape 2.32-2.66 mm long, 0.74-0.86 times as long as mesonotum.


Eversible membrane with 50-60 large, hook-like dorsobasal scales in triangular pattern.
Aculeus 1.97-2.25 mm long; tip 0.24-0.31 mm long, 0.18-0.20 mm wide, nonserrate or with
a few minute subapical serrations, broadly triangular and blunt apically.

Immature Stages

Larva: the key by Steck et al. (1990) and the interactive key by Carroll et al. (2004) are the
best tools for the identification of A. striata larvae. White and Elson-Harris (1994)
described the third-instar larvae as follows:

Larvae: medium-sized, 7.0-9.0 mm long; 1.2-1.5 mm wide.

Head: stomal sensory organ large, rounded, with two to three peg-like sensilla, with small,
sharply-pointed spinules scattered over the surface of stomal sensory organ and adjacent
preoral lobe; six to nine oral ridges with unserrated posterior margins; accessory plates
well-defined with unserrated margins; mandible moderately sclerotised, with a large curved
apical tooth.

Thoracic and abdominal segments: T1, anterior margin with a broad, encircling band of six
to nine discontinuous rows of stout, sharply-pointed spinules; T2 and T3 with three to
five rows of smaller spinules encircling anterior margins of each segment. Dorsal spinules
absent from A1-A8. Creeping welts on A1-A8 with 6-10 rows of small spinules. A8, area
around spiracles slightly protuberant with well-defined intermediate areas. Dorsal and
intermediate tubercles and sensilla well-developed, ventral sensilla smaller.

Anterior spiracles: with 14-18 tubules.

Posterior spiracles: spiracular slits large, about five times as long as broad, with heavily
sclerotised dark-brown rimae. Spiracular hair bundles dense, with long, slender, branched
hairs almost as long as spiracular slits; dorsal and ventral hair bundles of 14-20 hairs, lateral
bundles of 6-10 hairs.
Anal area: lobes large, slightly grooved or bilobed, surrounded by two to
four discontinuous rows of small, sharply-pointed spinules concentrating into a sharper,
stouter patch just below the anal opening.

Distribution

Top of pageThe distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. striata from
the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted
in the Distribution Table (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When
several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further
details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section
which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last First
Distributio Invasiv
Country Reporte Origin Reporte References Notes
n e
d d

NORTH AMERICA

Steck et al.,
1990; Stone,
Present north
1942;
to Sinaloa,
Not CABI/EPPO
Mexico Widespread Native Aguascaliente
invasive , 2002;
s and northern
Hernandez-
Veracruz
Ortiz, 1992;
EPPO, 2014
Foote et al.,
Absent, 1993;
Introduce
USA formerly CABI/EPPO
d
present , 2002;
EPPO, 2014
Foote et al.,
Rarely
Absent, 1993;
Introduce trapped near
-California intercepted CABI/EPPO
d ports, never
only , 2002;
established
EPPO, 2014
Absent, CABI/EPPO
Introduce
-Florida unreliable , 2002;
d
record EPPO, 2014
Last First
Distributio Invasiv
Country Reporte Origin Reporte References Notes
n e
d d
Rarely
Stone, 1942; trapped in the
Foote et al., past in Rio
Absent,
1993; Grande
-Texas formerly
CABI/EPPO Valley,
present
, 2002; breeding
EPPO, 2014 population not
established

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Not Norrbom,
Belize Present Native
invasive 2004b
Jiron et al.,
1988; Steck
et al., 1990;
Not
Costa Rica Widespread Native Stone, 1942;
invasive
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
EPPO, 2014
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
White &
Elson-
Not Harris,
Guatemala Widespread Native
invasive 1994; White
& Elson-
Harris,
1994;
EPPO, 2014
Stone, 1942;
Not CABI/EPPO
Honduras Widespread Native
invasive , 2002;
EPPO, 2014
EPPO,
Netherland 2014;
Present
s Antilles CABI/EPPO
, 2002
Nicaragua Present Native Not Borge &
invasive Basedow,
1997;
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Last First
Distributio Invasiv
Country Reporte Origin Reporte References Notes
n e
d d
EPPO, 2014
Stone, 1942;
Not CABI/EPPO
Panama Widespread Native
invasive , 2002;
EPPO, 2014
Stone, 1942;
Trinidad
Not CABI/EPPO
and Widespread Native
invasive , 2002;
Tobago
EPPO, 2014

SOUTH AMERICA

Stone, 1942;
CABI/EPPO
Not , 2002;
Bolivia Present Native
invasive Norrbom et
al., 1999;
EPPO, 2014
Stone, 1942;
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Norrbom et
Restricted Not
Brazil Native al., 1999;
distribution invasive
Malavasi A
Zucchi RA,
2000;
EPPO, 2014
Malavasi A
Present, few Not Zucchi RA,
-Acre Native
occurrences invasive 2000;
EPPO, 2014
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Not Malavasi A
-Amapa Present Native
invasive Zucchi RA,
2000;
EPPO, 2014
-Amazonas Present Native Not Couturier et
invasive al., 1993;
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Malavasi A
Zucchi RA,
Last First
Distributio Invasiv
Country Reporte Origin Reporte References Notes
n e
d d
2000;
EPPO, 2014
EPPO,
2014;
CABI/EPPO
-Goias Present , 2002;
Malavasi A
Zucchi RA,
2000
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Not Malavasi A
-Maranhao Present Native
invasive Zucchi RA,
2000;
EPPO, 2014
EPPO,
2014;
-Mato CABI/EPPO
Grosso do Present , 2002;
Sul Malavasi A
Zucchi RA,
2000
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Not Malavasi A
-Para Present Native
invasive Zucchi RA,
2000;
EPPO, 2014
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Not Malavasi A
-Piaui Present Native
invasive Zucchi RA,
2000;
EPPO, 2014
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Not Malavasi A
-Rondonia Present Native
invasive Zucchi RA,
2000;
EPPO, 2014
-Roraima Present Native Not CABI/EPPO
invasive , 2002;
Malavasi A
Last First
Distributio Invasiv
Country Reporte Origin Reporte References Notes
n e
d d
Zucchi RA,
2000;
EPPO, 2014
Malavasi A
-Sao Paulo Present Zucchi RA,
2000
Bomfim et
Not
-Tocantins Present Native al., 2007;
invasive
EPPO, 2014
Stone, 1942;
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Nunez
Bueno,
Not
Colombia Present Native 1981;
invasive
EPPO,
2014;
Olarte-
Espinosa,
1980
Stone, 1942;
CABI/EPPO
Not , 2002;
Ecuador Present Native
invasive Molineros et
al., 1992;
EPPO, 2014
CABI/EPPO
French Not
Present Native , 2002;
Guiana invasive
EPPO, 2014
Stone, 1942;
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Not Fabricius,
Guyana Present Native
invasive 1805;
EPPO,
2014; NHM,
1987
Peru Widespread Native Not Couturier et
invasive al., 1993;
Stone, 1942;
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Korytkowsk
Last First
Distributio Invasiv
Country Reporte Origin Reporte References Notes
n e
d d
i, 2001;
EPPO, 2014
Stone, 1942;
CABI/EPPO
, 2002;
Not White &
Suriname Present Native
invasive Elson-
Harris,
1994;
EPPO, 2014
Steck et al.,
1990; Stone,
1942;
CABI/EPPO
Not , 2002;
Venezuela Widespread Native
invasive Caraballo,
1981;
Schiner,
1868;
EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is the
transport of fruit containing live larvae. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in
soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited.

A. striata, like most Anastrepha species, derives from tropical wet forest habitats and so
similar regions are susceptible to infestation. A major risk also arises from the probable
imposition of much stricter phytosanitary restrictions on exported fruits (particularly to
America and Japan) if any Anastrepha sp. enters and multiplies, even temporarily.

Habitat

Top of pageA. striata may be found in any orchard or forest areas with suitable hosts.
However, it appears to avoid the upper canopy levels (Hedstrom, 1992).

Habitat List

Top of page
Category Habitat Presence Status

Present, no further Harmful (pest or


Cultivated / agricultural land
details invasive)
Present, no further
Disturbed areas
Terrestrial-managed details
Managed forests, plantations Present, no further Harmful (pest or
and orchards details invasive)
Present, no further Harmful (pest or
Urban / peri-urban areas
details invasive)
Terrestrial-
Present, no further
natural/semi-natural Natural forests Natural
details

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The preferred hosts of A. striata are Myrtaceae, especially Psidium spp., but also plants in a
variety of other families, including various cultivated fruits, are occasionally attacked. The
reported field hosts include 37 species belonging to 23 genera and 17 families, although
some plants that have been recorded only once may be rare or incidental hosts (Norrbom,
2004a). Of the 16 genera and 26 species of native plants recorded as hosts, four genera
(Campomanesia, Eugenia, Myrcia, and Psidium) and 12 species belong to the Myrtaceae.
See Norrbom (2004a) for additional host data.

Host Plants/Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant name Family Context
Annona cherimola (cherimoya) Annonaceae Other
Annona muricata (soursop) Annonaceae Other
Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito) Sapotaceae Other
Citrus Rutaceae Other
Citrus sinensis (navel orange) Rutaceae Other
Diospyros ebenaster (black sapote) Ebenaceae Other
Eugenia stipitata Myrtaceae Other
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) Myrtaceae Other
fruits Other
Malpighia glabra (acerola) Malpighiaceae Other
Mangifera indica (mango) Anacardiaceae Other
Manihot esculenta (cassava) Euphorbiaceae Other
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Passifloraceae Other
Persea americana (avocado) Lauraceae Other
Plant name Family Context
Pouteria viridis (green sapote) Sapotaceae Other
Prunus persica (peach) Rosaceae Other
Psidium (guava) Myrtaceae Other
Psidium acutangulum Myrtaceae Wild host
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) Myrtaceae Other
Psidium friedrichsthalianum (wild guava) Myrtaceae Other
Psidium guajava (guava) Myrtaceae Main
Psidium guineense (Guinea guava) Myrtaceae Other
Psidium sartorianum Myrtaceae Wild host
Spondias (purple mombin) Anacardiaceae Other
Spondias mombin (hog plum) Anacardiaceae Other
Spondias purpurea (red mombin) Anacardiaceae Other
Syzygium jambos (rose apple) Myrtaceae Other
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple) Myrtaceae Other
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond) Combretaceae Other

Growth Stages

Top of pageFruiting stage

Symptoms

Top of pageAttacked fruits usually show signs of oviposition punctures and very sweet
fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

Symptoms List

Top of page
Sign Life Stages Type

Fruit

internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

The eggs, as in many Anastrepha species, are laid below the skin of the host fruit. They
hatch within 3-6 days and the larvae feed for another 15-25 days, according to temperature.
Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and the adults emerge after 15-19 days (longer
in cooler conditions). The adults occur throughout the year (Christenson and Foote, 1960).
The females of A. striata take approximately 15 days to mature (Ramirez-Cruz et al., 1996).
Emergence generally takes place in the morning and oviposition in the middle of the day.
The mean clutch size is 1.5 (Aluja et al., 1993). See Aluja et al. (1993) and Aluja and
Norrbom (1999) and included references for additional information about the ecology and
behaviour of this species. A. striata is the only species of Anastrepha in which the mating
behaviour is known to include trophallaxis (passing of a substance from the male to the
female via the mouthparts).

Climate

Top of page
Climate Status Description Remark
A - Tropical/Megathermal Average temp. of coolest month > 18C, >
Preferred
climate 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest
Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
climate
Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm
Am - Tropical monsoon
Preferred precipitation driest month but > (100 -
climate
[total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
< 60mm precipitation driest month (in
Aw - Tropical wet and dry
Preferred winter) and < (100 - [total annual
savanna climate
precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate Warm average temp. > 10C, Cold average
Preferred
climate with dry summer temp. > 0C, dry summers
Warm temperate climate with dry winter
Cw - Warm temperate
Preferred (Warm average temp. > 10C, Cold average
climate with dry winter
temp. > 0C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude

Top of page
Latitude North (N) Latitude South (S) Altitude Lower (m) Altitude Upper (m)
26 24

Natural Enemies

Top of page
Life Biological Biological
Natural enemy Type Specificity References
stages control in control on
Biosteres
Parasite Larvae Trinidad sapodillas
longicaudatus
Dirhinus giffardii Parasite Trinidad sapodillas
Ganaspis
Parasite Peru Citrus
pelleranoi
Opius concolor Parasite Trinidad sapodillas
Trybliographa Parasite Trinidad sapodillas
Life Biological Biological
Natural enemy Type Specificity References
stages control in control on
daci

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageBorge and Basedow (1997) recorded 5% parasitism of larvae by Biosteres


longicaudatus and Wharton et al. (1981) also noted very low levels of attack. These authors
recorded the following from Anastrepha spp. puparia: B. longicaudatus, Biosteres oophilus,
Ganaspis carvalhoi, Odontosema anastrephae, Aceratoneuromyia indica, Opius
anastrephae, Opius bellus, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi and
Doryctobracon zeteki. Although these puparia could not be individually identified, 99% of
the flies that emerged were A. striata.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

There is evidence that the adults of Anastrepha spp. can fly as far as 135 km (Fletcher,
1989) and therefore natural movement is an important means of spread.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
Cause Notes Long Distance Local References
Agriculture Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
Long
Vector Notes Local References
Distance
Aircraft Immatures in fruit Yes Yes
Clothing/footwear and
Fruit in case or handbag. Yes
possessions
Containers and packaging
Of fruit cargo. Yes
(wood)
Aeroplanes and boats, with
Land vehicles Yes
fruit cargo.
Luggage (incl. sailors sea
Immatures in fruit Yes Yes
chests)
Mail/post Fruit in post. Yes
Plants or parts of plants Immatures in fruit Yes Yes
Soil, sand, gravel etc. Risk of puparia in soil. Yes
Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry Pest Borne Borne Visibility of pest or
the pest in trade/transport stages internally externally symptoms
eggs; Pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae; Yes usually visible to the
pupae naked eye
Pest or symptoms
Growing medium larvae;
Yes Yes usually visible to the
accompanying plants pupae
naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs, Tubers, Corms, Rhizomes
Flowers, Inflorescences, Cones, Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings, Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
Category Impact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

Top of pageAnastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas
(Norrbom and Foote, 1989; Norrbom, 2004a), with the possible exception of the introduced
Ceratitis capitata (Smith et al., 1997).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact outcomes

Host damage

Negatively impacts agriculture


Negatively impacts livelihoods

Invasiveness

Abundant in its native range

Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food

Has a broad native range

Has high genetic variability

Has high reproductive potential

Is a habitat generalist

Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Difficult/costly to control

Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Detection and Inspection

Top of pageNo male lures have yet been identified for Anastrepha spp. However, they are
captured by traps emitting ammonia and McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of
Anastrepha spp. (White and Elson-Harris, 1994). Baits that have been used for A. striata
include hydrolysed soya protein (Jiron and Soto-Manitiu, 1989), human urine (Hedstrom,
1988), ammonium acetate (Hedstrom and Jimenez, 1988) and torula yeast (Hedstrom and
Jiron, 1985).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page
The adults of A. striata are unlikely to be confused with any other species except those of
Anastrepha bistrigata, which also have a broad U-shaped mark on the scutum, the scutum
microtrichose except for broad stripes on the dorsocentral line, the mediotergite and
subscutellum entirely brown or at least brown laterally, the thoracic pleuron and abdomen
without brown areas, the dorsal posterior margin of the epandrium with a narrow, V-shaped,
medial indentation, and the aculeus tip broad, at least 0.17 mm wide, and bluntly triangular.

A. striata differs from A. bistrigata by the following characters: oviscape less than 2.8 mm
long, less than 0.90 times the mesonotum length; aculeus less than 2.5 mm long; scutum
with brown areas usually interrupted at transverse suture; scutal setulae usually strongly
contrasting white and dark-brown, absent on narrow area lateral to postsutural
nonmicrotrichose area; distal section of S-band slightly narrowed to moderately broad, at
apex of vein R2+3 0.44-0.63 times width of cell r2+3; aculeus tip 0.24-0.31 mm long; and
lateral surstylus slightly longer and narrower and more or less parallel to the opposite
surstylus. The scutal microtrichia are usually denser and whiter in appearance in the oblique
anterior view than in A. bistrigata. As in all cases where Anastrepha identification is
critical, specialist help should be sought to confirm identifications.

The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be
sought to confirm critical identifications. Steck et al. (1990) presented a key separating A.
striata from 12 other species in the larval stage. The third-instar larva is very similar to that
of A. bistrigata. These two species differ from those of the other Anastrepha species
described to date (2009) by the following combination of characters: dorsal spinules
separate, conical, in fewer than five to six rows on meso- and metathorax, but present on
the first, second, and usually third abdominal segments; anterior spiracle with 12-23
tubules; posterior spiracular processes SP-I and SP-IV with an average of 13-23 trunks and
23-49 tips, and the hair length is at least one-third the length of the spiracular opening
(Steck et al., 1990).

Prevention and Control

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Control can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example by gathering all
fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them. Insecticidal protection is possible by
using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly
control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler,
1989); practical details are given by Bateman (1982). Bait sprays work on the principle that
both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which
ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays that they can be
applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is
minimal impact on natural enemies. The susceptibility of A. striata to malathion was
studied by Gonzalez et al. (1997). Perales-Segovia et al. (1996) found that leaf infusions of
Piper auritum killed 78-90% of larvae.

Phytosanitary Measures
Consignments of host fruits from areas where A. striata occurs should be inspected for
symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae.
Such fruits should come from an area where A. striata does not occur, or from a place of
production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest.
Specific postharvest details for A. striata are lacking and the following regimes for
Anastrepha fraterculus would be generally applicable: fruits may be treated in transit by
cold treatment (e.g. 13, 15 or 17 days at 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5C, respectively) or, for certain types
of fruits, by vapour heat (e.g. keeping at 43C for 4-6 h) (USDA, 1994), or by hot water
immersion (Nascimento et al., 1992).

Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally
withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity. Plants of host species transported with roots from
countries where A. striata occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated
against puparia, and should not carry fruits. Such plants may indeed be prohibited
importation.

References

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Jirn LF, Soto-Manitiu J, Norrbom AL, 1988. A preliminary list of the fruit flies of the
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Links to Websites

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Website URL Comment
The Diptera Site http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/Diptera/diptera.htm
Featured Creatures http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/

Contributors

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26/02/2008 Updated by:


Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of
Natural History, MRC 168, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA

Distribution Maps

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= Present, no further details

= Evidence of pathogen

= Widespread

= Last reported

= Localised

= Presence unconfirmed

= Confined and subject to quarantine

= See regional map for distribution within the country

= Occasional or few reports

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