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3DayPIPonMetallurgyforNonMetallurgist

from10th to12th April2017

NonFerrousMetals&their
Application

Mr.Udayan Pathak

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IntroductiontoNonferrousmetals
Verywidegroupofmetals
Classificationcanbebasedona)density1)Lightmetals
2)Others
b)Basedonconductivity:1)Highlyelectricalconducting
2)Others
c)Meltingpoint 1)Refractory2)othersetc

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LightweightMetals

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IntroductiontoLightmetals
Veryimportantcategoryofalloysforaerospaceandtransportation
industry.Highspeedrotatingparts

Metalswithdensitylowerthaniron(lessthan7.8gm/cc)are
termedaslightmetal.

Refertable1forcomparison.

Berylium isleastusedasanindependentapplication.Mg
applicationisincreasingnowadays.ButprocessingofMghaslot
ofdifficulties.Butmostimportantadvantageisverylightweight.Al
andTiarewidelyused.

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Aluminum:GeneralProperties
GeneralProperties:
3rdplaceamongcommercialusedengineeringmaterialsafterFe
andCu.
Extractedfrombauxite.
Density1/3ofsteelandCu
Highelectrical&thermalconductivity.Electrical62%ofCuon
weightbasisand200%onbaseofvolume.Thermal5timesofcast
iron.
Verygoodcorrosionresistanceinwater,industrialandmarine
atmosphere.Reason:Verytight,passiveandimperviousfilmof
Al2O3.Anodizingisaspecialprocesstoimprovethecorrosion
resistancefurther.
Goodmachinability,formability,castability workability.Hence
possibletousemanymanufacturingprocesses.

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Aluminum:GeneralProperties
Highlyductileandmalleable.FCC
Nontoxic(Wideuseforfoodindustry),nonmagneticandnon
sparking.
Highlylustrousandlightreflectingandnontarnishing.Typicaluse
forreflectors.
Goodlowtempproperties.Transitiontemp~ 40C
Limitations:Lowstrengthandhardness.Poorweldability.MainlyGTAW
andGMAWprocesses
ClassificationofAlAlloys:A.1)Wrought2)Cast
B.1)Heattreatable2)Notheattreatable
Designationsystem:Refertable2.OthersystemstillprevalentinIndiais
LMseries.

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Aluminum:Castings
Cast Al Alloys: Low MP, very low solubility of gasses (except H2), good
surface finish, good fluidity.
High shrinkage (3 to 8.5%)
Mechanical properties of castings are inferior to wrought products
(except creep)
Casting processes used areGravity die casting (Very common),
Sand casting, cold chamber pressure die casting
Common alloying elements are Si, Mg, (main) Cu, Sn , Mn
(secondary). Si improves fluidity (11.7 % Si is eutectic). Special
treatment, modification, i.e. addition of Sodium, is necessary
prior to pouring for AlHigh Si alloys (>8%) sand casting to avoid
formation of coarse dendrites in casting. Na content can be as
low as 0.001%.
Common alloys: 1. LM6/413Al+12% Si. 2. LM24/3808.5 Si+3.5Cu
3. LM4/3196Si+4Cu

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AluminumWrought
Wrought Alloys: Alloying with Cu, Mg, Mn,
Main Advantage: Light weight, good corrosion
resistance, Some of them are heat treatable
Commercial Al: Widely used in structural
applications Impurities @ 1%.
AlMg alloys have highest corrosion resistance
but not heat treatable.

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ALUMINUMHeattreatable
MainalloyingelementisCu.InadditionMg,Ni,
Mn,Tiareadded.ForcastalloysadditionofSiis
benefecial
ForgettinggoodresponseforHTabout4.5%
Cuisrequired(LM11:Al4.5Cu,LM14:Al4Cu
2Ni1.5Mg)
BothCastandwroughtalloyswithCucanbe
heattreated

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AluminumHeatTreatment
PrecipitationHardening/AgeHardening:
Steps:Heatingto520/550C
Soakingforuniformityoftemp
Quenchinginwater
Aging
Salientpointsofagehardening:
1)AtRTAlhas0.25%solubilityofCu.IfAlcontains
lessthan0.25%Cu,therewillbesinglephase
()structure

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AluminumHeatTreatment
IfAlexceeds0.25%,aintermetalliccompoundCuAl2() is
formedandits%increasesasCu%increases.SoAl4.5%
Cucontains(+) phasesatRT.
Whenthisalloyisheatedtoabout520/550C,this
dissolvesandsinglephase solutionisformed.IfCuis
morethan5.5%ortempincreasesslightlymorethissingle
phasestructuredidnotformbutdirectlyitgoesinto
someliquid.
Whenthissinglephasestructure isquenchedfrom
550C,itdoesnotallow toprecipitateoutandifitcooled
sufficientlyfastwithoutallowing toprecipitatetherewill
besupersaturatedsolutionofCuinAl

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AluminumHeatTreatment
Thissinglephasesupersaturatedsolutionisverysoft
unlikeinsteelinquenchedcondition.Alsothisisunstable
andtriestogobacktostablestructure(+)
WhenthisprocessisdoneatRTitiscallednaturalaging
andisveryslowprocess.(Fig11.7,pg255,agarawal)
Thespeedofagingisincreasedbyincreasingtemp.
Finalpropertiesachieveddependsontempandtimeof
agingwhichcontrolssizeof precipitate.
Atsomesizehigheststrengthandreasonableductilityis
achieved
Otherprecipitationhardenablealloysaresomestainless
steels,Ti6Al4V,Ni17Cu8Sn,

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Magnesium
Lightestengineeringmaterial
Extractionfromseawaterbyelectrolyticreductionof
MgChloride
Industrialmachineryliketextileandprintingmachines
forhighspeedpartstoreduceinertiaforces.Material
handlingequipment,luggage,aerospace
AlloyingelementsAl,Mn,ZnmainothersareSn,Ce,Th,
Cu,Fe,Niareimpurities
MachiningofMgalloysneedspecialcaretopreventfire

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Titanium
Lightmetal(4.5gm/cc)
LikeFe,TialsoallotropicHCP()upto880C,BCC()above880
Strengthenedbyalloyingandcoldworking
Nonmagnetic.Goodheattransferproperties
Meltingpointishigherthansteel.(1725C)Usefultemp 425/540C
Abilitytopassivate.Sogoodresistantformineralacidsand
chlorides
Nontoxic,biologicallycompatiblewithhumantissuesandbones
Highstrength,stiffness,toughness,lowdensity,goodcorrosion
resistance,suitabilityforslightlyhightempAerospaceandhigh
performanceapplication
Highlyreactivetocommongasesabove300c.EmbrittlementbyO,
N,Cwithverysmallamount.Henceneedspecialmelting
technique
Highestspecificstrengthofallmetallicmaterials

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Titanium
Highcorrosionresistance,biocompatibility,good
strengthChemicalandpetrochemical
applications,marineenvironment,biomedical
applications.
Justifytheirhighcostintwodiverseapplications
Corrosionresistantserviceandstrengthefficient
service
Forcorrosionresistancelowstrengthunalloyed
Timillproductsareused.
AlloyingelementsAl,V,Mn,Mo

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TitaniumAlloys
Alloy TS/Elo Characteristics
ngation
Commer. 60- Strength, corrosion and oxidation
Ti (99%) 80/25% resistance. Compressor cases in
aircrafts, Chemical process piping
Ti-6Al- 130/7% High sp strength, good creep, fatigue
4V (ppt and oxidation resistance. Forges and
hard) extruded aircraft components
Ti-5Al- 90/18 Aircraft components operating upto
2.5 Sn 470C, missile fuel tanks
(Anne)

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COPPER

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Copper
Excellentelectricalandheatconductivity(100IACS)
Goodresistancetocorrosion
Highductilityandmalleability(FCC)
Goodstrengthandfatigueresistance.
JoiningbysolderingandbrazingWeldingisdifficultbut
possible
Canbepolishedandbuffedtoanydesiredtexture&
luster
MP1083.Density8.89Strength22kg/mm2BHN30/40
Purecopper(99.9999Purity)inelectricalindustryfor
cables,contacts.

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Copper
Somebrasses,bronzes,cupronickelsinautomotive
radiators,heatexchangers,homeheatingsystems,
solarpanelsforheatconductivity.
Refertable6formajorapplicationsofCu
Familyofcopperalloys
1. Commercialcopper Upto0.7%impurities
2. Dilutecopperalloy
3. Brass
4. Bronze
5. Cupronickels
6. NickelSilvers

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CopperBrass
Main alloying Zn. Others are Al, Pb, Sn

Properties: High strength. Both strength and %Elongation increases


as % Zn increases up to about 37% (Single phase ). When second
phase forms it drastically reduces. 70/30 brass very ductile, cold
workable, no hot working. 60/40 brassbrittle, hot working possible
but no cold work. Brasses generally used in wrought condition

Season cracking: high corrosion of heavy cold worked brass in


certain media leading to stress corrosion cracking

Dezincification: Dissolution of alloy in presence of sea/normal


water which contains high amount of O, CO2. Addition of small Sb
or Sn to improve this.1) corrosion fatiq due to dezincification.jpg 2)
dezincification of admiralty brass tube.jpg

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CopperBronze
MainalloyingSn.SupportingAl,Si,Beetc
BetterCorrosionresistance,strengthand
antifriction/bearingpropertiesthanbrasswith
goodfluidity
Usuallyproducedbycasting
Applications:Bells,Statues,Springs,Bearings,
Industrialcastings
Costlierthanbrasses
Albronzescompareswithsteelforproperties
withhighcorrosionresistanceandattractive
goldenyellowcolor

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CopperBronzeTypes
Name Compos UTS/El Characteristics/Application
ition ong
Phospr 5/10 Sn 33-46/ Bolts, Springs, Electrical
Bronze 0.2P 64-68 contacts, bearings
Gun 10Sn, 28 Gears, bearings
Metal 2Sn
30
Al Brz 10.5Al 70 High strength, corrosion, brg
(HT) 3.5Fe prop. Fluid connection fittings
12
Be Brz 1.7Be 120/140 High strength, fatigue, wear,
(HT) 0.5Co 5 corrosion. For springs.

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CopperNickelAlloys
Addition of Ni to Cu makes it white. At 20% Ni it is
totally white. Nickel (German) silver alloys contains
50/70 Cu, 5/30 Ni, 5/40 Zn. Good corrosion resistance
to food chemicals, weather, water. Used for tableware,
costume jewellary, name plates, rivets, screws etc

Cupronickels contains up to 30% of Ni. High resistance


to corrosion in sea water. Applications Condensers,
distillers, evaporators, heat exchanger tubes etc.

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REFRACTORYMETALS

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RefractoryMetals
High melting point, stiffness and density.
Play an important roll of alloying elements for
engineering alloys of steel.
Act as primary component for high temp application
alloys
Refer table 9. W is the highest MP and density of all.
All are BCC with most of them high ductile to brittle
transition temp and hence fabrication is difficult except
Nb and Ta.
Most of them get oxidized easily at their working temp
and hence need to be protected.

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RefractoryMetals
Henceheatersmadefromthesemetalscanworkeither
inVacuumorinprotectedatmosphere.
Moisveryreactiveasaelementalapplication.
Twoimportantessentialproperties
1. OxidationresistanceDependsonCrcontentin
composition,Notdependentonmicro
2. Creepstrength
Applications:Hightempstructuraluse,heating
elements,heatshields,

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Superalloys
Suitabletoworkatservicetempabove540C.
Superiortostainlesssteelforhighertempapplications
ThreetypesinascendingorderofservicetempFebase,
Nibase,Cobase.
Changeofpropertiesforhighertemp
1. Strengthdecreases
2. Somematerialchangestructure
3. Highrateofdiffusion,
4. Formationofnewphases,corrosionandoxidation
productsandfinallydegradationofmaterial

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SuperalloysFebase
Fe(~50%)withmajoralloyingwithNi(30)andCr(20)
withsmalladditionsofAl,Ti,Carbonforformationof
precipitate.

CrisforcorrosionandheatresistanceandNiisfor
austeniteretention

Febasesuperalloys areusedinwroughtcondition

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SuperalloysNickelbase
Approxcomposition~50Ni,20Cr,15Feplussmall
amountofNb,Ti,Altoformprecipitate.Otheralloying
elementsareMo,W.CformsstablecarbideswithNb
andTawhichinhibitsgrowthofprecipitates.

Normallyusedincastform.Specialtechniquein
investmentcastingtoaligndendritesinspecific
directionandtoproducesinglecrystalcastingtohave
maximumcreepresistance

ApplicationJetenginecomponents,turbine
blades

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SuperalloysCobaltbase
Servicetempabove980C.Bettercorrosion
resistanceandweldability

Usedincastcondition.

20%Cr,10%Ni,0.4%CplusFe,Al,B,Mn,Mo,
Nb,andmanyothers.

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Superalloys:Compositions
Alloy Fe Cr Ni Co Mo Others Short term TS at 800CKg/mm2

25-12 62 26 12 C0.3 18

35-15 50 15 35 C0.5 22

67-17 10 17 73 C0.5 20

Hastallo 5 - 67 28 40
yB
Stellite 1 27 2 64 6 42
21
S816 3 19 20 46 4 4W 50

60-25-15 25 60 - - 15 4Cb 65

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StainlessSteel

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Stainlesssteel
Needtohavemin10%CrinsolutionwithFetoachieve
thepropertyofstainless.Higherthechromiunhigher
thecorrosionresistanceandoxidationresistance.Cr
formstight,adherenthighlycorrosionresistantfilmof
chromiumoxideonsurface.Filmispassive,selfhealing,
imperviousinoxidizingatmosphere.
TogetmaxbenefitofCroxidefilmforcorrosion
resistance,Carbonshallbeaslowaspossibletoavoid
formationofCrcarbides.
OtheralloyingelementsareNi,Mo,Mn,Ti,Cb,Ta

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Stainlesssteel
Generalcommonproperties:
Excellentductilityandformability
Goodmechanicalpropertiesathighandlow
temperature
Highresistancetoscalingandoxidationathigh
temp
Highcreepresistance
Goodmachinability,weldability,
Excellentsurfacefinishandappearance
4categories:1)Ferritic 2)Austenitic3)Martensitic
4)Precipitationhardenable

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StainlesssteelMartensitic
ChemicalbalanceofCrandCarbonisnecessarytoavoid
stabilizingferriteandtoobtaincorrecthardnessafter
hardeningandtemperingtogetgoodwearresistance,
corrosionresistance.
ItcontainsCr12/18%andCarbon0.15/1.2%
DesignatedbyAISIseries400ofSS
410isthebasicgradehavingC<0.15andCr12/14.Other
gradesare403and416.
Bestcombinationofpropertiesareachievedinhardened
andtemperedcondition.

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StainlesssteelMartensitic
Hard,wearresistant,Magnetic

Usedforsprings,ballbearings,valves,razors,
razorblades,surgicalinstruments,cuttingtools,
cutleryitems

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StainlesssteelFerritic
RemainsferriticfromRTtomeltingbecauseofhighCr
andlowcarbon.
Cannotbehardenedtoincreasehardness
Strengtheningmechanismsusedarecoldworkingand
grainrefinementbycoldworkannealcycle
Soft,ductile,magnetic,malleable,lowcost(NoNi)
Cr12to27%Carbon<0.2%
DesignatedbyAISI400series.
Commongrade430:Cr16/18C<0.12%
Additionof0.2%Moimprovesresistancetopitting
corrosion.

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StainlesssteelFerritic
ApplicationsVesselsinfoodindustry,furnace
parts,heaters,architecturalandautomotive
trims,restaurantequipments,pans,potsetc

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StainlesssteelAustenitic
BasicalloyingisNiandCr.InadditionMo,Ta,Cb are
alsoused.Contains(Cr+Ni+Mn)>24
Austeniteisstableupto RTandsubzerotemp.Sono
hardeningispossible.Strengtheningmechanismis
usedcoldworking.Strengthcanbeincreasedfrom
500MPa to2200MPa
DesignatedbyAISIseries200and300.300series
containsNi+Cr and200seriesMn+Ni+Cr+(N)N
Optional
202grade:Cr17/19Ni4/6Mn7/10C<0.15
302grade:Cr17/19Ni8/10C<0.15

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StainlesssteelAustenitic
Soft,ductile,moremalleablethanferritic,nonmagnetic,
excellentcoldformingduetohifh strainhardening
exponent,hightempstrength,lowthermalconductivity,
highcoefficientofexpansion.

Highestcorrosionresistanceofallstainlesssteel

Applications:Enginemanifolds,foodandchemicalplants,
tubularheatexchangers,utensils,sanitaryfittingsandso
on

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StainlesssteelPrecipitationHardenable
Contains sufficient amount of Cr (>12%) to impart
corrosion resistance. In addition elements like Al, Cu, P
are added to form precipitates after solutionising and
aging.
In some grades low carbon martensite is formed after
quenching which does not have high hardness because
of low carbon but strength is increased after
precipitation.
Good alternative for martensitic steels because can be
worked in solutionized stage which is soft and ductile.
Applications: Aircraft and missile industries for skins,
nibs, bulk heads and other structural components.

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Stainlesssteelcompositionofcommongrades
Grade C Cr Ni Mn Others
410 <0.15 12/14 - <1.0
440C 1.1 16/18 - <1.0
430 <0.12 14/18 - <1.0
446 <0.2 23/27 - <1.5
304 <0.08 18/20 8/12 <2.0
310 <0.25 24/26 19/22 <2.0
316 <0.28 16/18 10/14 <2.0 Mo-2/3
17-4PH <0.04 17 4 <1.0 2.75Cu
17-7PH <0.07 17 7 <0.6 1.15 Al

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Stainlesssteel:Alloyingelements
Cr:Ferriteandcarbidestabilizer.Corrosionresistance,
Oxidationresistance
Ni:Austenitestabilizer,Hightempandlowtempproperties,
Corrosionresistance,Coldformability,ductilityand
impactstrength,
Mo:ResistancetoSulphuricandsulphurusacid,resistance
topittinginseawater,oxidationresistance
Mn:ReplacepartlycostlyNi,Improveshotworkability,
Nitrogen:ReplacesNipartly,improvesintergrannular
corrosionresistance

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AnyQuestions?

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ThankYou

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