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1.

0 IDEALIZED MACHINE EQUATIONS

Primitive machine:
qaxis

vt
+

vq
+

d-axis

+ vd + vs + vf
+
vo

o-axis

Flux linkage equations:


d = Ld i d + M df i f + M ds i s
q = Lq i q + M qt it
o = Lo io
f = L f i f + M df i d + M fs i s
s = Ls i s + M ds i d + M fs i f
t = Lt it + M qt i q

Voltage equations:
vd = Ra id + p d r q
vq = Ra iq + p q + r d
vo = Ra io + p o
v f = R f i f + p f
v s = Rs is + p s = 0
vt = Rt it + p t = 0

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 1


Synchronous Machines Part I
Torque equation:
Te =
P
2
[( )
Ld Lq i d i q + M df i q i f + M ds i q i s M qt i d it ]
Torque components:
Cylindrical torque: .( P 2 ) M df i q i f
Saliency torque: ( P 2`) ( Ld Lq ) id iq
Damping torque: ( P 2) ( M ds iq i s M qt id it )

Alternative expression:
Te =
P
2
(
d iq q id )
Electromechanical torque equation:

Te + Tm = Jp m + D m + De m
P 2
Te the electromagnetic torque is positive for motor action and negative for
generator action.
Tm the mechanical torque is positive for generator action and negative for
motor action.
Mechanical damping torque, assumed proportional to the angular velocity
m, is given by D m .
Electrical damping torque due to currents in the damper winding is assumed
proportional to the difference between rotor speed and synchronous speed and

is given by De m .
P 2

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 2


Synchronous Machines Part I
2.0 STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS (BALANCED CONDITIONS)

Voltage equations (p = 0, is = it = io = 0, = r):


v d = R a i d Lq i q
v q = Ra i q + Ld i d + M df i f
vf = Rf if
Quadrature-axis synchronous reactance: X q = Lq
Direct-axis synchronous reactance: X d = Ld

Rewriting the voltage equations:


v d = Ra i d X q i q
v q = Ra i q + X d i d + M df i f

Let the three stator currents be


ia = 2 I cos( t + )
ib = (
2 I cos t + 120 o )
ic = 2 I cos( t + + 120 o )
where = stator angular frequency
= phase angle of ia with respect to the time origin

Transformation gives
i odq = P i abc
1 1 1
io 2 2 2 i

id =
2
cos e ( )
cos e 120 o (
cos e + 120 o )
a
ib
- sin ( e 120 o ) ( )
3
iq
- sin e - sin e + 120 o ic


where e = t since the rotor is rotating at synchronous speed.

This results in
1
io = ( ia + ib + ic ) = 0
3

id =
(o
) (
2 cos t cos( t + ) + cos t 120 cos t + 120 +
o

)
( ) ( )
I
3 o o
cos t + 120 cos t + + 120

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 3


Synchronous Machines Part I
Adding the following trigonometric identities,
cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin
cos( ) = cos cos + sin sin
gives
1
cos cos = [ cos( + ) + cos( ) ]
2
Therefore,

id =
( o
)
1 cos( 2 t + ) + cos + cos 2 t + 240 + cos +

3 ( o
cos 2 t + + 240 + cos )
= 3 I cos
A similar procedure can be used to obtain iq.

The resulting dqo-component currents are


id = 3 I cos
iq = 3 I sin
io = 0
where id and iq are constant DC currents. This is expected since the d and q
windings are commutated.

The relation between rms phase currents and the dq components can be found from the
inverse transformation (given id, iq, io = 0, with = t):

ia =
2
3
[
id cos t iq sin t ]
=
2
3
[ (
id cos t + iq cos t + 90 o )]
Recall the phasor transformation:
2 I cos( t + ) I
In phasor form with the dq axes as reference, the rms phase current Ia may then be
written as
i iq
Ia = d + j = I d + jI q
3 3
where
i
Id = d
3
iq
Iq =
3

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 4


Synchronous Machines Part I
or
I d = I cos
I q = I sin
Similarly,

va =
2
3
[
vd cos t vq sin t ]
=
2
3
[ (
vd cos t + vq cos t + 90 o )]
In phasor form,
v vq
Va = d + j = Vd + jVq
3 3
where
v
Vd = d
3
vq
Vq =
3
Substituting the expressions for vd and vq,
Va =
1
[( ) (
Ra id X q iq + j Ra iq + X d id + M df i f )]
3
Or,
M df
( )
Va = Ra I d X q I q + j Ra I q + X d I d + if

3
Define the excitation emf or excitation voltage Ef:
1
Ef = M df i f
3
For the three phases,
E a = Eb = E c = E f
For phase a,
E a = jE f
Hence,
[( ) (
Va = Ra I d X q I q + j Ra I q + X d I d + E f )]
= Vd + jVq
where
Vd = Ra I d X q I q
Vq = Ra I q + X d I d + E f

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Synchronous Machines Part I
Rewriting,
( )
Va = Ra I d + jI q X q I q + jX d I d + jE f
= Ra I a X q I q + jX d I d + jE f
where I a = I d + jI q

3.0 PHASOR DIAGRAMS

Steady-state torque (is = it = 0):


Te =
P
2
[( )
Ld Lq id iq + M df iq i f ]
The dominant torque is the cylindrical torque (Mdf iq if). It determines whether the
machine operates as a motor or a generator.

Since the field current if is always a positive quantity, and Iq is related to iq by a constant
(1/3),
If Iq > 0, Te > 0 motor action
If Iq < 0, Te < 0 generator action

Assume that Iq = 0 (we want the effect of Id only). Thus,


Vd = Ra I d
Vq = X d I d + E f

For most synchronous machines, Ra is small. Thus,


Vd 0
Va = Vd + jVq jVq

If the terminal voltage Va is constant, then Vq must likewise be constant. Therefore,


Vq = X d I d + E f = constant

If Id = 0, Vq = Ef.
If Id < 0 (demagnetizing), Ef must be increased by increasing the field current
if. Ef > Va (overexcitation)
If Id > 0 (magnetizing), Ef must be decreased by decreasing the field current if.
Ef < Va (underexcitation).

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 6


Synchronous Machines Part I
Directional sense of Id and Iq for different conditions of synchronous machine operation:
q-axis

Iq
Over-excited Under-excited
Motor Motor

d-axis
Id Id
Over-excited Under-excited
Generator Generator
Iq

With directions of Id and Iq known for different operating conditions, phasor diagrams
appropriate to these conditions can be constructed in accordance with
I a = I d + jI q
Va = Vd + jVq
Va = Ra I a X q I q + jX d I d + jE f
= jE f X q I q + jX d I d + Ra I a

See Fig. 8.8 (phasor diagrams)

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Synchronous Machines Part I
EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 8
Synchronous Machines Part I
For each of the four cases, the phase power is
P = Va I a cos
For Fig 8.8 (a) and 8.8 (b),
cos = cos
P = Va I a cos
power is positive, i.e., flowing into the machine and corresponds to motor
action
For Fig. 8.8 (c) and 8.8 (d),
( )
cos = cos 180 o = cos
P = Va I a cos
power is flowing out of the machine, corresponding to generator action
Power factor:
o
p.f. = cos where || 90

Observations:
1. The excitation voltage jEf lies along the quadrature axis.

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 9


Synchronous Machines Part I
2. Va leads jEf for motor action. Va lags jEf for generator action. The angle between
Va and jEf is called the power angle or torque angle, denoted by .
3. The equation
Va = Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q + jE f
applies specifically to a motor. For a generator, current flows out of the machine and
thus,
Va = Ra I a jX d I d + X q I q + jE f
4. Let
jE f = E m for a motor
= Eg for a generator
Generator equation:
E g = Va + Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q
Motor equation:
Va = Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q + E m
5. No equivalent circuit can be drawn for the salient-pole machine.

In a practical case of synchronous machine operation, the quantities which are generally
known are Va, Ia, and the lagging or leading power-factor, from which is readily
deduced. A problem arises when attempting to draw the phasor diagram as there is no
immediate indication of the location of the dq-axes. A method of locating the dq-axes is
now described.

Generator action:
E g = Va + Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q

= Va + Ra I a + jX d I d + j 2 X q I q

Add and subtract jXq Id,


( )
E g = Va + Ra I a + j I d + jI q X q + j X d X q I d( )
(
= Va + Ra I a + jX q I a + j X d X q I d )
Since Eg lies on the q-axis and since the term j(Xd Xq)Id also lies on the q-axis, then the
tip of the phasor sum Va + Ra Ia + jXqIa must lie on the q-axis.

Motor action:
Va = Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q + E m

Add and subtract jXq Id and rearranging terms,


(
E m = Va Ra I a jX q I a j X d X q I d )
By the same reasoning, the tip of the phasor sum Va Ra Ia jXqIa must lie on the q-
axis.

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 10


Synchronous Machines Part I
See Figures (phasor diagrams).

The d-axis and q-axis permeances for cylindrical rotor machines are approximately equal.
Neglecting these differences,
Xd = Xq = Xs

where Xs = synchronous reactance

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Synchronous Machines Part I
Thus for a motor,
( ) (
Va = Ra I d + jI q + jX s I d + jI q + jE f )
= I a ( Ra + jX s ) + E m
= Ia Z s + Em
where Zs = Ra + jXs = synchronous impedance
For a generator,
E g = I a ( Ra + jX s ) + Va
= I a Z s + Va

See Figures (phasor diagrams).

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 12


Synchronous Machines Part I
Equivalent circuits:
Zs = Ra + jXs Zs = Ra +jXs

+ +
+ +
Ia Ia
Va Em Eg Va
_ _
_ _

Motor Generator

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 13


Synchronous Machines Part I