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EE 143

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Primitive machine:

qaxis

vt

+

vq

+

d-axis

+ vd + vs + vf

+

vo

o-axis

d = Ld i d + M df i f + M ds i s

q = Lq i q + M qt it

o = Lo io

f = L f i f + M df i d + M fs i s

s = Ls i s + M ds i d + M fs i f

t = Lt it + M qt i q

Voltage equations:

vd = Ra id + p d r q

vq = Ra iq + p q + r d

vo = Ra io + p o

v f = R f i f + p f

v s = Rs is + p s = 0

vt = Rt it + p t = 0

Synchronous Machines Part I

Torque equation:

Te =

P

2

[( )

Ld Lq i d i q + M df i q i f + M ds i q i s M qt i d it ]

Torque components:

Cylindrical torque: .( P 2 ) M df i q i f

Saliency torque: ( P 2`) ( Ld Lq ) id iq

Damping torque: ( P 2) ( M ds iq i s M qt id it )

Alternative expression:

Te =

P

2

(

d iq q id )

Electromechanical torque equation:

Te + Tm = Jp m + D m + De m

P 2

Te the electromagnetic torque is positive for motor action and negative for

generator action.

Tm the mechanical torque is positive for generator action and negative for

motor action.

Mechanical damping torque, assumed proportional to the angular velocity

m, is given by D m .

Electrical damping torque due to currents in the damper winding is assumed

proportional to the difference between rotor speed and synchronous speed and

is given by De m .

P 2

Synchronous Machines Part I

2.0 STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS (BALANCED CONDITIONS)

v d = R a i d Lq i q

v q = Ra i q + Ld i d + M df i f

vf = Rf if

Quadrature-axis synchronous reactance: X q = Lq

Direct-axis synchronous reactance: X d = Ld

v d = Ra i d X q i q

v q = Ra i q + X d i d + M df i f

ia = 2 I cos( t + )

ib = (

2 I cos t + 120 o )

ic = 2 I cos( t + + 120 o )

where = stator angular frequency

= phase angle of ia with respect to the time origin

Transformation gives

i odq = P i abc

1 1 1

io 2 2 2 i

id =

2

cos e ( )

cos e 120 o (

cos e + 120 o )

a

ib

- sin ( e 120 o ) ( )

3

iq

- sin e - sin e + 120 o ic

where e = t since the rotor is rotating at synchronous speed.

This results in

1

io = ( ia + ib + ic ) = 0

3

id =

(o

) (

2 cos t cos( t + ) + cos t 120 cos t + 120 +

o

)

( ) ( )

I

3 o o

cos t + 120 cos t + + 120

Synchronous Machines Part I

Adding the following trigonometric identities,

cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin

cos( ) = cos cos + sin sin

gives

1

cos cos = [ cos( + ) + cos( ) ]

2

Therefore,

id =

( o

)

1 cos( 2 t + ) + cos + cos 2 t + 240 + cos +

3 ( o

cos 2 t + + 240 + cos )

= 3 I cos

A similar procedure can be used to obtain iq.

id = 3 I cos

iq = 3 I sin

io = 0

where id and iq are constant DC currents. This is expected since the d and q

windings are commutated.

The relation between rms phase currents and the dq components can be found from the

inverse transformation (given id, iq, io = 0, with = t):

ia =

2

3

[

id cos t iq sin t ]

=

2

3

[ (

id cos t + iq cos t + 90 o )]

Recall the phasor transformation:

2 I cos( t + ) I

In phasor form with the dq axes as reference, the rms phase current Ia may then be

written as

i iq

Ia = d + j = I d + jI q

3 3

where

i

Id = d

3

iq

Iq =

3

Synchronous Machines Part I

or

I d = I cos

I q = I sin

Similarly,

va =

2

3

[

vd cos t vq sin t ]

=

2

3

[ (

vd cos t + vq cos t + 90 o )]

In phasor form,

v vq

Va = d + j = Vd + jVq

3 3

where

v

Vd = d

3

vq

Vq =

3

Substituting the expressions for vd and vq,

Va =

1

[( ) (

Ra id X q iq + j Ra iq + X d id + M df i f )]

3

Or,

M df

( )

Va = Ra I d X q I q + j Ra I q + X d I d + if

3

Define the excitation emf or excitation voltage Ef:

1

Ef = M df i f

3

For the three phases,

E a = Eb = E c = E f

For phase a,

E a = jE f

Hence,

[( ) (

Va = Ra I d X q I q + j Ra I q + X d I d + E f )]

= Vd + jVq

where

Vd = Ra I d X q I q

Vq = Ra I q + X d I d + E f

Synchronous Machines Part I

Rewriting,

( )

Va = Ra I d + jI q X q I q + jX d I d + jE f

= Ra I a X q I q + jX d I d + jE f

where I a = I d + jI q

Te =

P

2

[( )

Ld Lq id iq + M df iq i f ]

The dominant torque is the cylindrical torque (Mdf iq if). It determines whether the

machine operates as a motor or a generator.

Since the field current if is always a positive quantity, and Iq is related to iq by a constant

(1/3),

If Iq > 0, Te > 0 motor action

If Iq < 0, Te < 0 generator action

Vd = Ra I d

Vq = X d I d + E f

Vd 0

Va = Vd + jVq jVq

Vq = X d I d + E f = constant

If Id = 0, Vq = Ef.

If Id < 0 (demagnetizing), Ef must be increased by increasing the field current

if. Ef > Va (overexcitation)

If Id > 0 (magnetizing), Ef must be decreased by decreasing the field current if.

Ef < Va (underexcitation).

Synchronous Machines Part I

Directional sense of Id and Iq for different conditions of synchronous machine operation:

q-axis

Iq

Over-excited Under-excited

Motor Motor

d-axis

Id Id

Over-excited Under-excited

Generator Generator

Iq

With directions of Id and Iq known for different operating conditions, phasor diagrams

appropriate to these conditions can be constructed in accordance with

I a = I d + jI q

Va = Vd + jVq

Va = Ra I a X q I q + jX d I d + jE f

= jE f X q I q + jX d I d + Ra I a

Synchronous Machines Part I

EE 143 A.C. NERVES, U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Institute 8

Synchronous Machines Part I

For each of the four cases, the phase power is

P = Va I a cos

For Fig 8.8 (a) and 8.8 (b),

cos = cos

P = Va I a cos

power is positive, i.e., flowing into the machine and corresponds to motor

action

For Fig. 8.8 (c) and 8.8 (d),

( )

cos = cos 180 o = cos

P = Va I a cos

power is flowing out of the machine, corresponding to generator action

Power factor:

o

p.f. = cos where || 90

Observations:

1. The excitation voltage jEf lies along the quadrature axis.

Synchronous Machines Part I

2. Va leads jEf for motor action. Va lags jEf for generator action. The angle between

Va and jEf is called the power angle or torque angle, denoted by .

3. The equation

Va = Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q + jE f

applies specifically to a motor. For a generator, current flows out of the machine and

thus,

Va = Ra I a jX d I d + X q I q + jE f

4. Let

jE f = E m for a motor

= Eg for a generator

Generator equation:

E g = Va + Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q

Motor equation:

Va = Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q + E m

5. No equivalent circuit can be drawn for the salient-pole machine.

In a practical case of synchronous machine operation, the quantities which are generally

known are Va, Ia, and the lagging or leading power-factor, from which is readily

deduced. A problem arises when attempting to draw the phasor diagram as there is no

immediate indication of the location of the dq-axes. A method of locating the dq-axes is

now described.

Generator action:

E g = Va + Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q

= Va + Ra I a + jX d I d + j 2 X q I q

( )

E g = Va + Ra I a + j I d + jI q X q + j X d X q I d( )

(

= Va + Ra I a + jX q I a + j X d X q I d )

Since Eg lies on the q-axis and since the term j(Xd Xq)Id also lies on the q-axis, then the

tip of the phasor sum Va + Ra Ia + jXqIa must lie on the q-axis.

Motor action:

Va = Ra I a + jX d I d X q I q + E m

(

E m = Va Ra I a jX q I a j X d X q I d )

By the same reasoning, the tip of the phasor sum Va Ra Ia jXqIa must lie on the q-

axis.

Synchronous Machines Part I

See Figures (phasor diagrams).

The d-axis and q-axis permeances for cylindrical rotor machines are approximately equal.

Neglecting these differences,

Xd = Xq = Xs

Synchronous Machines Part I

Thus for a motor,

( ) (

Va = Ra I d + jI q + jX s I d + jI q + jE f )

= I a ( Ra + jX s ) + E m

= Ia Z s + Em

where Zs = Ra + jXs = synchronous impedance

For a generator,

E g = I a ( Ra + jX s ) + Va

= I a Z s + Va

Synchronous Machines Part I

Equivalent circuits:

Zs = Ra + jXs Zs = Ra +jXs

+ +

+ +

Ia Ia

Va Em Eg Va

_ _

_ _

Motor Generator

Synchronous Machines Part I

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