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K.O. Ibrahim et al / Journal of Environment (2012), Vol. 01, Issue 01, pp.

21-25 ISSN 2049-8373

Research Paper

Geoelectrical Soundings to Investigate Groundwater


Potential of Orisunmibare Village in Ilorin South Area of
Kwara State, Nigeria
K.O. Ibrahim1, P.I. Olasehinde1, A.O. Akinrinmade2 and A. Isa2
1
Department of Geology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin
2
Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna
E-Mail: ibrahim.ko@unilorin.edu.ng

Abstract
A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Method was employed to determine the groundwater potential of Orisunmibare
Village in the neighbourhood of federal government college, Ilorin. The purpose of this study was to determine the
feasibility of a portable water borehole in the study area. Presently, there is no municipal water supply in the study area and
the water source is from individual hand dug wells. A total of nine VES were carried out in different parts of the study area
with DDR1 resistivity meter equipped with an SAS 2000 booster by means of Schlumberger electrode array configuration.
The interpretation of the VES curve was carried out by partial curve matching method to obtain initial model parameters
and computer iterations using WinResist Software. The curves reveal that the area is characterized by five classes of geo-
electric layers. First, highly resistive topsoil layer has a thickness between 0.2-1.0 m. The second lateritic clay layer
has thickness ranges from 3.3-15.0 m. Third layer is highly weathered basement with thickness of 6.0-30.7 m. The fourth
fractured with weathered rock layer has thickness from 20.0-40.2 m, and fresh basement representing
fifth layer has a thickness from 20 m and above. The results indicate the occurrence of good aquifers in the
first, second, third, fourth, and fifth VES stations in the form of the weathered and fractured basement. Results also
indicate that borehole drilling in the study area is achievable but to a depth of 45 meters to allow large reservoir within the
aquifers.

Keywords: Vertical Electrical Soundings, DDR1 Resistivity Meter, Schlumberger Array, Visual Curve Inspection Win
Resist Software

1. Introduction
Water is one of the most valuable natural resources vital to Irrespective of its importance, a global paucity of safe
the existence of any form of life. An adequate supply of drinking water had been established (UN, 2002; UNEP,
safe water for maintaining ecosystem that supports all life 2002; WHO and UNICEF, 2004). Specifically UN (2002)
and for achieving sustainable development (Topfer, 1998). reports that 1.1 billion people, representing 18% of the
As mans standard of living increase so does his need for worlds population, lack access to drinking water. The
consumption of water. However, the use of water has average amount of water used domestically each day by
grown rapidly in modern times. Though, a significant every person is about 190 litres (Hamill & Bell, 1986).
portion of water resources have become unusable due to
industrial and agricultural pollution. Diversions or transfer The use of geophysics for both groundwater resource
of watershed to other region have led to many ecological mapping and for water quality, evaluations has increased
and human disasters (Gleick et al, 2002). dramatically over the years. The Vertical Electrical

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K.O. Ibrahim et al / Journal of Environment (2012), Vol. 01, Issue 01, pp. 21-25 ISSN 2049-8373

Soundings (VES) has proved very popular with sources as an effective management tool in the planning of
groundwater studies due to simplicity of the technique. a reliable water supply scheme (Okurumeh & Oteze,
Groundwater has become immensely important for human 1996).
water supply in urban and rural areas in developed and
developing nations alike (Omosuyi, 2010). Presently, there Investigation involving detail geophysical study for
is no municipal water supply in this area of study and the groundwater potential in the area covered by this study is
main source of water supply is from individual hand dug presently non-existent. This exigency inspired this study.
wells. However, the ground water conditions of this area Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to
when properly understood could be used as an effective determine the groundwater potential and to identify
tool in the planning of a reliable water borehole for people suitable sites for exploitation of groundwater through
in the study area either through the state government, drilling of boreholes in Orisunmibare Village in the
federal government, local government or private neighbourhood of federal government college, Ilorin.
individuals.
2. Geology and Hydrogeology of Study Area
The sounding points are located between latitudes 08o
31.224 and 08o 31.360 and longitudes 4o 29.142 and 4o
29.607 in the neighbourhood of federal government 2.1. Physiography and Climate
college Ilorin (Figure 1). Although, many geological and
hydrogeological investigations have been carried out by The study area is in the intermediate zone between semi-
various scholars in most parts of Ilorin. Olasehinde arid in the north and sub-humid climate in the south, hence
(1999a) worked on preliminary results of characterized by two distinct seasons, that is the wet
hydrogeochemical investigations in Ilorin area i.e. South- season start in late March and ends in the mid of October,
Western Nigeria. Garba (1999) worked on the while cold and dry weather due to influence of Harmattan
hydrogeological implications of the perched aquifer is observed in the month of December and January. The
system of Ilorin. vegetation is basically Savannah (Guinea) interspersed
with tropical forest remnants (Esan, 1999).
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Figure 1. Location Map of Study Area (Inserted is Geological Map of Nigeria)

The ground water conditions in an area when properly The rainfall is moderate with general annual average of
understood could be used conjunctively with surface about 1,250 mm with maximum rainfall occurring in the

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K.O. Ibrahim et al / Journal of Environment (2012), Vol. 01, Issue 01, pp. 21-25 ISSN 2049-8373

months of June and August and a low humidity of about 4. Results


50%. The mean annual temperature for this study area is
about 27.2 oC and 31 oC, while the mean annual minimum The sounding curves (Figure 3) were evaluated by
falls between 22 oC and 23 oC. The warmest months fall partial curve matching method and computer iterations
between January and March with an average monthly using WinResist. The curves shown five Geo-Electric
temperature of about 28 oC and the mean annual Successions as presented in Tables 1-3. The five layers
evapotranspiration falls between 1,500 mm and 1,750 mm consist of a top soil with resistivity ranges between
Isolines (Olasehinde, 1999b). 116-1600 ohm-m and thickness of 0.2-1.0 m followed
by lateritic clay layer of resistivity 180-2000
2.2. Geology & Hydrogeology ohm-m with thickness of 3.3 m-15.0 m. The third
lithologic layer is characterized by highly weathered
Orisunmibare Village, the study area, is underlain by rocks basement with resistivity 250-630 ohm-m and
of the crystalline Nigeria basement complex, principally thickness of 6.0 m-30.7 m while the fourth layer
among which are granites and gneisses. These rocks were is a fractured with weathered rock of resistivity
emplaced in Precambrian times and have over time 100-320 ohm-m and thickness of 20.0 m-40.2 m.
subjected to tectonic activities characterized by large The fresh basement representing the fifth layer has
changes in temperature and the pressure resulting in resistivity of 145-256 ohm-m and thickness from 20.0 m
fractures like joints, faults and fractures within the and above.
basement complex rocks. Such fractures are those that
influence the ground water in crystalline rocks especially if
they exist at depth and are over laid by a thick superficial 5. Discussion
cover (overburden). Though there is no visible outcrop
seen in the area worked upon, outcrop exists in the The geophysical investigation of the study area has
adjoining areas such as Ilorin-Igbeti road. This is clear revealed five geo-electric units in which the aquifers
index to the fact that on a regional projection such rocks occurred in the form of weathered and fractured basement.
exist at depth beneath the thick superficial cover that are However, the results indicate the occurrence of good
predominate in the area. This is of an immense aquifers in the first, second, third, fourth and fifth
hydrogeological interest in this investigation (Olayinka et VES stations shown from their low resistivity values.
al, 1998). But for the rest of VES stations the resistivity values
are so high indicating little or no water present in those
regions.
3. Geophysical Investigation
For the purpose of this investigation, a total of nine (9) 6. Conclusion
VES, using the Schlumberger electrode configuration,
were made at different locations within the study area. With a mean annual rainfall of 1,250 mm, maximum
DDR1 Resistivity meter equipped with an SAS 2000 temperature of 31 oC and mean annual evapotranspiration
booster was used. As much as access allowed on the field, of 1,750 mm (Olasehinde, 1999) adequate climatic
the maximum current electrode spacing (AB) was 100 m. conditions could be said to exist for groundwater recharge
The nine sounding locations numbered 1 to 9 are shown in purpose. Also, the occurrence of joints, faults and fractures
Figure 2. in the subsurface are indications of good aquifer in the
study area.

It is advisable that drilling in this area should be done to


the depth of 45 meters to allow large reservoir within the
aquifer

References
Annor, A.E., and Olasehinde, P.I. (1996) Vegetational
Niche as a remote sensor of subsurface aquifer. A
geological- geophysical study in Jere area, central Nigeria.
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Esan, A. (1999) The Hydrogeology and Hydrochemistry


of Ground Water Source in Ilorin West Central
Figure 2. Sounding Locations Nigeria. M.Sc. thesis, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.

Available online at www.scientific-journals.co.uk 23


K.O. Ibrahim et al / Journal of Environment (2012), Vol. 01, Issue 01, pp. 21-25 ISSN 2049-8373

Figure 3. 3D Geoelectric Section of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Point 01 to 05

Table 1. Geo-Electric Successions

VES 1 VES 2 VES 3


Resistivity Thickness Resistivity Thickness Resistivity Thickness
Description
(Ohm-m) (m) (Ohm-m) (m) (Ohm-m) (m)
Top Lateritic Soil 1100 0.4 1600 1.0 800 0.7
Lateritic Clay Soil 1200 3.7 2000 5.6 940 6.9
Weathered Rock 450 6.0 250 8.7 480 10.8
Fractured/Weathered Rock 170 30.4 100 20.0 130 40.1
Fresh Basement 200 >30.4 350 >20.0 170 >40.1

Table 2. Geo-Electric Successions

VES 4 VES 5 VES 6

Resistivity Thickness Resistivity Thickness Resistivity Thickness


Description
(Ohm-m) (m) (Ohm-m) (m) (Ohm-m) (m)
Top Lateritic Soil 1000 1.0 350 0.3 116 0.2
Lateritic Clay Soil 800 6.2 550 15.0 180 3.3
Weathered Rock 250 10.2 630 30.1 345 15.6
Fractured/Weathered Rock 190 30.8 100 40.0 195 20.4
Fresh Basement 350 >30.8 150 >40.0 204 >20.4

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K.O. Ibrahim et al / Journal of Environment (2012), Vol. 01, Issue 01, pp. 21-25 ISSN 2049-8373

Table 3. Geo-Electric Successions

VES 7 VES 8 VES 9

Resistivity Thickness Resistivity Thickness Resistivity Thickness


Description
(Ohm-m) (m) (Ohm-m) (m) (Ohm-m) (m)
Top lateritic Soil 1000 0.9 230 1.0 300 0.8
Lateritic clay Soil 1050 5.4 370 8.2 485 10.4
Weathered Rock 580 10.6 400 20.4 265 30.7
Fractured/Weathered Rock 260 40.2 170 30.9 320 35.2
Fresh Basement 145 >40.2 256 >30.9 250 >35.2

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