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University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering

Principles and Effective Stress

In a saturated soil:
The total vertical stress (or geostatic stress), , at any point in soil below ground surface due
to weight of soil above the point is divided into two component:
A. Effective stress or pressure ( ):
Is the stress transmitted through the points of contact of the solid particles of the soil.
Sometimes, it is called effective since any change in produces a change in mechanical
properties of the soil.
B. Pore water pressure (u):
Is the stress exerted by weight of water in the voids, sometimes is called neutral pressure
since a change in (u) has no effect on the mechanical properties of the soil.
' u t .z u w .z
' ( t w ).z '.z
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
Total Stress ( ) = Effective Stress ( ) + U
Total Stress ( ) = P/A (at plan x x)
Effective Stress ( ) = N/A
At point B :
Pore water pressure (U) = H w
Effective Stress ( ) = h x sub.
sub. = saturation - w
= +U = -U
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
EXAMPLE (1)
1m = x1m
= 17 kN/m3 A t,1
3m A t,1
d,1 = 13 kN/m3 = 17 kN/m2
B B = t,1 x3m
= 18 kN/m3 = 51 kN/m2
t,2
4m
d,2 = 14 kN/m3
= x3m+ x4m
C C t,1
= 123 kN/m2
t,2
2m
t,3 = 18 kN/m3
4m
D d,3 = 15 kN/m3 D = t,1 x 3 m + t,2 x 4 m
+ t,3 x 2 m
= 159 kN/m2 4
Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
Example (2): For the soil profile shown below calculate the total stress, pore
water pressure and effective stress at points A, B, C and D.
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
EXAMPLE (3)
Sand
h1 = 2 m
t = 18.0 kN/m3
MAT
d = 13.1 kN/m3
h2 = 2.5 m
Clay
h3 = 4.5 m
t = 19.80 kN/m3
x
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
Total Stress
= ( d,1 . h1) + ( t,1 . h2)+ ( t,2 . H3)
= 13.1 . 2 + 18 . 2.5 + 19.8 . 4.5
= 160.3 kN/m2
Pore Water Pressure
u = w . (h2+h3)
u = 10 . 7
= 70 kN/m2
Or:
Effective Stress
= - u = 90.3 kN/m2 = d,1 . h1 + ( t,2 - w) . h2 + ( t,2 - w) . h3
= 13.1 . 2 + (18-10) . 2.5 + (19,8-10) . 4.5
= 90.3 kN/m2
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department
University of Sulaimani Faculty of Engineering
Principles and Effective Stress
Total Stress ( ) Pore Water Pressure (u) Effective Stress ( )
26.2 kPa 26.2 kPa
-2.0
71.2 kPa 25 kPa 46.2 kPa
-4.5
160.3 kPa 70 kPa 90.3 kPa
-9.0
Profile of Vertical Stress
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Soil Mechanics Lectures (Dr Nihad Baban) 2013-2014 Civil Engineering Department