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ADVANCED DESIGN OF GLASS

STRUCTURES
Application 4
Design of insulated glass units
Viorel Ungureanu

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events
520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC
Objectives
Objectives

Aspect ratio Check of the insulating glass unit according to the prEN 13474
Coefficients and
factors Ultimate limit state
Allowable stresses
Serviceability limit state
Internal loads

Ultimate limit state

Serviceability limit
state
Application
Vertical insulating glass unit 4mm toughened float glass / 12mm cavity /
6mm float glass, c1 1300mm wide x c2 900mm high, supported on all
four edges, subjected to a wind load of c3 1.5kN/m2, glazed at an
altitude of less than 400m.

2
Worked example
Objectives
Worked example
Aspect ratio
Vertical insulating glass unit 4mm toughened float glass / 12mm cavity / 6mm
Coefficients and float glass, 1300mm wide x 900mm high, supported on all four edges, subjected
factors
to a wind load of 1.5kN/m2, glazed at an altitude of less than 400m.
Allowable stresses
1 2
Internal loads
aspect ration
Ultimate limit state
a

a = 900mm
Serviceability limit
state b
a shall be taken as the
shorter dimensions

b = 1300mm

h1 = 4 mm toughened glass
s = 12 mm
h2 = 6 mm float glass

3
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio four edge supported glass pane (prEN 13474)


Coefficients and small deflection p* = 0
factors
linear interpolation between two values
Allowable stresses
from table B.2 coefficient k2 for calculation of the effective stress
Internal loads
p*
Ultimate limit state
0 5 10 20 30 50 100 200 300 500
Serviceability limit
state 1,0 0,251 0,250 0,246 0,235 0,221 0,193 0,164 0,146 0,137 0,126
0,9 0,288 0,285 0,279 0,259 0,237 0,201 0,174 0,156 0,147 0,135
0,8 0,338 0,334 0,323 0,292 0,261 0,216 0,186 0,168 0,159 0,147
0,7 0,398 0,392 0,375 0,330 0,291 0,237 0,202 0,183 0,173 0,161
0,6 0,463 0,454 0,432 0,377 0,330 0,267 0,220 0,201 0,191 0,179
0,5 0,527 0,518 0,495 0,436 0,383 0,312 0,241 0,222 0,212 0,199
0,4 0,588 0,581 0,564 0,512 0,461 0,383 0,281 0,247 0,236 0,223
0,3 0,639 0,637 0,629 0,602 0,568 0,500 0,384 0,278 0,265 0,251
0,2 0,678 0,677 0,676 0,672 0,665 0,644 0,577 0,463 0,390 0,308
0,1 0,699 0,699 0,699 0,699 0,699 0,698 0,697 0,692 0,683 0,660
0,0 0,699 0,699 0,699 0,699 0,699 0,698 0,698 0,698 0,698 0,698
Table B2: Coefficient k2 for calculation of the effective stress
4
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio
from table B.3 coefficient k4 for calculation of maximum deflection
Coefficients and
factors

Allowable stresses p*
0 5 10 20 30 50 100 200 300 500
Internal loads
1,0 0,046 0,046 0,045 0,041 0,038 0,032 0,024 0,017 0,014 0,011
Ultimate limit state
0,9 0,056 0,056 0,054 0,049 0,044 0,036 0,027 0,019 0,015 0,012
Serviceability limit
0,8 0,068 0,067 0,065 0,057 0,051 0,041 0,030 0,021 0,018 0,014
state
0,7 0,083 0,081 0,077 0,068 0,059 0,048 0,035 0,025 0,020 0,016
0,6 0,099 0,097 0,092 0,081 0,071 0,057 0,041 0,029 0,024 0,019
0,5 0,115 0,113 0,109 0,097 0,086 0,070 0,051 0,036 0,030 0,023
0,4 0,131 0,129 0,126 0,116 0,105 0,088 0,065 0,046 0,038 0,030
0,3 0,147 0,142 0,140 0,135 0,128 0,114 0,088 0,064 0,053 0,041
0,2 0,147 0,147 0,147 0,146 0,145 0,140 0,126 0,101 0,085 0,067
0,1 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,147 0,146 0,143 0,136
0,0 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148 0,148

5
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio from table B.4 coefficient k5 for calculation of the volume change
Coefficients and
factors
p*
Allowable stresses
0 5 10 20 30 50 100 200 300 500
Internal loads 1,0 0,019 0,019 0,019 0,018 0,017 0,015 0,011 0,008 0,007 0,005
Ultimate limit state 0,9 0,024 0,024 0,023 0,022 0,020 0,017 0,013 0,009 0,007 0,006
Serviceability limit 0,8 0,029 0,029 0,028 0,026 0,023 0,020 0,015 0,010 0,008 0,007
state 0,7 0,035 0,035 0,034 0,031 0,028 0,023 0,017 0,012 0,010 0,008
0,6 0,042 0,042 0,040 0,037 0,033 0,027 0,020 0,014 0,012 0,009
0,5 0,050 0,050 0,048 0,044 0,040 0,033 0,025 0,018 0,014 0,011
0,4 0,059 0,058 0,057 0,053 0,049 0,042 0,031 0,022 0,018 0,014
0,3 0,068 0,067 0,066 0,064 0,061 0,054 0,042 0,031 0,025 0,020
0,2 0,077 0,077 0,076 0,076 0,074 0,071 0,062 0,048 0,040 0,031
0,1 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,085 0,084 0,081 0,077 0,068
0,0 0,095 0,095 0,095 0,095 0,095 0,095 0,095 0,095 0,095 0,095

6
Worked example
Objectives
characteristic length of the unit a*
Aspect ratio
0 ,25
3 3
Coefficients and sh h
factors a* 28 ,9 3 1 2

h1 h k 5
3
Allowable stresses 2

Internal loads

Ultimate limit state partition of external and internal loads and effect of internal loads
Serviceability limit
is determined by the insulating units factor
state
1
4
a
1
a *
partition of external load is determined by relative stiffness of the
panes

h13 h23
1 3 3 2 3
h1 h2 h1 h23
stiffness of the pane 1 (outer pane) stiffness of the pane 2 (inner pane)
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Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Allowable stresses for panes up to 4.0m2 fg,d


Coefficients and Glass product Uniformly distributed load duration
factors
Short duration loads Medium duration loads Permanent loads
Allowable Wind loads Snow, climate loads Self-weight, altitude
stresses Glass type Processing loads
Internal loads ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS
Ultimate limit state annealed 17.0 30.7 8.5 15.3 6.4 11.5
Serviceability limit heat 27.9 47.3 19.4 32.0 17.3 28.2
state Float glass strengthened
and sheet thermally 49.6 80.7 41.1 65.3 39.0 61.5
glass toughened
chemically 62.7 100.7 54.2 85.3 52.0 81.5
strengthened

For pane 1- toughened glass For pane 2- float glass


wind load ULS fg,d = 49.6MPa = 49.6N/mm2 wind load ULS fg,d = 17.0MPa
wind load SLS fg,d = 80.7MPa wind load SLS fg,d = 30.7MPa
climate load SLS fg,d = 65.3MPa climate load SLS fg,d = 15.3MPa
altitude load SLS fg,d = 61.5MPa altitude load SLS fg,d = 11.5MPa

8
Worked example
Objectives
Limiting conditions of internal loads, if the exact values for the internal
Aspect ratio
loads can not be determined
Coefficients and
factors
Isochore pressure [kN/m2]
Allowable stresses
Climatic action Altitude action pH,0 [kN/m2]
Internal loads pC,0 [kN/m2]
For use up to 400 m For use up to 700 m
Ultimate limit state
altitude altitude
Serviceability limit
state
summer +12,0 +3,6 +8,4
winter -15,0 -3,6 -8,4

Isochore pressure internal load Wind external load


pH,0 = +3,6kN/m2 or -3,6kN/m2 w = 1,5 kN/m

Climatic action internal load


pc,0 = +12,0kN/m2 or -15,0kN/m2

9
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Internal actions


Coefficients and
factors
Serviceability limit state design loads shall be determined
Allowable stresses

Internal loads
Fd ,1 1 2 GjG1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2 pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
j j
Ultimate limit
state

Serviceability Fd ,2 1 2 GjG1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 GjG2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2 pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
limit state j j

External actions
Ultimate limit state design loads for one variable action on the outer
pane shall be determined

Fd ,1 1 2 GjG1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 1 GjG2 ,kj
j j


Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj
j j

10
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 1. Internal action (isochore pressure)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

11
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 1. Internal action (isochore pressure)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability pH,0 = 3,6 kN/m2
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

12
11
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 1. Internal action (isochore pressure)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability pH,0 = 3,6 kN/m2
limit state
Effective stress

a2 fg,d = 61,5 MPa for toughened glass,


ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d altitude loads
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

13
11
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 1. Internal action (isochore pressure)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
Ultimate limit state
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

12
14
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 1. Internal action (isochore pressure)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
Ultimate limit state
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability pH,0 = 3,6 kN/m2
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

12
15
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 1. Internal action (isochore pressure)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
Ultimate limit state
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability pH,0 = 3,6 kN/m2
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d fg,d = 11,5 MPa for annealed glass,
h2 altitude loads

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

12
16
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state

Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

17
13
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0 pc,0 = -15,0 kN/m2
Serviceability pH,0 = - 3,6 kN/m2
limit state

Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

18
13
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state

Effective stress

a2 fg,d = 65,3MPa for toughened glass,


ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d altitude load + climatic action
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

19
13
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
Ultimate limit state
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

14
20
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0 pc,0 = -15,0 kN/m
2

Ultimate limit state


pH,0 = - 3,6 kN/m2
Serviceability
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

14
21
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
Ultimate limit state
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state
Effective stress

a2 fg,d = 15,3 MPa for toughened glass,


ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d altitude load + climatic load
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

14
22
Worked example
Objectives
Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) ULS
Aspect ratio

Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)


factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj
Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state
a2
Serviceability ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
limit state h1

Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E
15
23
Worked example
Objectives
Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) ULS
Aspect ratio

Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)


factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj
Internal loads j w = 1,5 kN/m2 j
Ultimate limit Effective stress
state
a2
Serviceability ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
limit state h1

Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E
15
24
Worked example
Objectives
Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) ULS
Aspect ratio

Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)


factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj
Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state
a2 fg,d = 49,6 MPa for toughened glass,
Serviceability ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d wind loads
limit state h1

Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E
15
25
Worked example
Objectives
Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) ULS
Aspect ratio

Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)


factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj
Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state
a2 fg,d = 49,6 MPa for toughened glass,
Serviceability ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d wind loads
limit state h1

Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj

j w = 1,5 kN/m2 j
Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E
15
26
Worked example
Objectives
Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) ULS
Aspect ratio

Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)


factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj
Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state
a2 fg,d = 49,6 MPa for toughened glass,
Serviceability ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d wind loads
limit state h1

Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E
15
27
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) ULS


Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state

Serviceability
a2
limit state
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0 Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E
16
28
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) ULS


Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

Internal loads j w = 1,5 kN/m2 j
Ultimate limit Effective stress
state

Serviceability
a2
limit state
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0 Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E
16
29
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) ULS


Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state

Serviceability
a2
limit state
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d fg,d = 17,0 MPa for annealed glass,
h2 wind load

Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0 Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E
16
30
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) ULS


Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state

Serviceability
a2
limit state
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d fg,d = 17,0 MPa for annealed glass,
h2 wind load

Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0 Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

j w = 1,5 kN/m2 j
Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E
16
31
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) ULS


Coefficients and 3. External action (wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,5Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

Internal loads j j

Ultimate limit Effective stress


state

Serviceability
a2
limit state
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d fg,d = 17,0 MPa for annealed glass,
h2 wind load

Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


3. External action (wind load)

Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 1,0 Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj

j j

Deformation
a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E
16
32
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 4. Combination (isochore pressure + climatic action + wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state

Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

33
17
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 4. Combination (isochore pressure + climatic action + wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j w = 1,5 kN/m2 j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0 pc,0 = -15,0 kN/m2
Serviceability pH,0 = - 3,6 kN/m2
limit state

Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h1

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

34
17
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 1 (4mm toughened glass) SLS


Coefficients and 4. Combination (isochore pressure + climatic action + wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,1 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 1 Gj G2 ,kj 0 ,9Qk 2
Internal loads j j
Ultimate limit state pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state

Effective stress

a2 fg,d = 80,7 MPa for toughened glass,


ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d altitude load + climatic action + wind
h1 action

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h1 E

35
17
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action+ wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
Ultimate limit state
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

18
36
Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action+ wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j w = 1,5 kN/m2 j
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0 pc,0 = +12,0 kN/m
2
Ultimate limit state

Serviceability
pH,0 = + 3,6 kN/m2
limit state
Effective stress

a2
ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

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Worked example
Objectives

Aspect ratio Design load on pane 2 (6mm annealed glass) SLS


Coefficients and 2. Internal action (isochore pressure + climatic action+ wind load)
factors

Allowable stresses Fd ,2 1 2 Gj G1,kj 0,9Qk 1 1 2 Gj G2 ,kj 0,9Qk 2
Internal loads
j j
Ultimate limit state
pH ,0 0,9 pC ,0
Serviceability
limit state
Effective stress

a2 fg,d = 30,7 MPa for toughened glass,


ef k 2 2 Fd fg ,d altitude load + climatic load + wind load
h2

Deformation

a 4 Fd
w max k4 3
h2 E

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Thank you
for your kind attention

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