You are on page 1of 18

ABSTRACT

This experiment was coordinated to study the mechanism behind the shell and tube
heat exchanger. The experiment was run to meet several aims which mainly are to study the
effect of flow rate on the heat transfer rate by conducting energy analysis and to calculate heat
transfer coefficient.

INTRODUCTION
A heat exchanger is an equipment in which heat exchange takes place between 2 fluids
that enter and exit at different temperatures. The main function of heat exchanger is to either
remove heat from a hot fluid or to add heat to the cold fluid. The direction of fluid motion
inside the heat exchanger can normally categorised as parallel flow, counter flow and cross
flow. In this experiment, we study only the counter flow. For parallel flow, also known as co-
current flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow in the same direction. Both the fluids enter and
exit the heat exchanger on the same ends. For counter flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow
in the opposite direction. Both the fluids enter and exit the heat exchanger on the opposite
ends. In this experiment, we focused on the shell and tube heat exchanger.

1 | Page
OBJECTIVE

The experiment is conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and
tube heat exchanger under different mass flowrate and temperature.

THEORY

A heat exchanger is a piece of process equipment in which heat exchange takes place
between two fluids that enter and exit at different temperatures. The primary design objective
of the equipment may be either to remove heat from a hot fluid or to add heat to a cold fluid.
Depending upon the relative direction of fluid motion, shell-and-tube heat exchangers are
classified as parallel flow, counter flow, cross flow. In parallel flow, the hot and cold fluids
flow in the same direction and therefore enter the exchanger on the same end and exit the
exchanger on the same end. In counter flow, the two fluids flow in opposite directions and
thus enter the exchanger and exit the exchanger from opposite ends.

2 | Page
APPARATUS

1. SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training Apparatus (Model:HE158C) that comprises of:


i. Water pump
ii. Heater
iii. Temperature controller
iv. Volumetric flow rate
v. Water tank
vi. Control panel
vii. Shell and Tube, Spiral, Concentric, Plate tube heat exchanger

Figure 5.1 SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training Apparatus (Model:HE158C)

PROCEDURE

General Start-Up Procedures

3 | Page
1. A quick inspection was performed to make sure that the equipment is in a proper
working condition.
2. All valves were initially closed, except V1 and V12.
3. Hot water tank was filled up via a water supply hose connected to valve V27. Valve
was closed once the tank is full.
4. The cold-water tank was filled up by opening valve V28 and the valve was left opened
for continues water supply.
5. A drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point.
6. Main power was switched on. The heater for the hot water tank was switched on and

the temperature controller was set to 50 .

(Note: Recommended maximum temperature controller set point is 70

.)

7. The water temperature in the hot water tank was allowed to reach the set-point.
8. The equipment was now ready to be run.

Counter-Current Shell and Tubes Heat Exchanger Experiment

1. The valves to counter-current (V1,V12,V15,V18,V28) were opened while


(V16,V17,V27,V29,V30) were closed and Shell and Tubes Heat Exchanger valves
(V4,V5,V19,V20) were opened and (V6-V11 and V21-V26) were closed.
2. Pumps P1 and P2 were switched on.
3. Valves V3 and V14 were opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates for hot
water and cold water streams, respectively.
4. The system were allowed to reach steady state for 10 minutes.
5. FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.
6. Pressure drop measurements for shell-side and tube-side were recorded for pressure
drop studies.
7. Steps 4 to 7 were repeated for different combinations of flowrate FT1 and FT2 as in
the results sheet.
8. Pumps P1 and P2 were switched off after the completion of experiment.

4 | Page
General Shut-Down Procedures

1. Heater was switched off. Wait until the hot water temperature drops below 40C.
2. Pump P1 and pump P2 were switched off.
3. Main power was switched off.
4. All water in the process lines was drained off. The water in the hot and cold water
tanks were retained for next laboratory session.
5. All valves were closed.

RESULT

Notation Description
FT1 Hot water flowrate
FT2 Cold water flowrate
TT1 Cold water outlet temperature
TT2 Cold water inlet temperature
TT3 Hot water outlet temperature

5 | Page
TT4 Hot water inlet temperature

Constant value of FT1:


FT 1 FT 2 TT 1 (oC) TT 2 (oC) TT 3 (oC) TT 4 (oC)
(LPM) (LPM)
10.0 2.0 46.1 30.8 48.2 48.9
10.0 4.0 38.7 29.4 47.1 49.9
10.0 6.0 36.2 29.7 44.6 47.7
10.0 8.0 35.6 30.3 45.9 49.6
10.0 10.0 35.1 30.4 46.0 49.6

Constant value of FT2:


FT 1 FT 2 TT 1 (oC) TT 2 (oC) TT 3 (oC) TT 4 (oC)
(LPM) (LPM)
2.0 10.0 31.8 30.3 36.7 48.9
4.0 10.0 32.5 30.4 42.8 48.3
6.0 10.0 33.1 30.5 43.2 47.9
8.0 10.0 33.8 30.4 44.3 49.3
10.0 10.0 34.5 30.4 45.4 49.3

Temperature Profile analysis

For FT1 constant and varying FT2

6 | Page
Temperature Profile Temperature Profile

Temperature, 0C Temperature, 0C

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Progress Progress

cold hot cold hot

FT1=10LPM/ FT2=2LPM FT1=10LPM/ FT2=4LPM

Temperature Profile Temperature Profile

Temperature, 0C Temperature, 0C

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Progress Progress

cold hot cold hot

FT1=10LPM/ FT2=6LPM FT1=10LPM/ FT2=8LPM

Temperature Profile

Temperature, 0C

0 10 20 30 40 50
Progress

cold hot

FT1=10LPM/ FT2=10LPM
For FT2 constant and varying FT1.

7 | Page
Temperature Profile Temperature Profile

Temperature, 0C Temperature, 0C

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Progress Progress

cold hot cold hot

FT1=2LPM/ FT2=10LPM FT1=4LPM/ FT2=10LPM

Temperature Profile Temperature Profile

Temperature, 0C Temperature, 0C

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Progress Progress

cold hot cold hot

FT1=6LPM/ FT2=10LPM FT1=8LPM/ FT2=10LPM

Temperature Profile

Temperature, 0C

0 10 20 30 40 50
Progress

cold hot

FT1=10LPM/ FT2=10LPM

8 | Page
CALCULATION

Properties
Hot water Cold water
Density: 988.18 kg/m3 Density: 995.67 kg/m3
Heat capacity: 4175.00 J/kg.K Heat capacity: 4183.00 J/kg.K
Thermal cond: 0.6436 W/m.K Thermal cond: 0.6155 W/m.K
Viscosity: 0.0005494 Pa.s Viscosity: 0.0008007 Pa.s

Counter-Current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger with constant value of FT1 and varying FT2:

1.

L 1m3 1min kg J
Qhot W =mh C p T =10.0
( ) 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.948.2 ) =481.32W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q cold W =m h C p T =2.0
( ) 995.67 3 4183 ( 46.130.8 ) =2124.09 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 481.322124.09 ) W =1642.77W

Q 481.32
= = 100 =22.66
Qmax 2124.09

2.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Qhot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 (49.947.1)=1925.30 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

9 | Page
L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q cold ( W )=mh C p T =4.0 995.67 3 4183 (38.729.4 ) =2582.23 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 1925.302582.23 ) W =6 56.93 W

Q 1925.30
= = 100 =74.56
Qmax 2582.23

3.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Qhot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 ( 47.744.6 ) =2131.58W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1m 3 1min kg J
Q cold ( W )=m h C p =6.0 995.67 3 4183 ( 36.229.7 ) =2707.18 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 2131.582707.18 ) W =575.60 W

Q 2131.58
= = 100 =78.74
Qmax 2707.18

4.

3
L 1m 1 min kg J
Qhot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.645.9 ) =2544.15 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q cold ( W )=mh C p T =8.0 995.67 3 4183 ( 35.630.3 ) =2943.19 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 2544.152943.19 ) W =399.04 W

10 | P a g e
Q 2 544.15
= = 100 =86.44
Qmax 2943.19

5.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q hot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.646.0 ) =2475.39W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1m3 1 min kg J
Qcold W =mh C p T =10.0
( ) 995.67 3 4183 ( 35.130.4 ) =3262.50 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 2475.393262.50 ) W =787.12 W

Q 2475.39
= = 100 =75.87
Qmax 3262.50

Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD):

[ ( Th ,Tc ,out ) ( Th ,out Tc , ) ]


T lm=
( Th, Tc ,out )
ln [ ]
( Th, out Tc , )

1)

[ ( 48.948.2 )( 46.130.8 ) ]
T lm= =4.73
( 48.948.2 )
ln [ ]
( 46.130.8 )

2)

11 | P a g e
[ ( 49.947.1 )( 38.729.4 )]
T lm= =5.41
( 49.947.1 )
ln [ ]
( 38.729.4 )

3)

[ ( 47.744.6 )( 36.229.7 )]
T lm= =4.59
( 47.744.6 )
ln [ ]
( 36.229.7 )

4)

[ ( 49.645.9 ) ( 35.630.3 ) ]
T lm= =4.45
( 49.645.9 )
ln [ ]
( 35.630.3 )

5)

[ ( 49.646.0 ) ( 35.130.4 )]
T lm= =4.13
( 49.646.0 )
ln [ ]
( 35.130.4 )

Overall heat transfer coefficient:

Total surface area , As=n( tube id length= 0.00775 m 0.5 m)=0.122 m2

1.

Qhot 481.32 W W
U= = 2
=834.09 2
A T lm 0.122 m 4.73 m

12 | P a g e
2.

Qhot 1925.30 W W
U= = =2917.03 2
A T lm 0.122 5.41 m

3.

Qhot 2131.58 W W
U= = =3806.53 2
A T lm 0.122 m2 4.59 m

4.

Qhot 2544.15 W W
U= = 2
=4686.22 2
A T lm 0.122 m 4.45 m

5.

Qhot 2475.39 W W
U= = 2
=4912.85 2
A T lm 0.122 m 4.13 m

FT1 constant and FT2 varying


Qhot (W) Qcold (W) % T lm (0C) W
U ( m2 )

481.32 2124.09 22.66 4.73 834.09


1925.30 2582.23 74.56 5.41 2917.03
2131.58 2707.18 78.74 4.59 3806.53
2544.15 2943.29 86.44 4.45 4686.22
2475.39 3262.50 75.87 4.13 4912.85

13 | P a g e
FT2 constant and FT1 varying
Qhot (W) Qcold (W) % T lm (0C) W
U ( m2 )

1677.76 1041.22 62.0 5.11 2691.22


1512.74 1457.71 9 6 .36 3.53 3512.61
1939.05 1804.78 93.08 3.55 4477.14
2750.43 2360.10 85.80 4.15 5432.41
2681.67 2846.00 94.22 3.99 5508.85

DISCUSSION

In this particular examination we are conducting an experiment to investigate counter


current flow shell and tubes heat exchanger. Measurement has been performed to improve the
understanding of heat transfer phenomena under different mass flowrate and temperature.
To show the effect of mass flowrate towards the heat transfer the hot water flowrate
was kept at value of 10.0 LPM with differing cold water flowrate starting from 2.0 with an
interval of 2.0 from each until 10.0 LPM. Conversely, it was repeated by letting the cold water
flowrate at constant value of 10.0 LPM and varying value of hot water flowrate as of that the
cold water before. The flow of the heat exchanger was set to be at counter-current flow.
By referring to the result of temperature profiles being plotted, When the cold water
flowrates are changing from small amount until the same amount as the hot water, initially the
time to cool the hot water is long and the heat was not being transferred much and in the
increasing of the cold water the heat is being transferred much more due to its increasing
capacity to absorbs heat from hot water. After that, when hot water is increasing in flowrates
and cold water is constant at the initial, the low flowrate of hot water is easily cooled and
when the flowrates is increasing the heat is transfer as the same amount as the cold water. The
pattern of temperature profile for the same flowrate of hot and cold is the same so the factor
that can affect the heat transfer is the inconsistent of flowrates.
14 | P a g e
Furthermore, it was found that the differences between the initial and final temperature
of the two fluids were not that far off each other with every varying flowrate and inconsistent
heat loss was recorded. However, it can be seen through the energy analysis that the
effectiveness of heat exchanger has somewhat increases along with the increment of the cold
water flowrate. Starting from the value of 2.0 LPM through 10.0 LPM of cold water flowrate,
the effectiveness increases from 22.66% to 75.87%. When the hot water is changing the
effectiveness is better at the early stage that is 62.00% to 94.22%. Though, there were errors
that contributed significantly to these assessed values and needed to be overcome for better
results. Precise and proper set up of apparatus is important in this very examination of model
and make sure there are no leakage occur along the pipe because the inconsistent pressure will
affect the heat transfer.
When compared to the others experiment, that is concentric tube. The effectiveness of
shell and tube is much better than concentric tube as shown in the results. Therefore, shell and
tube is more efficient types of heat exchanger.

CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that this experiment achieved the objective and we can see clearly
the effect of changing of flowrates towards the heat transfer. But there is some error that need
to be fix and improvised to ensure a better understanding about the counter-current shell and
tube heat exchanger.

15 | P a g e
RECOMMENDATION

Avoid any leakage of the instrument, the instrument should be working properly
Avoid direct contact with water because it is hot.
Be aware of the risk of electric shock.

REFERENCES

Cengal Y.A., Ghajar A.J., 2015 Heat and Mass Transfer Fundamentals and
Applications, 5 Ed., Mc Graw Hill Education, USA.
Shell and tube heat exchanger, noor hidayah, Retrived at 2/4/2017.
https://www.academia.edu/people/search?utf8=%E2%9C
%93&q=counter+current+flow+shell+and+tube+heat+exchanger+experiment.
engel, Y. A., Turner, R.H., Cimbala, J. M., 2008, Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid
Sciences, 3rd Ed., Mc Graw Hill Companies Inc., New York.
Geankoplis, C. J., 2014, Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, 4th
Ed., Pearson Education Limited, US

APPENDICES

16 | P a g e
SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training Apparatus (Model:HE158C)

Shell and Tube Exchanger

17 | P a g e
Discussion

18 | P a g e