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Fuel Quality & Its Challenges

to Meet Future Emission Norms


in India
Dr. Mathew Abraham, Sr. General Manager
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd, Chennai, India
Challenges for the Industry

Air Quality
Global Warming
Energy Security
Infrastructure
Constraints
Driver for Current Vehicle Designs
Environmental Resource Utilisation Customer
Protection Satisfaction
Fuel Efficiency
Reduced Emission
Re-cycling Reliability Comfort
Reduction of CO2 Reduced Maintenance Cost
Government Legislation
Durability

Engine Technology Lubrication & Oil Technology


Fuel Technology Material Technology
Indian Vehicle Market

16%
4%
3%

77%
Applicability 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2009 2010

NEW DELHI EURO I EURO II EURO III EURO IV

04/2000 Euro-I 04/2005

OTHER METRO EURO I EURO II EURO III EURO IV


(Mumbai, Chennai,
Kolkatta) 07/2001 04/2005

MAJOR CITIES
(Banaglore,Hyderabad,Pune, EURO I EURO II EURO III EURO IV
Kanpur,Ahmedabad, Surat 04/2003 04/2005
and Agra)
REST OF COUNTRY EURO I EURO II EURO III
04/2005
Change in Tailpipe Emissions
Petrol Passenger Car
Diesel Passenger Car 18
16.3

Regulated Pollutants (g/km)


16
Regulated Pollutants (g/km)

25 21.6 14
12 11.68
20
10
15 8
10 6
7.9
3.69
4 2.7
5 2.65
3.83 2 1.18
1.78 1.25 0.825
0 0
1991 1996 1999 2000 2005 2010 BS V ?
1991 1996 1999 2000 2005 2010 BS V ?
30.00 BS-I BS-II BS-III BS-IV
BS-I BS-II BS-III BS-IV
25.5
25.00
2 & 3 Wheelers Commercial Vehicles
Regulated Pollutants (g/kWhr)

35

Regulated Pollutants
20.00
30 29.0
15.00 25

(g/kWhr)
20
13.96
10.00 8.10 15 12.25
10 7.86
5.00 4.0
3.0 2.0 5 3.98
0
0.00 1991 1996 2000 2001 2005 2010
96

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BS-III

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BS-I

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BS I BS II BS III

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Need to assess impact on environment - Future road map needed

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00

02

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20

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Outcome of Auto Fuel Policy
Fuel Mega Major Rest Of India
Major cities
Quality Cities Cities
Mega Cities
Euro II April 2001. April 2003. April 2005.
Delhi Euro III April 2005. April 2010.
Agra
Euro IV April 2010. Not decided
Kanpur
Ahmedabad
Surat Kolkatta

Mumbai
Hyderabad
India Emission Regulations ~ EU Regulation
Pune Challenge to Vehicle Manufacturers:
Different Fuel Quality in different parts of
Bangalore the Country
Chennai
Same vehicles plying in various areas
Effects after-treatment devices/ OBD/
other engine components.

A SIAM Presentation
Why Fuel Quality is Important for
Emission Norms ..?
Some properties directly affect Engine
combustion & thus tail pipe emission
Becomes critical as emission norms become
stringent
Some properties affect engine subsystems
& cause emission deterioration during
vehicle use An issue to meet emission
deterioration limits of 80000 / 120000km as
per regulation
Why Fuel Quality is Important for
Emission Norms ..?
Some properties affect after treatment
devices (ATD) & cause emission
deterioration or premature failure of
ATD Difficulty to get sustainable
emission deterioration limits
Some properties are critical for OBD
sensors & its durability causing
frequent MIL lamp warning
Gasoline
Gasoline Engine Technology Advancement
Fuel After
Engine
Introduction Treatment
Design
System Devices

MPFI 3-way Cat with Conventional E-III


Close loop Engine
Adv. Elect. Control Elec. Heated Cat. Variable Valve
Close Coupled Cat Timing & Lift
OBD EGR
Down Size TC, SC
Fast Light off Sen.
Lean MPFI E-VI
HC Trap Variable Comp. Ratio

De NOx Cat. GDI - Stoichiometric


In Cylinder
Injection GDI Lean + Adv
NOx Storage
Boost
Major Milestone of Indian Gasoline Evolution
No Specifications

June GASOLINE BENZENE


Before 1996 REDUCTION
1994 5%
PROGRAMME IN INDIA
0.15 g/l
(4 metro) April
1995 April 1996
Unleaded 3% in Metro cities
4 metros Jan
1997
Low leaded April 2000 1 % in NCT &
Entire Country Jan Mumbai
1999
GASOLINE Unleaded Nov. 2000
LEAD PHASE- NCR Unleaded Feb
OUT IN INDIA 2000
Country
Gasoline Quality

Sulphur
Olefins
Benzene
Octane
Number
E100
Aromatics
Gasoline Sulfur - Effect on Emissions
Reduce efficiency of Catalysts
Adversely affect O2 Sensors
Affect On- Board Diagnostics
Ultra low sulfur (10ppm) require for Engine with
DeNOx Catalysts & NOx trap system Lean
Burn & GDI Engines
Important for Emission Durability of Catcon
ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES
MORE SENSITIVE TO SULFUR
Effect of Other Gasoline Properties on Emission
Gasoline Property Effect on Emission

-Lower Olefins Reduce HC


-Less Deposits
Olefins
-Low photochemical activity of HC in
atmosphere
-No direct effect on Emission
Octane Number -Improves Fuel Eff.
-Lower CO2 Emission

E100, T95 -Lower T90, Higher E100 Decrease HC

-Higher Aromatics causes deposits, de-


Aromatics
alkayte & forms Benzene in Exhaust
Gasoline Benzene - Effect on Emissions
Higher unburned fuel emissions result
in higher Benzene exposure.

Engine - out emission linearly


proportional to fuel Benzene content.

Evaporative Emission & Benzene


Exposure Relevant to India
Significance of Gasoline Characteristics
- overview
Property CO HC NOx Benzene Others

Sulfur 0 (SO2)
Aromatics 0 0
Benzene 0 0 0 0
Olefins 0 0 (O3)
Oxygenates 0 (CO2)
RVP 0 0 0 0
E100 0 0 0 0

High Moderate Low


Gasoline Specification
FUEL PARAMETERS BS II BS III BS IV EURO IV EURO V
BIS BIS BIS EN-228 EN-228
Compliance

720 -
Density, kg/m3 710-770 720-775 720-775 720-775 775

RON,
min 88 / 93 91 / 95 91 / 95 91 / 95 95
(Regular / Premium)
MON, Min. --- 81 / 85 81 / 85 81 / 85 85
(Regular / Premium)
Gasoline Specification .Contd
FUEL PARAMETERS BS II BS III BS IV EURO IV EURO V
BIS BIS BIS EN-228 EN-228
Compliance

Sulphur, ppm, Max 500 150 50 50 / 10 10

Lead, ppm, Max 130 5 5 5 5


Distillation Recovery

E 70, % v 10-45 10-45 10-45 22 - 50


E 100, % v/v 40-70 40-70 40-70 46 - 71 Min. 46
E 150, % v/v --- 75 75 75 Min. 75
E 180, % v/v 90 --- --- NA
FBP 215 210 210 210

Oxygen Content, % Mass, Max --- 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.7


Gasoline Specification .Contd
FUEL PARAMETERS BS II BS III BS IV BIS EURO IV EURO V
BIS BIS EN-228 EN-228
Compliance

RVP, @ 38C, kPa 35-60 60 60 Varies Max. 70

VLI 750 - 950 750 - 950 750 - 950 Varies

Olefin Content, Vol Max 21 / 18 21 / 18 18 18


Aromatic Content, % Vol --- 42 42 35 35
Oxygenates content, % v/v Max
Methanol -- -- -- 3 3
Ethanol 5 5 5 5 10
iso-Propyl Alcohol 10 10 10 10 12
iso-Butyl Alcohol 10 10 10 10 15
ter-Butyl Alcohol 7 7 7 7 15
ethers (5 or more Oxygen atoms) 15 15 15 15 22
Other oxygenates 8 8 8 10 15

Oxidation Stability, minutes, Min --- 360 360 360

RVP varies with Ethanol content with max cap


Global Gasoline Specs for Future Norms
WP 29 India -
EEC WWFC
(proposed) Recommend
No intentional
Lead [g/l](1) max 0,005 Unleaded addition, with a max 0,005
max 0,005
Sulphur [mg/kg](1) 10 10 10 10
Metal Additives [mg/l] Not detected
Oxygen [%m/m] [ 2,7 ](3.8) 2,7 2,7 2,7/3.5
Oxygenates [%v/v]
- methanol 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0
- ethanol 5,0(10.0) 5,0 5,0 5,0/ 10.0
- iso-propyl alcohol 10,0 10,0 10,0 10,0
- iso-butyl alcohol 10,0 10,0 10,0 10,0
- tert-butyl alcohol 7,0 7,0 7,0 7,0
- ethers 15,0 15,0 15,0 15,0
- other oxygenates 10,0 10,0 10,0 10,0
Global Gasoline Specs for Future Norms
WP 29 India -
EEC WWFC
(proposed) Recommend
45 100 (5 45 105(5
RVP [kPa] 45 100 40 70
grades) grades)
Density [kg/m3] 720 775 715 770 720 775 720 775
RON 95 91/ 95/98 95 95
MON 85 82.5/85/88 85 85
Benzene [%v/v] 1 1 1 1
Aromatics [%v/v] 35.0 30 35 35
Olefins [%v/v] 18 10 18 18
1050 to1250 (5
VLI (10VP + E70) - 1050 - 1250 900 - 1050
grades)
FBP [C] <210 <205 <210 <210
E70 [%v/v] 20-48/ 22-50 2045/ 25-47 20 50 10 45
E100 [%v/v] 4671 50 70 46 71 40 70
E150 [%v/v] 75 E180 90 75 75
FBP [oC] 210 205 85 210
Residue [%v/v ] <2 na <2 <2
Diesel
Diesel Engine Technology to Meet
Emission Norms
Fuel Injection After Treatment Engine Design
System Devices Changes
CC opti .with TC & Inter
Mechanical FE EGR On/OFF Cooler
EURO-II

-Reduced Crevice
Unit Injector / CRDI EGR with Elec. Control
-Reduced Pist.Crown
EURO-III
Oxidation Catalysts -Piston Ring Design
-Modified Comb. Ch

2-3 Split Injection Cooled EGR with VNT/ VGT


Control EURO-IV
Electonic Manage-ment
Patriculate Trap Strategy

5 Split Injection Cool EGR - Swirl Control


SCR
DPF - Variable VT EURO-V
Nox trap
DOC

Injection Rate Cool EGR + DPF + DOC HCCI


+ SCR EURO-VI
Control
Current Diesel Quality
Consideration
Sulfur
Cetane Number
Aromatics
Density
T95
Fuel Sulfur contributes to PM as sulfates
Sulfur affects activity of Some Specific After-treatment
Devices & OBD sensors
Ultra low sulfur essentially needed for DeNOx (passive
4-way type), CRT particulate traps, SCR & DPF Which
is poisoned by Sulfur
Sulfur decreases NOx Adsorber effectiveness by
reacting with adsorptive media
FIP Wear

Ultra Low sulfur essential for diesel engine as the norms get
revised & advanced type of after treatment devise used
Importance of Various Properties of Diesel
Diesel Property Effect on Emission
- Reduces CO, HC & Nox
Cetane Number - Reduces Noise, Improve Cold Startability
- Reduce Whote smoke
- Reduces CO, HC & Nox
Density & Viscosity - Reduce Density reduce Fuel Cons.
- Reduce Density reduce viscosity
- Influence PM
Sulfur - De Nox catalyst sensitive to S
- Low S causes FIE wear
- Influences Nox emission
Aromatics - PAH affects Particulate formation
- Reduce filter clogging

- Light End affect Cold Startability


Distillation T95
- Heavy ends affect PM, Nox, & HC

CFPP - Improve Cold startability

Flash Point - Safety in transportation


Major Diesel Specifications
FUEL PARAMETERS BS II BS III BS IV EURO IV EURO V
BIS BIS BIS EN-590 EN-590
Compliance

Density, kg/m3 820-860 820 - 845 820-845 820-845 820-845

Viscosity @40C, cSt 2 to 5 2 to 4.5 2 to 4.5 2 to 4.5 2 to 4.5

Cetane No. Min. 49 51 51 51 51

Sulphur, ppm (mg / kg), Max 500 350 50 10 10

Lubricity, micron, Max 460 460 460 460 460


(HFRR)
Major Diesel Specifications
FUEL PARAMETERS BS II BS III BS IV EURO IV EURO V
BIS BIS BIS EN-590 EN-590
Compliance

Flash Point, oC, Min. 35 35 35 55 55


(Abel)
T 95, % v/v oC, Max 370 360 360 360 360
(Distillation Recovery)
PAH %, Max - 11 11 11 11
(Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
Water Content, mg/kg, Max 500 200 200 200 200

CFPP, C, Max 6 different grades of


range +5 to -20 and
6 6 6 4 Arctic grades up
(Cold Filter Plugging Point) to -44

Oxidation Stability, g/ m3, Max - 25 25 25 25


How Diesel Specification different to EC
Specs
Flash point of Indian Diesel is 350 C vs EC limit of 550 C
Effect on Vehicle fire safety
IS standard has only 1 summer & 1 Winter Spec for
CFPP 180 C & 60 C against EC standard of 6 grades +50
to -200C & 4 artic grade till -440C
CFPP limit is insufficient to meet low ambient
requirement during winter months at some parts
Indian Standard does not require any intermediate
Distillation control, where as EC has limit on % recovered
at 2500C
Global Diesel Specs for Future Norms
India
WP 29
Property EEC Spec WWFC Recommen
Proposal
d
Sulphur [mg/kg] 10 10 10 10
Ash [%m/m] 0,01 0,001 0,01 0,01
Total
Contamination 24 10 24 24
[mg/kg]
Cetane Number 51 55 51 51
Cetane Index 46 52 46 46
Density [kg/m3] 820 845 820 840 820 845 820 845
Viscosity [mm2/s] 2,0 - 4,5 2,0 - 4,0 2,0 4,5 2,0 4,5
Flash Point [C] > 55 > 55 > 55 > 35*
T65 = 250 T65 = 250 T65 = 250
T50 [C] -
min min min
Global Diesel Specs for Future Norms
WP 29 India
Property EEC Spec WWFC
Proposal Recommend
T85 [C] 350 T90 = 320 350 -
T95 [C] 370 340 360 360
FBP [C] - 350 - -
PAH [%m/m] 8 2 (di+, tri+) 11 11
Carbon residue
0,3 0,2 0,3 0,3
[%m/m]
5oC < lowest
CFPP [C] < -20 to < +5 < -44 to < +5 < 6 to <18*
ambient
Cloud Point [C]
(severe winter - - < -34 to < -10 -
conditions)
Water [mg/kg] 200 200 200 200
Lubricity[micron] 460 400 460 460
Future Fuel Specification - Revision Needed
New Gen CRDI, >1600 bar, Lubricity < 400 m
Engine Design

dia ~0.1mm, Piezzo Inj. No free Water


Actuation, Multi Injection Reduced in Total Contamination
Change

No Metal Contamination (Cu, Zn


Cooled EGR ..<0.1 ppm)
Special Detergents ( prevent
Swirl Control Valve coking
New Combustion Process HCCI Total Aromatics Reduction -
A T Sym.

NOx Trap Sulphur < 10 ppm


PM Trap Low Ash fuels

Downsize Engine - Reduction of Total Aromatics


Reduction

& FBP - Low smoke at FL


Increase Specific power
CN >51, decrease noise, HC &
CO2

Need lower Compression Ratio


CO at low temperature
Other Issues / Concerns
Retail outlets and Fuel quality
Single Fuel & Single Emission is a future
necessity for effective results in India

No clear roadmap on
Ethanol gasoline blends
Bio Diesel
LPG
CNG
Hydrogen & HCNG Blends

A SIAM Presentation
Ethanol / Gasoline Blend
5% Blend of Ethanol Gasoline
implemented in India
No clear time frame available for all India
implementation
Sustained availability is a issue
Government considering introduction of
10 % blend
However no roadmap notified for
sustained all India implementation
Impact on in use vehicles particularly,
Two-wheelers is of concern
Impact of 10 % blend on increased fuel
consumption not highlighted

A SIAM Presentation
Biodiesel
National Bio Fuel Policy - MNRE
Vision
Accelerated development & promotion of cultivation
Production & use of bio-fuels to substitute petrol & diesel
Transport
Stationary and other applications
Benefits
Energy Security
Climate Change Mitigation
Create new Employment Opportunities
Environmentally Sustainable development

20% blending of bio-fuels, both for bio-diesel and bio-ethanol, by 2017


Road map for SUSTAINABLE availability required to enable all stake holders to
commit necessary resources

A SIAM Presentation
CNG / LPG
The specifications of CNG vary from city to city
The properties have now been frozen as directed
by EPCA
BIS standard still to be finalised
Sulphur content important needs to be further
reduced
Audit systems for quality needs to be put in place
Roadmap on availability in different cities on
sustained basis is necessary for the Industry to
prepare their production plans

A SIAM Presentation
A Typical CNG Dispensing Station in
Delhi
CNG Storage Cascade at CNG Dispensing
Station
What need to be Done for future
Emission and fuel quality are integral
Need to adhere to requisite quality a
must.
Gasoline & Diesel properties influence
engine out emission & affect after
treatment devices & OBD sensors.
Road map for future Emission & Fuel
Quality need to be evolved & notified

A SIAM Presentation
What need to be Done for future
Alignment of petrol / diesel standards
with EU regulations in all respects.
Need to evolve standards for CNG, LPG,
Bio Fuels & Hydrogen CNG blends
Roadmap for sustained availability in
consultation with all stake holders needs
to be notified

A SIAM Presentation