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4/17/2015 TimelineofConcrete

HistoricalTimelineofConcrete

12,000,000BC Reactionsbetweenlimestoneandoilshaleduringspontaneous
combustionoccurredinIsraeltoformanaturaldepositofcement
compounds.

3000BC Egyptiansusedmudmixedwithstrawtobinddriedbricks.Also
furtheredthediscoveryoflimeandgypsummortarasabindingagent
forbuildingthePyramids

3000BC Usedcementitiousmaterialstoholdbambootogetherintheirboats
andintheGreatWall.

300BC Romansusedslakedlimeavolcanicashcalledpozzuolana,found
nearPozzoulibythebayofNaples.Theyusedlimeasacementitious
material.Plinyreportedamortarmixtureof1partlimeto4parts
sand.Vitruviusreporteda2partspozzolanato1partlime.Animal
fat,milk,andbloodwereusedasadmixtures

193BC ofPorticuHousesAemeliamadeofboundstonestoformconcrete

200AD ThePantheon

After400AD TheartofConcretewaslostafterthefalloftheRomanEmpire

1678 JosephMoxonwroteaboutahiddenfireinheatedlimethat
appearsupontheadditionofwater.

1756 JohnSmeaton,BritishEngineer,rediscoveredhydrauliccement
throughrepeatedtestingofmortarinbothfreshandsaltwater

1779 BryHigginswasissuedapatentforhydrauliccement(stucco)for
exteriorplasteringuse.

1796 JamesParkerfromEnglandpatentedanaturalhydrauliccementby

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calciningnodulesofimpurelimestonecontainingclay,called
ParkersCementorRomanCement.

18121813 LouisVicatofFrancepreparedartificialhydrauliclimebycalcining
syntheticmixturesoflimestoneandclay.

1818 MauriceSt.Legerwasissuedpatentsforhydrauliccement.

1818 CanvassWhite,AmericanEngineer,foundrockdepositsinMadison,
County,NewYork,thatmadehydrauliccementwithlittleprocessing

18201821 JohnTickellandAbrahamChamberswereissuedmorehydraulic
cementpatents.

1822 JamesFrostofEnglandpreparedartificialhydrauliclimelike
VicatsandcalleditBritishCement.

1824 JosephAspdin,bricklayerandmasoninLeeds,England,patented
whathecalledportlandcement,sinceitresembledthestonequarried
ontheIsleofPortlandofftheBritishcoast.

1825 ErieCanalcreatedthefirstgreatdemandforcementintheUS

I.K.Bruneliscreditedwiththefirstengineeringapplicationof
1828 portlandcement,whichwasusedtofillabreachintheThames
Tunnel.

1850s JeanLouisLambotwasthefirsttousereinforcinginboats

1854 WilliamB.Wilkinsonerectedareinforcedconcreteservantscottage

18591867 PortlandcementusedintheconstructionoftheLondonsewersystem

1867 JosephMonierpatentedadesignforreinforcesgardentubs,beams
andposts

1868 ThefistrecordedshipmentofportlandcementtotheUS

18501880 FrancoisCoignet,abuilderinFrance,responsibleforthefirst
widespreaduseofconcreteinbuildings

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1871 DavidO.SaylorestablishedthefirstportlandcementplantintheUS
inCoplay,PA

18711875 WilliamE.Wardbuildsthefirstlandmarkbuildinginreinforced
concreteinPortChester,NY.DesignedbyArchitectRobertMook

1883 WarddeliveredapaperonthehousetotheSocietyofMechanical
Engineers.

EarnestL.Ransompatentedareinforcingsystemusingtwistedrods.
1884

1885 F.Ransomepatentedaslightlytiltedhorizontalkilnwhichcouldbe
rotatedsothematerialmovedgraduallyformoneendtotheother

1887 HenriLeChatelierofFranceestablishedoxideratiostopreparethe
properamountoflimetoproduceportlandcement.Henamedthe
components:Alite(tricalciumsilicate),Belite(dicalciumsilicate),and
Celite(tetracalciumaluminoferrite).Heproposedthathardeningis
causedbytheformationofcrystallineproductsofthereaction
betweencementandwater.

1889 Thefirstconcretereinforcedbridgeisbuilt.

1891 GeorgeBartholomewplacedthefirstconcretestreetintheUSAin
Bellefontaine,OH.whichstillexists.

1904 Ingallsbldg.usingtheRansomesystem,wasthefirstconcrete

skyscraper.

1870s FrancoisHennebiquepatentedtheHennebiquesystem.Hewas
responsibleforthewidespreadacceptanceofreinforcedconcrete.

1902 ThomasEdisonwasapioneerinthefurtherdevelopmentoftherotary
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kiln.

1903 AugustPerremakesconcreteanacceptablearchitecturalmaterial
Perrebuilds25bisRueFranklinandtheTheatreChampsElysee

1904 Ingallsbuilding,probablythebeginningofhighriseconcreteconst.

1916 PortlandCementAssociationfounded

1917 TheUSBureauofStandardsandtheAmericanSocietyfortesting
Materialsestablishedastandardformulaforportlandcement

1919 MeisvanderRoheproposesconcretehighrises

Thetallestconcretebuildingwasbuilt230ft.,theMedicalArts
1922 bldg.,Dallas

1922 NotreDameduRaincy

1927 EugeneFreyssinetdevelopssuccessfulprestressedconcrete

1930 EduardoTorroja,designedthefirstthinshelledroofatAlgeciras

1935 EduardoTorroja,designedtheMadridHippodrome.

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1936 Thefirstmajorconcretedams,HooverDamandGrandCouleeDam,
werebuilt.

1935 PierLuigiNervibuiltthehangersfortheItalianAirForceusingthin
shellconstruction

1931 LeCorbusierbuildsVillaSavoye

1936 FrankLloydWrightwastheoneofthefirsttoexploitthecantileverat
Fallingwater.

1940s PortlandCementLaboratoriesperfectairentrainedconcrete

1947 FLLWbuildsonMeisideasattheJohnsonwaxtower

1956 FLLWbuildstheGuggenheimmadeofreinforcedconcrete
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1957 LeCorbusierbuildsRonchamp

~1958 FelixCandelamasterstheconcreteshell

1958 FelixCandelabuildstherestaurantatXochimilco

1958 ExecutiveHouseHotel,Chicago,exceedstheMedicalArtsrecordat
371ft.

1959 LeCorbusierbuildsLaTourette

1960 BankofGeorgiaBuildinginAtlantabeatsExecutiveHouseat391ft.

1961 LeCorbusierbuildsthegovernmentcomplexatChandigaraIndia

1962 BertrandGoldbergstwintowersatMarinaCitymarkedthe
beginningoftheuseofreinforcedconcreteinmodernskyscrapersand
settheheightrecordto588ft.

1964 1000LakeShoreDrivebeatsMarinaCityat640ft.6000psiconcrete
inthelowercolumnswasusedforthefirsttime.

1964 PlaceVictoriainMontreal,ht624ft.using6000psiconcretecolumns

1967 Firstconcretedomedsportstructure,theAssemblyHall,was

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constructedatTheUniversityofIllinois,atUrbanaChampaign.

1968 LakePointTowers,70stories,645ft.7500psiconcrete

1970 OneShellPlaza,Houston,ht714ft.,using6000psiconcrete

1970s Fiberreinforcementinconcretewasintroduced.

1975 WaterTowerPlace,859ft.,9000psiconc.usingsuperplasticizers

1985 PeakshipmentofportlandcementtotheUSincreasedtonearly3
millionbarrels

1985 The"higheststrength"concretewasusedinbuildingtheUnionPlaza
constructedinSeattle,Washington.

1989 ScotiaPlazaBuilding,Toronto,907ft.

1990 311SWackerandTwoPrudentialPlazainChicagosetsnewheight
recordat920ft.

1996 PetronasTwinTowers,1476ft.

References:
ReinforcedConcrete,PreliminarydesignforArchitectsandBuildersR.E.Schaeffer,1992McGraw
HillInc.
HandoutonSkyscrapers
WorldBookEncyclopedia
WorldWideWebpage:ThePortlandCementAssociationOnline,http://www.portcement.org

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