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EO 10A-20A-2

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR FORCE

DESCRIPTIDN AND MAINTENANCE


INSTRUCTIDNS

PACKARD MERLIN V1650-3,-7

LATEST REVISED PAGES SUPERSEDE


THE SAME PAGES OF PREVIOUS DAlE i

Insert revised pages Into basic


publication. Destroy supeneded pages.

ISSUED ON AUTHORIT Y OF THE CHIEF OF THE AIR STAFF

2 DEC 49
Revised 7 Apr 53
EO 10A-20A-2

LIST OF RCAF REVISIONS

DATE PAGE NO DATE PAGE NO


7 Apr 53 Cover
7 Apr 53 A
<\ug 51 20
.pr 53 23
ug 51 35

*Asterisks appearing opposite entries denote changes since last issue 0

A Revised 7 Apr 53
Section I
EO lOA-20A-2

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Figure 2- Three-Quarter Right Front View V-1650-3 Engine.


Note Auxiliary Drive for Propeller Governor and Vacuum Pump on Reduction Gear
Housing Also Oil Pressure Relief Valves Assembly on Side of Upper Crankcase.
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Figure 3-Left View Shows Propeller End of Engine, Right View Shows Supercharger End. o:::I
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Figure 4-Side View V-16S0-3 Engine Showing Electric Starter and Hand Cranking Device Below Magneto.
Note also Coolant Pump and Pressure Oil Pump at Right of Electric Starter.
EO lOA-20A..2

111017 - ARRANGE_NT
INDUCTION MANIFOLD
111004 .......HGE ..I:NT
SUPERCHARGER TWO
ITAer: TWO SPEED
611025-ARRAHGEMENT------~
COOLANT FRONT OUTUT 111010 -ARRANGEMENT
CARBURETION UNIT COMPUTE
61& 121- ASSEMBLY
CYLINDER BLOCK AND HEAD-BAHK ~

616120 - ASSEMBLY 610017 -ARRANlIEMEHT


CYLINDER BLOCK AND HEAD-aANN V~ WHEELCASE UPPER DRIVE

11019 ARRANGEMENT
WHEELCASE AND GEARS

611009- ARRANGEMENT
AFTER COOlER HOUS_
AND CORE

>"611020- ARRANGEMENT
PROPELLER SHAfT.REOUC~
GEAR AHD FRONT ACCESSORY
DRWES.

VERTICAL SECTION THRV VACUUM PUMP


AND PROPELLER GOVERNOR DRIVES.

60000!-ASSEMSLY 601722 -ASSEMBLY


CRANKSHAFT CRANKCASE HYDRAULIC
PUMP ORNE ADAPTOR
607892- ASSEMBLY
CRANKCASE LOWER HALF. 604710 ASSEMElY-
AND OIL PUMPS HYDRAtA..IC PUMP DRIVE
(SUPPLIED AND ASseMBLED
602471-ASSEMSLY
BY ENGINE CONTRACTOR
CRANKCASE UPPER HALF, AND STUDS
ON ORDER)

6150~- ASSUIELY PUIIIfI' INLfT SHOWN IN ntiS


OIL.. PUMP SCAV'E:NGER POSITION '01'1 CON"lOffEHCE CN..Y

610033 - ARRANGEMENT
103211- ASSlJ8.Y
OIL PUMPS
COOLANT PUMP

SECTION THRU GENERATOR DRIVE


Figure 5-Vertical Section Through Side of Engine.
AND AFTER COOLER PUMP Refer to Figure 6 for Sections Through Propeller and Supercharger

ix
EO lOA-20A-2

61,024 -ARRANGEMENT
VALVE AND FITTINGS 611005 -ARRANGEM!NT
PfUMING PPS

111007 - ARRANGE:ME.NT
IU.DIO SHELDIMCiI

..... "8"

110013 - AltMHGEMENT
TACHOlItETfR DftIVE

llOto" ARRANBEMENT
CAMSHAfT Dl'M

~1-ASSDl8LY
MAGNETO".ot UNIT (SHOWN)

1OI902-ASSEMLV
MAGNETO "B" UNIT

111015 - ARRANGEMENT
MAGNETO IOOSTR COil
AN 0 GROUND CDNHECnON

U~----+--+1I--lft~!1,:::---.toOl'."'.GNETO
ARRAHGEMIDIT DftIV[
AHO AlllNGS

01.. YOIT CONNECTION


AOr.IUSTAILE AS 10
ANGULAR POSrTlON

H70-ASSl".lY
STARTER MOTOft ENGAGeNG
..CH.....SM AHD lOUR GEARS

604ft1- ASSE.....'
OL mTiNG OIL STltAlNER
(CUIOO)

ell0l7 -ARRANGEMENT
llOOtO - ARRAHGOIEHT
COOlANT INLET COHHECTtOH HAND CRANKING EQUI~"EHf.
BANK "..." (to: tHaT HI I) (HOT FURNISHED wrnt ENGN:)

111006- ARRANGE" ENT 6"374 -ASSEMBLY


OIL FITTINGS ANO SlAfitTER Il101011 (24 VOLT)
EXT(RNAL PIPING
., 1002.- OIAGA." OF
LUBRtCATION SYSTEM

10.10- ASSEMelY
Oil MLI[F VALVE

611027 - ARRANGEMENT
COOLANT INLET CONNECTION
BAHK -Soo ISH S~ET Nt t I

VERl1CAL SECTION Tli RU


FUEL PUMP DRIVE.

Figure 6-Left View Shows Section Through


Propeller End of Engine, Right View Through
Supercharger End

x
Section I
EO lOA-20A-2 Introduction

SECTION I
INTRODUCTION
1. This Handbook comprises Service Instructions for c. Direction of rotation "'of crankshaft and propeller
the Rolls-Royce V-1650-3, V-1650-7, and Merlin 68 shaft are determined by looking at the supercharger
and 69 Engines, manufactured by the Packard Motor end of engine. Rotation of all accessories is ascertained
Car Company, Detroit, Michigan. The Merlin 68 and 69 by looking at the driving end of the accessory.
engines are identical with V-1650-3 and -7, except that d. Cylinders are numbered from the propeller end;
the Merlin engines are equipped with a different reduc- "A" bank side , "AI" to "A6" , an'd "B" bank side,
tion gear, dual drive, generator drive, constant-speed "BI" to "B6'.
propeller circuits, and coolant pump connections which
3. The fits, limits, clearances, and tolerances applying
permit pump to be connected between engine outlets
to these engines will be found in the Table of Limits,
and radiator inlet. The Merlin 68 differs from the. others
AN 02-55-1.
in that it incorporates an auxiliary gear box located on
the "B" bank, or left side of the superl;harger housing. 4.. Tools required to accomplish the service, mainte-
This supplies power to operate accessories remotely nance, and adjustments specified in this Handbook are
mounted on the fire wall or bulkhead. listed in section VIII of this Handbook.
5. Section X, entitled "Emergency Repair and Replace-
2. In this Handbook the following definitions will be
ment," has been added to this Handbook. The purpose
used:
of the instructions contained in this section is to explain
a. The front of the engine will be called the "PRO" how repairs which are ordinarily beyond the scope of
PELLER END," and the rear will be called the "SUPER- operational squadrons may be made to an engine with-
CHARGER END." (See figure 3.) out returning the engine to the repair depot. It must be
b. The terms "Right" and "Left" will not be used. understood by all personnel that these repairs are for
Instead, looking at engine from the supercharger end, emergency conditions only, where it is necessary to get
the right side will be called the "A" Bank or Oil Pres- the airplane into the air again as quickly as possible.
sure Relief Valve Side, and the left side will be called 6. Specification numbers as listed in this Handbook
"B" Bank or Generator Drive Side. (See figures I are basic numbers and will be interpreted to include all
and 2.) revisions and amendments thereto.
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2

- PROPELLER

BANK
CAMSHAFT
EXH.A-I--w"'~
BRACKET N!I

EXHAUST
ROCKER SHAFT

INTAKE INTAKE
ROCKER SHAFT ROCKER SHAFT

II 1/ II II
B MAGNETO A MAGNETO
(EXHAUST) (INTAKE)

FORK ROD BLADE ROD

SUPERCHARGER END
Figure 7 -Schematic View Arrangement V-16S0-3 and Merlin 68 and 69 Engines.
Note Cylinder Numbering and Location of Magnetos, Fork Rods and Rocker Shafts

2
Section /I
EO lOA-20A-2

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Section /I
EO lOA-20A-2
Paragraphs 1-4

SECTION II
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
I. G!5NERAL. c. A forged aluminum ring gasket (4) between top
The Packard-built Rolls-Royce V-1650-3, V-1650-7, of cylinder liner and bottom face of cylinder head seals
and Merlin Engines are of the 12-cylinder, valve-in- the liners against gas leakage.
head, spark ignition, pressure liquid cooled, 60 degree d. The fourteen coolant passage register holes (5) in
Vee type with built-in reduction gearing of 0.479 to 1 cylinder block and cylinder head are sealed with rubber
ratio for V-1650- 3 and -7 and 0.420 to 1 ratio for Merlin seals (6) around the brass connection tubes (7) as
68 and 69 models, between crankshaft and propeller. shown.
The induction system consists of a centrifugal, two- e. Each cylinder block assembly (figure 11) is at-
stage, two-speed, gear-driven supercharger controlled tached to the crankcase with 14 long, high-expansion
by an automatic manifold (boost) pressure regulator steel studs anchored in the crankcase and extending
and supplied by a Bendix-Stromberg double-throated, upward through the cylinder head.
injection-type updraft carburetor. The two-piece cylin-
der blocks have two inlet and two exhaust valves for 3. CYLINDER HEAD.
each cylinder, while the valves are actuated by an over- a. A one-piece removable cylinder head (figure 12)
head camshaft on each bank. The force-feed lubrication carries the camshaft, valve mechanism, spark plugs, and
system is of the dry-sump type having three pressure the exhaust, induction, and water outlet manifolds for
stages. Ignition is provided by two high-tension mag- one bank of cylinders. In addition to the 14 long studs
netos, each supplying one of the two spark plugs in that extend from the crankcase, the cylinder head is
each cylinder. The high-pressure liquid-cooling system attached with 24 short studs which extend downward
utilizes a percentage of glycol as a precaution against through bosses on the upper sides of the cylinder block.
freezing. b. The V-1650-3 and -7 engine tachometer drive is
2. CYLINDER BLOCK. mounted on the supercharger end of "A" bank cylinder
head and driven by the pinion on the outside rocker
a. Each cylinder block is a light alloy casting fitted shaft and the ratio is 0.5 to 1 of engine speed. (On the
with six replaceable, wet-type steel liners. (See figure Merlin engines, the tachometer drive is located in the
10.) The upper ends of the cylinder liners are sealed supercharger end of the "B" bank cylinder head cover.
against coolant leakage by means of a rubber seal (1). The ratio is 0.25 to 1.)
The lower ends of the liners are coolant-sealed by two
rubber triple seals (2), located in a recess of the cyl- 4. SPARK PLUGS.
inder block and held in position by seal retaining Each cylinder is fired by two radio-shielded 14-mm
collars (3). spark plugs. The spark plug holes in the cylinder heads
b. Oil leakage from the crankcase is prevented by the are fitted with threaded adaptors into which the plugs
synthetic rubber sealing ring (M) for each liner set into are screwed, the adaptors being locked in position by
a counterbore in the upper crankcase. a retaining nut with a left-hand thread.

Figure 9-Assembly of Cylinder Block and Liners


4
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2

ORE PLUG

GASKET

LOCKRING~~~~~~~
TUBE NUT"-f'~~jJJ,.JI.-Il.,J~>O<Y1

GLAND-I>0<AX.I'lI

SEAL

1111

6 @ BRIGHT-RAY
COATING
1

BLOCK TO
HEAD SEAL

STUD
TUBE

LOWER SEAl;;

figure lO-Vertical Section Tbrough Coolant Jacket, Cylinder Liner and Cylinder Head

5
Section "
Paragraphs 5-6 EO lOA~20A-2

figure JJ-Cylinder Block and Head Before Assembly

figure J2-Cylinder Head


Showing Valves and Cylinder
Head to Block Studs

5. VALVES AND VALVE PARTS. der head is carried in seven forged aiuminum-alloy
a. Both valves (figure 10) are forged from chro- brackets, the unlined front and intermediate brackets
mium-nickel-tungsten steel but they are not interchange- providing the camshaft beafinl.- .~,J.< '; .. :es while the rear
able. The solid stem inlet valves (8) have their seating bracket is fitted with a brf'm", b.d"\:ng. A ball thrust
faces protected from erosion by a nickel-chromium bearing is installed on <:......} :;-;r-.:.::;U;I between the cam-
coating known as Bright-Ray while the sodium-cooled shaft gear and the adjacent ,~~'" aft, bracket, one race-
exhaust valves (9) have this protection extended to way for this bearing being located in the gear hub.
cover the head. Integral webs on each side of the camshaft bearing
b. All valve stems have extremely hard applied tips brackets carry the rocker shafts on which the valve-
to minimize wear and each is fitted with a small steel actuating rocker levers pivot, and these shafts extend
reLining ring (eirclip) near its upper end to prevent beyond the bearing bracket at the supercharger end to
the valve falling into its cylinder if the springs should carry the bronze bushed spur gears which are available
break. Each valve is seated by a pair of coil springs for driving accessories.
pos:ti0ned by an upper and a lower retaining collar,
the upper collar being anchored by a keeper of the
split-cone type.
c. The cast-iron inlet valve guides and the phosphor-
bror.ze exhaust valve guides are pressed into the cylinder
head, while the inserted alloy-steel valve seats.. ar.e
screwed and shrunk into it.
6. CAMSHAFT AND ROCKER MECHANISM.
a. The single camshaft (4, figure 14) on each cylin- figure J3-Valve and lockring

6
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2 Paragraphs 6-10

b. Double spur pInIOnS (1) bolted to the camshaft held to close limits to locate the block longit.udinally
gear (2) mesh with gears (3) on the rocker shafts and while the No. 6 liner enters an oval-shaped opening
thus provide drives for various accessories which may machined with its largest diameter lengthwise of the
be mounted on the supercharger ends of the cylinder crankcase to permit longitudinal expansion.
heads.
9. CRANKCASE, LOWER.
c. The valve actuating rockers have cam contact pads
faced with hard chromium and are right and left hand, The shallow lower crankcase (figure 17) has a sump
twelve rockers on each cylinder head being offset to the at each end and carries the pressure and scav~nge oil
right and twelve to the left. The pivot ends of the pumps, the scavenge pump oil screens, and the hydraulic
rockers are fitted with double bushings of light alloy, pump when so equipped. The baffle in the lower
both being short enough to form an annular pocket crankcase tends to reduce surging at any position of
between their inner ends to provide an oil passage coo- the engine. The two scavenge pumps are mounted in-
necting with the drilled lead in the rocker through side the lower crankcase on the floor of the sump at
which lubrication is supplied to the bearing surface. of supercharger end and the pressure oil pump is attached
the cam contact pad. The opposite ends of the rockers directly underneath on the outside of the crankcase.
carry screw-type, adjusting tappets, the valve stem ends Two removable oil screens serve the scavenge pumps;
ofwhich are crowned. Spacers and spacing washers locate the forward unit being connected by an extension pipe
the rockers in their respective positions on the shafts. with the sump at propeller end of crankcase, while the
Intake shafts are not interchangeable with exhaust shafts. other unit functions for the pump which scavenges the
sump at the supercharger end of crankcase. The auxil-
7. CAMSHAFT DRIVE. iary scavenge pump for the supercharger impeller be<:r-
The camshaft drive is transmitted from the upper ing is located directly below the pressure pump.
vertical drive (G, figure 36) in the wheel case to each
camshaft bevel gear by an inclined driveshaft, these
10. CRANKSHAFT CONSTRUCTION.
shafts being externally splined at each end. The lower a. The crankshaft (figure 18) is forged of nickel-
ends fit into the bevel gears (M) driven by the upper chromium molybdenum steel machined all over, ni-
vertical drive gear (L) and the upper ends into the trided, and statically and dynamically balanced. It h?:..
bevel gears that drive the camshaft gears (2). The seven bearings and six throws with the crankpins num-
uneven number of splines permits a vernier adjustment bered consecutively, 1 to 6 from the propeller end.
of the valve timing. Eight of the crank webs are extended beyond the JOUl-
nals opposite their respective crankpins for counter-
~ CRANKCAS~ UPPE~ balancing.
a. The upper crankcase (figure 15) has two engine b. An internally splined coupling, with timing marks
mounting feet on each side and carries the crankshaft stamped on its outer face, is bolted to the propeller end
and main bearings, cylinder blocks, generator, wheel- of the crankshaft and connects with the externally
case with accessory drives, supercharger, and reduction splined coupling shaft that drives the reduction gear
gear. drive pinion. The journal at supercharger end of the
b. The oil pressure relief valves unit is mounted on crankshaft is internally splined to accommodate the
the "A" bank side of the upper crankcase and the coupling sleeve which engages the torsionally flexible
generator-drive and support bracket is located on the spring-drive unit to provide a cushioned drive to t.he
"B" bank side. supercharger and the auxiliary drives in the wheel case.
c. The lower ends of the cylinder liners fit ihto c. The crankshaft journals and crankpins are hollow
openings in the upper crankcase and the cylinder blocks to act as reservoirs for oil to lubricate the main and con-
seat on the inclined faces. The clearance between No. necting-rod bearings, these hollow portions being sealed
3 cylinder liner and crankcase opening (figure 15) is at each end by plu~s secured bv a through bolt.

Figure 14- Top View "A" Bank Showing Valve Actuating Mechanism. Note Camshaft and Rocker Shaft Spur Gears
(J J and C3J, also Bevel Drive Gear (2J on Camshaft

7
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2

Figure r5 - Upper Crankcase Assembly Showing Mounting Feet and Integral


Reduction Gear Housing. Note Holes for Main Bearihg Cap Lateral Bolts

Figure r6-Lower Side of Upper Crankcase With Bearings and Cap Removed

8
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2 Paragraphs 11-12

figure 17-Scavenge Pumps and


Oil Screens Are in
lower Crankcase

---- MAIN OUTLET

figure J'- The Nitrided Crankshaft Showing Eight Counterweights

II. CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS AND CAPS. crankpin. (See figure 20.)
a. The ~even crankshaft journal bearings (figure 16) c. The blade rod lower end is fitted with steel-backed
are of the removable precision type, comprising 14 bearing shells lined with a silver alloy, which bear
flanged steel half shells lined with bearing silver over directly on the forked rod bearing block. (See figure 21.)
which is plated a thin layer of lead indium. End thrust d. The bearing block and shells are drilled through
of the crankshaft is taken by the center main bearing with four radial holes 90 degrees apart at their center,s
which has two annular oil grooves extending 24 de- to pass oil from the crankpin to the 360 degree annular
grees up and down from the split on each side. The distributing grooves in the center of the blade rod shClls.
front and rear bearings are grooveless while the inter- (See figures 16 and 19.)
mediate bearings numbers 2, 3, 5 and 6 are each pro-
vided with a 360 degree annular oil groove. A dowel
in each bearing cap prevents rotation of the bearing
sh~lls.
b. The forged aluminum bearing caps are seated in
rectangular cutaways milled into the crankcase trans-
verse webs (figure 16) and each cap is held in place
by two studs, one of which also serves as a locating
dowel. Two transversely drilled holes in each cap
register with similarly located holes in the crankcase
webs to accommodate through bolts which tie the
structure together laterally.
12. CONNECTING RODS.
a. The steel I-beam connecting rods are of the forked
and blade type, the forked rods operating in the "B"
cylinder bank. All rods have separate lower end bear-
ing shells.
b. The forked rod is of the marine type comprising
an upper strut bolted to' a split steel bearing block
assembly in which is carried the removable-type, silver- figure 19-0il Plugs in Crankshaft Main Journals
lead indium lined, steel-backed shells that bear on the and Crankpins

9
Section II
Paragraphs 13-14 EO lOA=20A-2

ROD BLOCK

Figure 20-Exploded View and Assembly of Fork Connecting Rod

13. PISTON. PISTO,N RING. AND PISTON PIN. 14. SPRING DRIVE SHAFT ASSEMBLY.
The forged aluminum pistons which are elliptically a. Torque is transmitted from the crankshaft to the
ground on their outside diameters, carry' three COm- supercharger and the auxiliary drives in the wheel case
pression rings and one ventilated-type oil ring above by a spring-drive unit consisting of a torsionally resil-
the piston pin and one below. Pistbns on later produc- ient inner shaft (A) and a stiff hollow outer shaft
tion engines were shorter and provided with three com- (F). (See figure 23.)
pression rings above the pin and one oil ring below. b. The inner shaft (A) is splined at both ends. The
The upper end of the connecting rod is provided with a large end fits into the splined crankshaft coupling sleeve
floating bronze bushing for the piston pin which is also and the small end engages with the internally splined
free to float in the piston bosses, but is restrained from hub (C) of the supercharger driving gear (D) bolted
contacting the cylinder walls by two retaining rings. to the, flanged end of the outer shaft, which outer shaft

21-Exploded View and Partial Installation of Blade Connecting Rod


10
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2 Paragraphs 14- 15

co
Figure 22-Piston, Piston Rings, Piston Pin, Piston Pin Retaining Rings, and Connecting Rod Piston Pin Bushing

also carries the upper and lower vertical-drive bevel the coupling sleeve to permit six degrees of torsional
driving gear (DD). A sleeve (E) splined onto the front movement by the inner shaft before the sleeve comes
end of the outer shaft (F) also fits into the splined into engagement with the coupling. The flexibility of
crankshaft coupling sleeve where the outer shaft is the inner shaft absorbs torsional disturbances.
carried in a bronze bushing. There is sufficient clearance
between the splines of the sleeve (E) and the splines in
15. WHEELCASE.
a. GENERAL.- The wheel case assembly is a detach-
able unit bolted to the supercharger end of the crank-
case. It houses the gearing and shafts that drive the
camshafts, magnetos, supercharger, generator and oil,
fuel, and coolant pumps. In addition, it carries the
magnetos, coolant pump, fuel pump, electric starting
motor, and hand starting mechanism.
b. UPPER VERTICAL DRIVE (figures 23, 24, and,
36).-'1'he upper vertical drive shaft carries three gears:
the lower bevel (H) meshes with driving gear (DD) on
the spring-drive outer shaft; the center helical gear (J)
operates the magneto driving gear while the upper bevel
gear (L) is splined on the end of the shaft and drives
the lower gears (M) of the camshaft drive trains. A ball
bearing at the lower .end and a roller bearing at upper
end support the shaft.
c. LOWER VERTICAL DRIVE.- The lower vertical
drive shaft (N, figures 24 and 36) also carries three
Figure 23-Spring Drive Unit Transmits Drive From gears; the upper is a bevel gear (0) which meshes with
Crankshaft to Supercharger. Inner Shaft "A" the driving gear (DD) on the spring driVE" shaft; the
Has 6-Degree Angular Lag center gear (P) is of the helical type to engage the fuel

11
Section II
Paragraphs 15-16 EO lOA=20A-2

Figure 26-lmpeller Tail Shaft Bearing Construction

pump driving gear (Q); the lower is a spur gear (R)


driving the oil pump idler gear and hydraulic gear
trains. The shaft which rotates in two ball bearings, one
near each end, is also internally splined to carry a quill
shaft which extends through the coolant pump adaptor
housing to connect with the coolant pump drive coup-
ling. This adaptor is machined at its upper end to hold
Figure 24-Engine Side of Wheel Case. Gear fRJ a cover fitted with a long spirally grooved oil baffle
Drives Oil Pump Idler Gear sleeve which extends upward in the space between the
quill shaft and the lower vertical drive shaft.

16. SUPERCHARGER GEARS AND CLUTCHES


a. The supercharger is a two-stage two-speed gear-
driven unit. A 24-volt solenoid operates a balanced
hydraulic valve, which controls the changeover to ob-
tain the desired blower ratio.
b. Low and high gear ratios are obtained by the three
duplicate planetary clutch assemblies (figure 27), all
three units driving in both low and high ratios. In low
gear (figures 28 and 30), the spring drive gear trans-
mits power through the pinions to the planetary assem-
blies. With the planetary clutch shaft running free the
rollers in the planetary assemblies ride up on the lands
and lock the whole unit in direct drive. In this case the
planetary gears are locked and the power transmission
is direct from pinion to impeller shaft diiftir:tg gear.
c. When the solenoid is activated (figures 29 and 31),
moderate oil pressure is directed to;,th,e back of the three
clutch pistons engaging the splinedjfronze clutch plates
on the planetary clutch shaft. wit'ff' the stationary steel
f
plates, thus locking the shaft's. The shafts being station-
ary the planetary rollers disengage from the planetary
cage. The sun gear is now immobile and the planetary
gears rotate around the sun gear on their shafts. Then
instead of being a single solid unit as in low blower
ratio, the units transmit power from the pinions through
Figure 25-Supercharger Side of Wheel Case With the rotating planetary gears to the inner ring gears and
Supercharger Gear Case Installed impeller driving gears.
12
Section II
Paragraphs 16-17

AFTER COOLER PLANETARY RING


PUMP IMPELLER GEAR AND PIN ION.

L GEN . DRIVE
MAIN DRIVE

STARTER CLUTCH SHAFT

GEN. DRIVING GEAR --.I ~-


SECOND STAGE
IMPELLER.
L FIRST STAGE
IMPELLER.

Figure 27 -Schematic View of Supercharger and Generator Drives

d. When the current is discontinued at the solenoid, with this system. The "A" bank planetary pIniOn in-
the valve spring doses the valve, the clutch release corporates dogs for the starter engaging mechanism.
springs force the clutch plates out of contact, and the
17. MANIFOLD PRESSURE (BOOST) REGULATOR.
three units return to low ratio. Therefore, whenever the
engine is stopped the ratio will always return to low a. GENERAL.- The induction manifold (boost) pres-
blower. sure is automatically controlled by a regulating unit
which is attached to the oblique facing on the "B" side
e. The clutches have a safety factor of 20 per cent of the supercharger casings. (See figure 136). This pres-
overload and once assembled have no adjustments. sure regulator (boost control) is designed to maintain,
They are always synchronized by hydraulic pressure, and within desirable limits, a selected manifold pressure,
plate wear will not disrupt the perfect timing possible independent of altitude up to critical altitudes of the

Low Gear High Gear

Figure 28 -Over-running Clutch Locked Figure 29-0ver-running Clutch Free

13
Section 1/
Paragraph 17 EO lOA-20A-2

Figure 30-Spring Activated, Solenoid Inactive Figure 31 -Solenoid Activated

supercharge!. The action of this unit superimposes an aneroid cam control lever (22) Movement of the sun
automatic control upon that of the hand-operated throt- wheel (34) rotates the planet gears (35) meshing with
tle lever thereby relieving the pilot of the necessity of sun wheel (36) which is connected to the throttle (15)
adjusting the throttle position to maintain the desired through suitable linkage. Pressure differential is utilized
manifold pressure. as the force on the relay piston (13) and determines
. b. DESCRIPTfON.- The pressure regulator (boost throttle opening to suit altitude.
iontrol) is illustrated diagrammatically in figure 32. (2) For any set position of the pilot's lever, the
It comprises a pneumatically operated relay piston (13), piston valve (7) is held centrally between the ports (11)
the motion of which is transmitted through suitable and (12) at one particular pressure. Any variation in
linkage. to the carburetor throttle (15) by means of the this pressure due to change in altitude or engine speed
differential (14) on the control shaft. The relay piston acts on the aneroid (6) thereby moving piston valve (7)
(13 )'moveshorizontally in a cylinder incorporated in up if the pressure increases or down if the pressure
the regulator body which also contains the aneroid- decreases. In the first case, port (11) will be exposed to
operated piston valve (7), a barrel-type isolating valve. suction pressure and port (12) to boost pressure causing
(16), an emergency pressure control valve (17), and air relay piston (13) to move slightly outward toward rear
."passages necessary for the functioning of the regulator of engine (to the right in figure 32), closing the throttle
assembly. The aneroid metallic bellows (6), operating slightly until equilibrium is restored, when piston valve
cam (21) and rocker arm (30) are located in a housing (7) will again float between ports (11) and (12). In
mounted onJ0p of the regulator body. the latter case, when the manifold pressure falls off
slightly, the piston valve (7) will move downward
c. OPERAnON OF THE REGULATOR. exposing port (12) to suction pre~sure and port (11) to
(1) The aneroid unit, with metallic bellows (6), boost pressure to move relay piston (13) inward and
which is responsive to variations in pressure and tem- slightly open the throttles until the required manifold
perature, is exposed to pressure via orifice' (2) and pressure is obtained, after which piston valve (7) will
passages (18). This causes piston valve (7), which is again float between ports (11) and (12).
coupled to "the aneroid, to move up or down and admit I (3) The manifold (boost) pressure which is main-
boost pressure via passage (1) and suction pressure via tained for any given setting of the throttle control is
passages (9) anJ(3), and either boost or suction pres- determined by the pressure of the aneroid spring (20).
sure via ports (11) and (12) to one side or the other The spring pressure is regulated by the position of the -
of relay piston (13). The piston (13) actuates one sun cockpit throttle control (4) which actuates the aneroig
wheel of the differential ( 14), the planet cage of which positioning cam (21) by rocker (30), lever (22)'(lp<f
is connected to the cockpit throttle lever (4) and intermediate linkage connected to the bell crank throttle
-lI\,
14
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2 Paragraph 17

lever on the control shaft. Rotation of the mntrol shaft rately. For this reason, at throttle openings of less than
depresses the aneroid in a straight line ratio between: 10 degrees the relay piston (13) is held at the inner-
aneroid linear travel and angular rotation of the shaft, most end of its forward stroke by atmospheric pressure.
thus providing a linear increase of boost pressure with This pressure is admitted to relay cylinder (8) by isolat-
shaft rotation. When the control shaft has rotated ing valve (16) from atmospheric connection (37)
through 46 degrees, the cam ceases to depress the through piston valve (7) and port (11). It will be noted
aneroid as the cam profile becomes a constant radius that isolating valve (16) is connected to the main con-
from its spindle center. In this postion, the control is trol shaft by suitable linkage and is operated by the
set to give 61 inches of mercury absolute manifold pres- cockpit throttle. When isolating valve is in the open
sure (+ 15 pounds per square inch) the adjustment position, the piston valve (7) is in a downward position
being effected by the screw in rocker (30). permitting suction pressure also to be exerted on relay
(4) When the throttle is only slightly open the piston (13) via port (12) and passages (9) and (3).
pressure from the supercharger is insufficient to provide (5) An emergency control valve (17) is provided
the effort necessary to control relay piston (13) accu- to give an increase in flight performance, for emergency

1. Supercharger Delivery Pressure


2. Supercharger Delivery Pressure
3. Supercharger Suction Pressure
4. Cockpit Control Lever
5. Boost Chamber
6. Aneroid Bellows
7. Piston Valve
8. Relay Cylinder
9. Suction Passage
10. Delivery Passage
11. Control Port
12. Control Port
13. Relay Piston
14. Differential
15. Throttle Valve

16. Isolating Valve


17. Emergency Control Valve
18. Ports for Emergency Control Valve
19. Aneroid Assembly
20. Aneroid Spring ,
21. Control Operating Cam
22. Cam Control Lever
23. Return Spring for Aneroid Unit
24. Lines for Pressure Setting
25. Cover
26. Throttle Stop for Take-Off
27. Return Passage for Leakage
28. Manifold Pressure Adjusting Screw
29. Pressure Setting Inspection Hole
30. Rocker
31. Emergency Control Valve leak Holes
32. Relay Piston Spring
33. Relay Piston Bleed Holes
34. Sun Gear
35. Planet Gears
36. Sun Gear
37. Atmospheric Connection

Fiqure 32-Manilold Pressure Regulator, Control Shaft and Supercharger Hookup. Any Desired Boost Value Within
Its Range Is Maintained Automatically by the Regulator
15
Section II
Paragraphs 17-19 EO lOA-20A-2

Figure 33 - Propeller Shaft Gear, Pinion and Coupli"g Figure 34 - Reduction Gear and Coupling

use, by providing maximum controlled manifold (boost) shaft through a hollow coupling shaft (C) externally
pressure of approximately 67 inches of mercury abso- splined on both ends. One end of this shaft fits into
lute (+ 17.5 pounds per square inch) with the throttle internal splines of the crankshaft flange (D) and the
at the 46-degree (gate) position. This control system other end into the splines (E) inside the hollow pinion.
consists of a piston valve (17) and connecting passages (See figure 35.)
(18) which lead from the supercharger to the aneroid c. The propeller shaft and gear assembly is also
chamber. When'the piston valve (17) is raised, commu- straddle-mounted in two straight-type roller bearings
nication between the delivery side of the supercharger and carries a ball thrust bearing. Two seals (5) and (6)
and the aneroid chamber is restricted by means of the prevent oil leakage. The V-1650-3 and -7 engines are
air metering holes (31) which are drilled in the annular equipped with a standard AN No. 50 propeller shaft.
groove at the lower end of valve (17) as shown. These (The Merlin 68 and 69 engines have a S.B.A.C. No. 5
holes act as reducing valves and are so proportioned propeller shaft.)
that a controlled manifold (poost) pressure of .approxi-
mately 67 inches of mercuty absolute (+ 17.5 pounds
19. DUAL DRIVE.
per square inch) is obtained.
Bolted to the lower outer face of the reduction gear
18. REDUCTION GEAR AND PROPELLER SHAFT. housing is a dual drive unit incorporating the vacuum
a. The reduction gear unit (figures 33 and 34) is pump drive assembly (2) and the propeller constant-
bolted to the upper crankcase at the end opposite speed governor drive assembly (1). (See figure 35.)
the supercharger. The reduction gearing for Models The driving shafts in these assemblies are integral with
V-1650-3 and -7 engines provides a ratio of .479 to 1 and their respective gears and are driven by 'the bevel pinion
consists of a 21-tooth spur-type drive pinion (A) and a (10) on the hollow driving shaft. This driving shaft,
44-tooth propeller shaft gear (B) which is bolted to a supported in the duaC drive unit housing by a ball bear-
flange on th~ propeller shaft. (The Merlin Models 68 ing at its outer end and a bronze bushing at its inner
and 69 reduction gear assemblies provide a ratio of .420 end, is splined to receive the internal coupling shaft
to 1 and are fitted with a 21-tooth pinion and a 50-tooth (11) which in turn is splined to the propeller reduction
propeller shaft gear.) gear pinion. Driving shafts (12) and (13) are splincd to
b. The drive pinion is straddle-mounted in two accept the shafts of the vacuum pump and constant
straight-type roller bearings and is driven by the crank- speed governo" units.

16
Section /I
EO lOA~20A-2

A. Reduction Gear Pinion


B. Propeller Shaft and Gear
C. Coupling
D. Crankshaft Driving Flange with Timing Marks
E. Pinion Splines
1. Constant Speed Governor Adaptor
2. Vacuum Pump Adaptor
5. Oil Seal-Front
6. Oil Seal-Rear
8. Thrust Bearing
9. Bearing Retaining Nut
10. Bevel Pinion
11. Dual Drive Coupling Shaft
12. Constant Speed Governor
Driving Shaft
13. Vacuum Pump Driving Shaft
14. Propeller Cone

II

Vertical section through V -1650- 3


and -7 Dual Drive Unit. (Merlin
68 and 69 Units incorporate same
drives in different housing.)

Figure 35-Sectional View Through V-1650-3 and -7 Dual Drive and Propeller End of Crankcase

17
...co
..
III
CD
"cr
II BII ~

BANK =
AUXILIARY DRIVE
EXHAUST SIDE-.5 //G)- AUXILIARY DRIVE
/ ../~/~.{~ INLET SIDE -.792

~(.']l.
'~.".'"._- TACHOMETER-O.25
,~~/~,~
,.. //'/'" '.
MERLIN 68. 69
! ,. .'!J9
AUXILIARY DRIVE-0) . /--"'0-
,-
R.A:E. COMPRESSOR
DRIVE - .792
INLET SIDE - 1.0 -'
CAM SHAFT -0.5
~p
~"-'"

SUPERCHARGER 6.391,
eo /"".~

r;))
8.095 V-1650- 3 \"

REDUCTION GEAR'" 479 V-1650-3,-7


REDUCTION GEAR - A20 MERLIN 68,69 ~ tx:l
o
~

,.. )' '" ~,.J ~


;j'-\ (\)
o
'\
\ )~,
\\ :r
(\)

~~.i~
. <.-.--~:?jJSUPERCHARGER 5.802 8 7.34~\
i{ )~~ V-1650-7 MERLIN 68,69
\.fl--'" AFTER COOLER- 1.892
';--'(/ (P)
ftN)
~ J
STARTER- 19.385

VACUUM G) LOWER VERTICAL - / /


DRIVE SHAFT
/':;;';=
~,~
lEC. STARTER- 104.25

PUMP-
0,828 4..
CONSTANT SPEED
GOVERNOR-0828
\
\\
\ \ . . GENERATOR-2.468
)-~ b
\H'
..:J \.Q;'FUEL
'- PUMP-O.G
FRONT SCAVENGE OIL PUMP- 0.814

REAR SCAVENGE OIL PUMP- 0814

PRESSURE OIL PUMP -0.814


"e
:I;;; ~----'COOLANT PUMP -1.5
._.c:~ . HYDRAULIC PUMP DRIVE .891
.....-.-.;l'-...... HYDRAULIC PUMP DRIVE
V-IG50 - 3-7
.552 MERLIN .69

Figure 36-Schematic Gear Train Diagram Showing Gear Ratios and Direction 01 Rotation 01 Gears and Shafts
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2 Paragraph 20

20. ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM - A TYPICAL


INSTALLATION.
a. GENERAL.- The high-pressure liquid-cooling sys-
tem employs a closed circuit with continuous flow from
a centrifugal pump. This pressure system is similar to
the conventional liquid-cooling system, except that the
radiator, header tank, etc., are constructed to withstand
pressures up to 50 pounds per square inch and high
pressure type couplings are used throughout. Water is
used as the coolant, only enough ethylene glycol being
introduced to prevent freezing.
b. COOLANT CIRCULATION.-Coolant which is
pumped into the bottom of each cylinder block coolant
jacket via a distributing manifold on the lower exhaust
side of each block, passes to the cylinder heads through
14 brass rubber-sealed transfer tubes, and out through
adaptors attached to the intake side of each cylinder
head at the propeller end. These adaptors discharge
into the header tank (figure 38) via outlet pipes (figure
37) into scroll pipes inside the header tank arranged
to allow escape of vapor into the air space at the top
of the tank. Besides acting as separators, the scroll pipes
serve as part of the circulation system by directing the
coolant toward the header tank outlets without inter-
fering with the main body of the coolant in the tank.
This preserves the kinetic energy of the circ~lating
liquid and maintains the pressure head, but provision
is made at the tank outlet for any necessary make-up
liquid to enter the circulation from the reserve in the
tank.
Figure 38-Left Side of Engine Showing Filler Cap for
c. HEADER TANK RELIEF VALVE.- The relief Coolant System
valve at the top of the header tank limits the maximum
possible pressure and also provides a controlled escape
of air, thus compensating for expansion at different tem-
peratures and insuring t!1at the pressure generated is just
sufficient to suppress boiling. The cooling capacity of the d, Deleted In revision, 25 July 1944.
radiator should be sufficient to prevent the pressure in
the tank rising above the set blow-off pressure of 30
pounds per square inch. If, however, for some extraor-
. dinary reason, this figure is exceeded, the design of the
tank is such that only steam will escape, leaving the
liquid as reserve coolant.

e. COOLANT PUMP.- The centrifugal-type coolant


pump is attached to the lower side of the wheel case and
is driven by the lower vertical drive shaft through a
splined quill shaft. The lower pump (inlet) housing is
attached to the upper housing by equally spaced studs,
which permit the pump inlet to be directionally posi-
tioned for various installations. The impeller shaft is
straddle mounted on two shielded-type ball bearings
(1) which are prelubricated at initial assembly. (See
figure 40.) The pump is also packed at initial assembly
at (2) and (3) with Specification No. AN-G-5 grease
to insure proper lubrication during periods between
~Jij,
overhaul. Dust seal (4) also retains lubricant, and cool-
ant leakage is prevented by a spring-type seal (5). The
Figure 37 -Coolant Passes From the Coolant Outlet
Pipes on the Cylinder Heads to the Header Tank bronze impeller (6) is secured to the impeller shaft by
(A tvpical installation is shown above,) special nut (7).

19
Section II
Paragraphs 21-22 I!;O lOA-20A-2

,Figure 39-Coolanl Pump Ins lolled 10 Engine Figure 40-Secfional View of Coolanl Pump
21. SUPERCHARGER COOliNG SYSTEM. have a built-in relief valve which permits oil to bypass
The aftercooler pump is located on the "B" bank when a predetermined pressure drop within the filter is
side of the engine at the generator mounting pad to exceeded. An auxiliary scavenge pump located below
supply coolant for the intercooler, located within the the pressure pump scavenges the oil from the super-
intermediate volute case, and the aftercooler, which is charger bearing.
suspended on rubber between the "A" and "B" bank b. MAIN PRESSURE STAGE.
and above the wheel case. This system is separate from (1) CIRCUITS.-This includes one circuit to the
the main coolant system (figure 8) and, when using a crankshaft and connecting rod bearings and another
mixture of 60 per cent ethylene glycol and ~o per cent circuit to the constant-speed governor and the hollow
water, reduces the temperature rise in the fuel mixture propeller shaft.
created by the two-stage supercharger. At maximum (2) MAIN AND CONNECTING ROD BEAR-
allowable speed and horsepower in continuous opera- ING OIL CIRCUIT.-Oil is supplied to the crankshaft
tion the entering charge is cooled in the aftercooler 30 main (journal) bearings at 60 to 90 pounds per square
to 40 per cent. Coolant flow in this system is about 30 inch pressure, regulated by the main pressure relief
gallons per minute under the above conditions. A pres- valve. Oil path is from the outlet port (4, figure 42) in
sure relief valve is mounted on the aftercooler which the inner face of the relief valves body through passages
operates at a pressure of 18 to 20 pounds. (5) in the center crankcase web to the crankcase main
22. ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM. oil pipe assembly (6, figure 41) which distributes to
a. GENERAL.-Engine lubrication (figures 41 and each main bearing via a duct (7) in each crankcase web.
42) is by the dry sump pressure system incorporating Oil passes from the main bearings to the connecting rod
three pressure stages, main, moderate, and low, and bearings through drilled passages in the crankcase jour-
utilizing a separate oil supply tank, a double scavenge nals, cheeks, and crankpins.
pump mounted on the floor of the crankcase sump at (3) PROPELLER PITCH OPERATING OIL CIR-
the supercharger end of the engine, and a single pres- CUIT.-The propeller mechanism oil circuit is supplied
sure pump attached to the crankcase directly beneath at main pump pressure by oil conducted from the pro-
the scavenge pump. Oil is drawn from the supply tank .peller end of the relief valves body to the constant-speed
by pressure pump (1, figure 41) and delivered to relief governor inlet (8, figure 42) of the dual drive unit via
valves unit (3), via an external pipe to Cuno or Air external pipe (9). The propeller shaft inner ~il tube
Maze filter' '(2), and another external pipe (62). The (41, figure 41) is supplied with oil at pump pressure
Cuno full flow disc type filter has ~elf-cleaning discs by pipe (10, figures 41 and 42) which branches from
which are automatically rotated by the built-in hydraulic pipe (9), opposite No. "AI" cylinder and connects
turning motor. The Air Maze has no moving parts, and with inlet fitting (11) and passage, (12) in the crurlk-
filtering is obtained by the use of oil filter packs. Both case half of reduction gear housing. The bearings
Revised 22 Aug 51
20
EO lOA-20A-2

MAIN PRESSURE

r::::=:!I HIGH PRESSURE (P.O.l . MAIN PRESSURE FROM RELIEF VALVES.

_ MODERATE PRESSURE --. -'- ------- -~~=~=======>======~ MAIN PRESSURE TO


PROPELLER VARIABLE
LOW PRESSURE "'~AMSHAFT ORIVE GEARS WHE'ELCASE
PITCH OPERATING
MECHANISM.
,,/ GEARS ETC. ARE LUBRICA'fED BY DRAIN
OIL FROM ROCKER HOUSING VIA
. _ SCAVENGE (PRESSURE) " CAMSHAFT DRIVE HOUSING TUBES

~ . SCAVENGE (SUCTION) LOW PRESSURE TO


CAMSHAFT AND ROCKER
~ SCAVENGE (DRAIN) MECHANISM.

c::J COOLANT
, .\
MODERATE PRESSURE TO
SUPERCHARGER GEARS
AND CLUTCHES.
//

PRESSURE GAUGE CONNECTION


1

PRE~
SUPERCHARGER TAIL
MAIN PRESSURE OIL SUPPLY
50
BEARING DRAIN TO LOW PRESSURE
AUXILIARY SCAVENGER VALVE
PUMP. MAIN
VALVE SSURE7
VOLUTE SU,CTION PIPE TO FRONT \
~ .~
DRAIN. FILTER AND SCAVENGE

~~~~~~~~_~P:U~M~P.

.~ 62

TO DRAIN CRANKCASE
' - AUXILIARY BY-~S
IN
MAIN PRESSURE VALVE.
REMOVE THESE CAPS.

VERTICAL SECTION THRU VERTICAL SECTION THRU


HORIZONTAL SECTION THRU RELIEF VALVES.
SCAVENGE OIL FILTERS
SCAVEN6E SYSTEM.

*Figure 4J -Cutaway Showing Engine Lubricating System. Pressure Pump Circuits


are Divided Into a Main, a Moderate, and a Low Pressure Stage .

21
EO lOA-20A-2

MAIN PRESSURE FROM RELIEF VALVES.


, )

WHEELCASE BREATHER
CONNECTION.

SUPERCHARGER REAR
BEARING DRAIN.

LOW PRESSURE OIL JETS


TO REDUCTION GEARS.

MAIN PRESSURE TO PROPELLER PITCH


GOVERNOR AND DUAL DRIVE BEARINGS.

-MAiNPRESS.URE TO RELIEF
VALVES HOUSING.
VERTICAL SECTION
THRU t OF ENGINE.
BEARINGS NUMBERED FROM
[ PROPEllR END.
MAIN PRESSURE PUMP
CftAHICStW'T BEARINGS NO:;3.!l.a6
HAVE FULL ANNULAR GflOOvt.S. INLET CONNECTION.
JOURNALS NO. 2.3 !l.a6 SUPPLY OIL
TO CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS NO.1.
2,3,4,!l.a6.

REAR VIEW FRONT VIEW

* Figure 42-End Viewl of Engine Lubricating System. Note that Low Pressure Oil is
Brought Directly to Cam Contacting Pad Face of Valve 'Roclcers as Shown at (58}

22
EO lOA-20A-2

0-----------0 o -T---... 0

TO CLUTCH SHAFT BEARINGS TO CLUTCH ISTONS


IN REAR CASING IN REAR SING

LUBRICATION AND PRESSURE SYSTEM


FOR SUPERCHARGER CLUTCHES

Fi gu re EE - Lubrication and Pressure System lor Supercharger Clutches Revi ed 7 Apr 53

23
Section" EO lOA-20A-2
Paragraph 22

(1) MAIN AND CONNECTING ROD BEAR- (b) CLUTCH OPERATING OIL
ING OIL CIRCUIT.-Oil is supplied to the crankshaft PRESSURE SYSTEM.
main journal bearings at 60 to 90 pounds per square 1. Moderate pressure oil i supplied to
inch pressure, regulated by the main pressure relief the spring loaded, solenoid operated, clutch control
valve. Oil path is from the outlet port (4,figure DD) in valve (61) by main passage (57). (Seefigure EE.) When
the crankcase mating face of the relief valves body the supercharger is in low blower ratio the pressure
through passages (5) in the center crankcase web to oil is shut off from the clutches by the control valve.
the crankcase main oil pipe assembly (6), which dis- 2. When the valve is activated by the
tributes to each main bearing via a duct (7) in each solenoid, the oil passes through the valve to the clutch
crankcase web. Oil passes from the main bearings pistons which engage the plates, thus locking the
to the connecting rod bearings through drilled shafts.
passages in the crankshaft journals, cheeks. and 3. The oil pressure throughout the
crankpins, as illustrated in figure Cc. clutch operating system is relieved as soon as the sol e-
(2) DUAL DRIVE AND PROPELLER OIL noid becomes inactive, oil being forced back by the
CIRCUITS. clutch piston springs and spilling out the top of over-
(a) DUAL DRIVE.. -The bearings of the Bow passage (60) into the supercharger gears case
vacuum pump and constant speed governor drives are and lower crankcase.
lubricated by main pressure oil, conducted from the (3) LUBRICATION OF IMPELLER SHAFT
propeller end of the relief valves body (52,figure CC) BEARINGS. - The other lead from union (18, figure
by external pipe (9,figure DD) to inlet (8) and through CC) is an external pipe (19) which conducts oil to the
drilled passages (13). External pipe (10, figure CC) supercharger impeller rear bearing, via passage (20),
which branches from pipe (9) near No. "AI'" cylinder, and through the aluminum metering tube in the hollow
conducts oil to the propeller shaft inner oil tube (41) impeller shaft to the impeller front bearing. via pas-
via inlet fitting (11) and passage (12) in the crankcase sages (21). Passage of oil into the volute case is pre-
upper half, to supply main pressure oil for a hydraulic vented by five bronze oil rings on th~. forward spacer
variable pitch propeller, if installed. and three like rings on the first stage impeller retaining
(b) PROPELLER OIL CIRCUIT.-Provi- nut. An atmospheric vent (22) permits free oil circula-
sion is made for a high pressure oil circuit, when the tion around the impeller rear bearing, also reducing the
engine is equipped with a hydraulic variable pitch possibility of leakage of oil into the volute. Another
propeller. Main pressure oil is boosted by the constant vent (23) leading to engine interior, relieves any excess
speed governor and conducted to the operating mecha- pressures at the five oil rings on the forward spacers.
nism in the propeller hub (4o,figure CC) via passage OverBow from the impeller shaft rear bearing is
(49, figure DD) in the governor drive housing and scavenged through external pipe (24) to special pump
external pipe (37) to inlet fitting (38) and drilled pas- gears in the bottom of the main pressure oil pump (1),
_sage (39). Some types of hydraulic variable pitch which force this scavenged oil through the hollow
propellers require this oil circuit to be reversed. In this pump shaft to the sump in the lower crankcase.
event, change oil line (10) from fitting (11) to fitting d. LOW PRESSURE STAGE.
(38), and oil line (37) from fitting (38) to fitting (11). (1) This stage operates at 4 to 8 pounds per
c. MODERATE PRESSURE STAGE. square inch pressure and comprises two circuits; one
for the reduction gear unit, the other for the camshaft
(1) GENERAL.-Oil is conducted from a valve in
and rocker mechanism and the generator drive.
the lower supercharger end of the oil relief valves body
at 28 to 32 pounds per square inch pressure via external (2) REDUCTION GEAR LUBRICATION.-Oil
pipe (l7,ftgureCC) to fitting (18) which has two leads. is taken from the propeller end of the relief valves body
One lead supplies oil to the supercharger gears rear by a small bore external pipe (14) to the jets (56,
casing and the other lubricates the supercharger im- figures CC and DD) in the reduction gear casing, which
peller shaft bearings. discharge streams of oil on the teeth of the reduction
gears. Reduction gear bearings ar-e gravity lubricated
(2) LUBRICATION AND OPERATING SyS- by oil thrown off from the gears and a portion of this
TEM FOR SUPERCHARGER CLUTCHES throw-off oil lubricates the dual drive unit drive shaft
(a) LUBRICATING SYSTEM. - The lead to and bearings via a drilled passage. Drain oil is reo
the supercharger gears rear casing (18,figure CC) is via turned to the crankcase through two holes underneath
inlet passage from the wheelcase. (Seefigure EE.) This the drive pinion inner bearing housing.
diagram shows the lubrication and pressure systems (3) VALVE OPERATING MECHANISM.-
for the supercharger clutches. Lubrication is supplied Lubricating oil for the camshaft and rocker mechanism
for the planetary assembly and clutch shaft bearings by is conducted from T -connection (16,figures CC and D D)
the main passage (57) and two auxiliary passages via pipe (25) and four-way connector (26), through
(57A) and (5 7B ). I n addition to lubricating the pipes (27) leading to the hollow tapped bolts (28) in
various bearing surfaces, this oil is conducted to four the cylinder head. These connect with the drilled pas-
jets in each cluster, thus providing two points of cool- sages (29) in the cylinder head leading to the vertical
ing and luhrication for each planetary gear surface. duct (30) in the camshaft bearing bracket. From this
24
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2
Paragraph 22

require this oil circuit to be reversed, in which event, the (1) MAIN PRESSURE RELIEF. -Oil delivered to
change is effected by reversing oil lines connected to the the relief valves unit from the pressure pump passes
inlet fittings at top of the reduction gear casing; chang- through the Cuno oil filter and passage (62, figure 42)
ing oil line (10, figure 42) from fitting (11) to fitting into the bottom of the relief valves body and enters
(38) and oil line (37) from fitting (38) to fitting (11). the chamber on the inlet side of the spring loaded main
f. SCAVENGE OIL CIRCUIT. pressure relief valve (50, figures 41 and 44) which is set to
(1) The two-fold purpose of this circuit is to unseat at pressures above normal and bypass to the inlet
screen the lubricating oil after it has passed through side of the low pressure valve (51) located in the pro-
the engine, and return the filtered oil to tire oil tank. peller end of the relief valves body. A drilled passage,
leading from the main pressure valve inlet chamber to
(2) Oil in the sump at the propeller end of the
port (4, figure 42) conducts oil, at main pressure, to the
crankcase is picked up by the scavenge pump in the "B"
passages in the crankcase which leads to the crankshaft
bank side of the dual pump body through pipe (42, figure
and connecting rod bearings, as explained in section II, ,
41) and screen (43).
paragraph 22. b. (2). The outer end of this drilled passage
(3) Oil in the sump at the supercharger end of the (54) is threaded for the oil pressure gage connection.
crankcase is picked up by the "A" bank side scavenge Main pressure oil for the constant-speed governor is con-
pump in the dual pump body through screen (44) at ducted from inlet passage (62) to the outlet (52, figures
supercharger end of engine. The output of both pumps 41 and 44) at the lower propeller end of the relief valves
is combined as shown in the sectional diagram (45) and body via aligned openings in the intervening compart-
the oil is returned to the oil tank via outlet (48). ment.
(4) Scavenge oil from the supercharger rear bear- (2) MODERATE ~RE'SSURE.-The sleeve (65,
ing is returned via pipe (24) to the auxiliary scavenge figure 44) shrunk into the relief valves housing has four
pump which forces this oil through the hollow pump oil transfer holes which lead main pressure oil to the
shaft to the lower crankcase. moderate oil pressure piston (66). An external groove
g. OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES.- The oil pres- in the piston will line up with the oil transfer holes as
sure relief valves unit (figure 44) comprises two pressure the line pressure drops below 28 pounds per square inch.
regulating valves; valve (50) to regulate the oil for the With the increase in line pressure the regulating spring
main pressure circuits to approximatdy 80 pounds per recedes, permitting the piston to vary the oil transfer
square inch pressure, and valve (51) to regulate the orifice according to supercharger lubrication and pres-
oil for the low pressure crrcuits to four to eight pounds sure requirements. Shims are being used to augment the
per square inch pressure. Moderate pressure of 28 to 32 spring pressure, but when an assembly is found with
pounds per square inch is regulated by spring (67) and three shims already installed it is recommended that the
piston (66). spring be replaced.

50 51

66 SHIMS

Figure 44-0il Bypassed by Main Pressure Relief Valve Is Brought to 4 to 8 Pounds


Pressure by Low Pressure Relief Valve
2S
Section" EO lOA-20A-2
Paragraphs 22-24

(3) LOW PRESSURE RELIEF.-A bleed hole (59,


figure 44) in the main pressure relief valve assures a
supply of oil to the low pressure circuits at any pump
pressure. Oil, bypassed to the inlet side of the low pressure
valve, when the main pressure valve is unseated, is con-
ducted to piping (14 and 15, figure 41) via internal
passages leading to the outlets at each end of the relief
valves body. At pressures exceeding six pounds per square
inch the low pressure valve unseats and bypasses exCess
oil to the chamber above the valve from where it drains
to the crankcase via passage (53) in the crankcase central
web. (See figure 42.)
h. SPLASH OIL LUBRICATION.-Splash oil lubri-
cates the walls of the cylinder liners, piston pins, oil
pump idler gear bushing, bearings in the reduction gear
assembly, components of the wheel case including upper
and lower vertical drh'e shaft gears and bearings at
lower end of camshaft inclined drives, supercharger gear
change mechanism, and components of the hand and
electric starter.
i. MANUAL LUBRICATION.-Manual lubrication
is restricted to the few points not practical to lubricate
by vapor, splash, or pressure oil, such as: control shaft,
manifold pressure (boost) regulator, and magnetos.
Refer to section VI, paragraphs 2. b. (1) and 2. c. (5),
also, section IX, chapter II, paragraph 8. (See fig-
ure 91.)

23. FUEL PUMP.


Fuel is drawn from the gasoline tank and delivered
Figure 46-Carburetor and Supercharger Installed
to the carburetor under pressure by an engine-driven,
eccentric vane-type fuel pump, shown mounted on the to Engine
driving adaptor. (See figure 45.) The assembly is in-
stalled on the "B" bank side of the wheel case. The 24. INDUCTION SYSTEM
pump drive is driven from the lower vertical drive shaft.
(See figure 36.) Fuel pressure is regulated by a valve a. CARBURETOR.
in the top of the pump unit. (1) The Stromberg PD-18Al injection carburetor
(figure 46), used on Packard V-1650-3 and -7 engines
and the PD-18Bl injection carburetors, used on Merlin
engines, are double-barrel, twin-boost venturi, updraft
units having fuel head enrichment valves, automatic
mixture contrpl, and idle cut-off. Refer also to section IX,
chapter I, paragraph 1, this handbook.
(2) In addition to automatic altitude mixture con-
trol, the carburetor on V-1650-3 and -7 engines incor-
porates a mixture control unit having four control lever
positions, namely: "FULL RICH," "AUTO RICH,"
"AUTO LEAN," and "IDLE CUT-OFF." The mixture
can be manually adjusted by movement of the cockpit
control lever (figure 47) between the positions of
"AUTO RICH," and "AUTO LEAN." Automatic alti-
tude mixture control is also maintained for any fixed
Fosition of the cockpit control lever between "AUTO
RICH" and "AUTO LEAN." (The fuel control lever
on Merlin engines has only two positions: "RUNNING"
Figure 45-Fuel Pump and Adaptor and "IDLE CUT-OFF.")

26
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2 Paragraph 24

Figure 47 -Cockpit Quadrant


Figure 48-Supercharger Rear Casing and Cover
h. SUPERCHARGER REAR CASING AND COVER Assembly Complete With Carburetor Details
ASSEMBLY.
(1) The body of this assembly (figure 48) consists is then reversed toward the center of the case, through
of two cases, the supercharger rear casing and the super- the guide vanes to the faired throat of the intermediar.e
charger rear casing cover, which are bolted together. volute housing, where it is again compressed by the
(2) The carburetor accelerator pump and discharge second-stage impeller. After leaving the second-stage
nozzle assembly is secured to these two cases by studs. impeller the compressed charge flows through the sec-
(3) The valve portion of the discharge nozzle ond-stage diffuser ring into the volute, then through
assembly and the lower or atomizing portion of the the aftercooler and into the manifold.
constant-pressure type fuel discharge nozzle are carried
by the casing cover. This arrangement is designed to
spray fuel directly into the supercharger impeller. (See
figure 49.)
(4) The supercharger impeller rear bearing IS
pinned in position in the supercharger rear casing.
c. SUPERCHARGER.
(1) The two-stage two-speed gear-driven super-
charger, major parts of which are shown sectionally in
figure 50, is mounted on the wheel case. A 24-volt sole-
noid operates the supercharger clutch control valve,
which controls the change-over from low blower gear
ratio of 6.391 to 1 to high blower gear ratio of 8.095
to 1 for the V.1650-3 engines; and from low blower
gear ratio of 5.802 to 1 to high blower gear ratio of
7.349 to 1 for the V-1650-7 and Merlin 68 and 69
engines.
(2) In this unit the fuel mixture is picked up at
the rear throat by ~he first-stage impeller vanes and
forced by the first-stage diffuser ring around the outer Figure 49-Metered Fuel Is Sprayed Directly Into the'
edge of the diffuser assembly. The direction of flow Supercharger Impeller

27
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2

610017 -ARRANGEMENT
WHEELCASE UPPER DRIVE

11019 - ARRANGEMENT
WHEELCASE AND GEARS

611009 - ARRANGEMENT
AFTER COOLER HOUSING
AND CORE

FUEL PUMP DRIVE

\=
610064- ARRANGEMENT
WHEELCASE LOWER DRIVE

603261- ASSEMBLY
COOLANT PUMP
Figure 50-Supercharger and Carburetor Assembly Showing Drive from Crankshaft.
Refer also to Figures 28 and 29
28
trl
a
I-'

~!
N

~I
N

figure 51 - Top View of Engine Showing Aftercooler (J J, Manifold Extension C2J, Central Manifold C3J, Side Induction Manifolds C4J
and C5J Also Priming Pipes l6J and l7J. Note Priming Line filter C8J

,-- .ji

..., figure 52-Side Induction Manifold and flame


Traps. facing Gasleet on Cylinder Is Aluminum
-
'"
lD
"o
:I
-0 =
Section "
Paragraphs 24-26
EO lOA-20A-2

(3) When the engine is operated at full throttle, a through a senes of pipes. Priming fuel is conducted
decided increase in fuel charge temperature takes place from the primer pump via a pipe leading to the com-
due to the increase in pressure. Temperature may in- bination filter and atomizer, located on the front side
crease to as much as 204 C (400 F). In order to of the supercharger aftercooler housing, to which a
obtain the high volumetric efficiency necessary for portion of the priming fuel is diverted through a jet
maximum horsepower, the fuel mixture charge must into the aftercooler housing.
be cooled to normal temperatures. To accomplish this a b. The remainder of the fuel is conducted via piping
liquid-filled intercooler is incorporated within the in- emanating from each end of the filter to a distributor
termediate volute housing and an aftercooler is located block on the center of the "A" and "B" bank cylinder
between the supercharger and induction manifold. The head induction manifolds.
coolant enters on the lower "B" bank side of the inter- c. The atomizer jets in the fittings near each end of
mediate volute case, flows through the internal passage both "A" and "B" bank induction manifolds are fed
out the top through a port on the forward volute case from this distributor block through connecting pipes.
into the bottom of the aftercooler, through the after- Priming fuel also enters an atomizer jet, located on the
cooler to a coolant pump, from which it is directed to top center of the center induction manifold, and is
the radiator. The center manifold carries a thermocouple conducted from the common distributor block on either
connection which relays the fuel charge temperature to "A" or "B" bank cylinder induction manifold through
the pilot if gage :$ installed. drilled passages in the manifolds to a connecting pass-
d. MANIFOLDS. age in center induction manifold and through a short
( 1) The fuel mixture is conducted to the inlet valve pipe to the atomizer jet fitting.
ports in the cylinder heads via the aftercooler (1, figure 26. IGNITION SYSTEM.
51) on top of the supercharger, the manifold extension a. Ignition is supplied by two high-tension magnetos
(2), the central manifold (3), located within the "Vee" (figure 53) of the rotating magnet type, mounted one
of the cylinder blocks, and the cylinder induction mani- on each side of the wheel case and driven at 1.5 times
folds (4) and (5), which are attached to the intake side crankshaft speed by a serrated coupling shaft splined
of the cylinder heads. (See figure 51.) to the magneto drive driven gear.
(2) Flame traps (14, figure 52) fitted into the cyl- b. The magneto on the "A" bank side (figure 55)
inder side of each manifold, prevent foreign matter from serves the intake spark plugs of both cylinder banks,
entering the engine and protect the system in case of while the magneto on the "B" bank side (figure 54)
backfiring. serves the exhaust spark plugs of both banks.
c. The magneto breaker assemblies are centrally
25. PRIMING SYSTEM. mounted (figure 56) and the engine control mechanism
a. Fuel to prime the engine is delivered by the primer moves the breaker base through the 25 degrees of
pump to atomizers at six points in the induction system advance range.

Figure 53- Two High-Tension Magneros of the Rotating Magnet Type

30
Section II
EO lOA-20A-2 Paragraph 26

Figure 54-"8" Magneto (ExhaustJ Figure 55- n An Magneto (lntaleeJ

d. The magneto contact breaker levers are connected is reached within 24 degrees of control shaft rotation.
to the throttle control, through linkage and levers on Thus, fully advanced ignition is maintained over the
the control shaft assembly, in such a way that the igni- cruising range for smooth running on lean (weak) mix-
tures and maximum fuel economy. A partial retard
tion timing is advanced or retarded as the carburetor
becomes ~ffective at the higher speeds and manifold
throttle is opened or closed. (boost) pressures to avoid detonation.
e. The arrangement of the magneto control levers f. Each magneto has a radio shielded-wiring harness
(figure 57) gives a rapid ignition advance during the assembly complete with wires, 1000 to 1200 ohm re-
initial throttle opening so that the full spark advance sistors, connectors, and conduits.

figure 56-The Magneto Brealeer Base Is Centrally Mounted in the Magneto Housing
31
Section I!
Paragraphs 26-29 EO lOA-20A-2

figure 57 -Ignition Timing Is Interconnected with Throttle linkage


g. For starting, high-tension current may be con- A second gear splined to the extended rear end of this
ducted from an outside source to the spark plugs via .shaft drives an idler gear carried in an extension of the
the mag.neto boost connection at the end of the dis- auxiliary drive housing. Final drive is accomplished by
tributor rotor shaft and a separate finger on the mag- a shaft rotating in. two ball bearings and having a
peto distributor rotor assembly. driven gear splined in position to mesh with the idler
h. Both magnetos are equipped with boost connec- gear. The shaft is fitted with a driving flange at its
tions and distributor booster fingers, but the magneto outer end. Drive ratio is 0.914 times crankshaft speed.
on the "A" bank side is the only one connected to the 29. STARTER MOTOR DRIVE.
booster coil. a. The electric starter motor drive, shown schemati-
27. GENERATOR DRIVE AND AFTERCOOLER cally in figure 60, comprises a speed-reducing gear train
PUMP. incorporating a safety clutch and a modified Bendix-
a. The generator drive for V-1650-3 and -7 engines type mechanism, which engages with the end of the
(figure 58) is located on the "B" bank side of the engine supercharger clutch shaft (13) on the "A" bank side of
and includes a train of three gears in the wheel case the engine.
and the supercharger end of the crankcase, driven by b. The starter drive is transmitted from the 9T motor
the "B" side supercharger gearshaft pinion through an pinion (1) to the 39T clutch housing spur gear (7) via
intermediate gear and shaft. a combination 34T and 9T intermediate gear (2) in the
b. The geared generator driving shaft (8) is splined starter upper housing, a 41T main reduction internally
at its outer end to engage with the splined adaptor toothed bell type gear (3), a 26T spiral bevel gear (4)
coupling which connects with the coupling shaft (9) on the upper end of the starter assembly, a 27T spiral
that drives the generator. The generator end of the bevel idler (5) and a 24T spur idler gear (6). These
coupling shaft is also splined internally to mesh with gears provide a total reduction ratio of 104.252.
the externally splined generator armature shaft, rotation c. The safety clutch (9) in the engaging mechanism
of which is 2.468 times crankshaft speed. is of the spring-loaded multiple-disc type, which tra~s-
. d' f th . mits normal turning effort but is adjusted to slip under
C The afterco 0 Ier
Purn P (11) IS flven rom e gen- abnormal loading to protect the high-ratio reduction
erator d rive b y means of gears (12) and (13) on
V-1650-3 and -7 engines, and gears (12-A) and (13) on gearing and starter elements. Details of the engaging
mechanism are shown in figure 59.
Merlin 68 an d 69 engines.
,d. The engaging mechanism incorporates an overload
28. AUXILIARY GEAR BOX (MERLIN 68J. clutch, an internally threaded sleeve (90) into which
Power is transmitted to the gear box by a spur gear is fitted an externally threaded shaft (91), on the outer
splim.d to a shaft carried by two small bearings, one in end of which an engaging jaw (11) is free to move
the front and one in the rear supercharger gears case. longitudinally on splines. (See figure 59.)

32