10 views

Uploaded by yao

- 140417 DL 30130 - Extract From the Manual
- 533714 - Maximizing Starting Torque on PowerFlex 753 _ 755 AC Drives.pdf
- Cascada Subsincrona
- Electrical Motors - Frame Sizes.pdf
- Electrical Technology Manual JWFILES
- DOUBLY-FED ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINE WITH 3-LEVEL VSI FOR VARIABLE SPEED PUMP STORAGE
- Motors Basic
- Electricity Billing and Power Factor Correction improvement
- Task 1-Ste & Answer
- Function.docx
- 01627198
- 45A16OB
- What is Power Factor
- Impact of Reduced Voltage on Induction Machine Performance
- Final Project- 575
- 95-00333_11_14_9188_FRAKO-Produktkatalog_2015_en_red
- energies-12-00157.pdf
- Modelling
- Assignment
- 432E4050

You are on page 1of 5

MOTOR STARTING

ON DIESEL

GENERATORS

by M. G. Payne

When a standby generator set is called on to (3000 rev/min) motors need approximately 50% more

take over the mains supply, it will probably time to reach rated speed.

have to restart motors that have decelerated The inertia and dynamic characteristics of the load

or stopped during the 10-15 s the standby set affect the starting time, and it may be as long as 4 s, but

takes to run up. But standby sets have higher seldom longer. Where the load is a reciprocating

impedances than the mains, so how do you machine, e.g. a piston pump or compressor, a relief

decide on an economically sized generator, device is usually used to minimise starting time and

of standard build, compatible with an accept- lord torque. Typical torque relationships are shown in

able voltage dip during starting? Fig. 2b.

In installations with large numbers of motors, e.g. pet- The difference between motor torque and load tor-

rochemical works, the methods used for starting que is the torque available for acceleration. At any

motors and the sequence of starting depend on the moment, the rate of acceleration is proportional to the

parameters of the main supply system. When that sup- accelerating torque and inversely proportional to the

ply fails, it is necessary to supply essential motors, to inertia of the load. Ample accelerating torque must be

ensure a safe shutdown of the process, from an available to maintain an acceptable start time. If the

emergency generator set or sets. That set has a rela- start time is prolonged, the high internal losses occur-

tively high impedance compared with the main supply, ing during that period may result in an unacceptable

and the starting currents of the motors will result in temperature rise within the machine.

voltage dips.

Starting characteristics (main supply): In the equi- Starting on generator supply

valent circuit of the squirrel-cage induction motor (Fig.

1), rotor resistance varies from R.2 at standstill to infin- The foregoing characteristics will be generally simi-

ity on overload when s = 1 and 0, respectively. When a lar when the motor is started on a diesel-generator set.

constant voltage from a zero impedance supply is However, compared with the mains supply, the diesel

applied to the stator terminals, a family of curves (Figs. generator set has a relatively high impedance. This

2a and b) can be derived, showing how load and torque results in a voltage drop on application of the starting

vary from standstill to sychronous speed for a four- load with a directly proportional reduction in current.

pole motor. The starting torque is decreased proportionally to the

Because the supply voltage is constant, the kVA square of the voltage. The difference between the load

requirement is directly proportional to the current. torque and the starting torque is the torque available

The starting current (and kVA) is seen to be about six for acceleration, and this may be so decreased that the

times the rated value, with the current (and kVA) not machine either does not accelerate or does so slowly

diminishing appreciably until 0-6 full speed with resultant overheating.

(900 rev/min) is reached. The variation in terminal voltage after application of

The ratio of starting current to rated current full load to a generator with constant excitation is

depends on detail designs and varied with size. Typical shown in Fig. 3. This variation is best understood by

ratios are shown in Table 1, although some designs examining the curve in Fig. 3 in three stages. On appli-

may be as low as 4-5 and others as high as 9. cation of load, there is an immediate reduction in vol-

The power factor on starting is typically 0-3 to 0-4, tage (a). The magnitude of this reduction is approxi-

but is sometimes as low as 0-2 with some designs. It mately equal to the substransient reactance of the

peaks and then falls slightly as operating speed is generator, typically in the range 10-18%.

reached, and the power during starting is the product The second stage (b) shows a continued rapid reduc-

of the kVA and power factor. The peak-power tion to give a total voltage drop approximately equal to

requirement occurs at about 0-8 full speed the transient reactance. The subtransient time constant

(1200 rev/min), and it can be from 3 to 3-5 times the controls the rate or reduction in stage (b) when eddy

nameplate power rating. For integral-horse-power currents in the pole face and damper windings decay

motors, the full-load operating power factor is 0-8 to rapidly.

0:9. Generally, the higher the rated output, the higher

the power factor. Maurice Payne is technical manager with Dawson-

Typical loaded-starting times for 4-pole Keith Electric LQTD., PO Box 14, DeeKay House,

(1500 rev/min) motors are shown in Table 2; 2-pole North Street, Havant, Hants. PO9 1QH, England

480 ELECTRONICS & POWER JUNE 1977

starting times tor

4-pole motors

ELECTRONICS & POWER JUNE 1977

final stage of reduction to a new steady-state voltage.

A closed-loop automatic-voltage-regulator (a.v.r.)

system responds quickly and brings the voltage back to

normal with a few cycles. However, it cannot stop the

first two stages of voltage reduction. Typically, restora-

tion to within 3% of the original value takes 0-3 ms.

The response curve using an a.v.r. is shown in Fig. 4

For practical purposes, it can be taken that the voltage

dip is proportional to the applied kVA load and is

largely independent of the existing running load. Fig. 5

shows a typical curve of voltage dip against applied

load for machines of from 400 to 500 kVA.

1 Equivalent circuit of the squirrel-cage Induction motor

How much dip is acceptable? If the voltage dip on xo magnetising reactance

motor starting is 20%, the motor torque is decreased to xi stator leakage reactance

64%, i.e. as the square of the 80% voltage. This reduc- Ri stator resistance

tion is generally acceptable, and consultations with X2 rotor reactance at standstill

motor manufacturers on particular applications may R2 resistance at standstill

relax the allowable voltage dip to 25%. However, S per unit slip

where other loads are connected to the motor, these

may well dictate the acceptable voltage limit.

Electromagnetic devices drop out at from 25 to 30%

below nominal. At 40% below nominal voltage,

fluorescent lamps may go out and tungsten lamps dim

appreciably. If computers and other electronic loads

are connected, a dip of 10 % may be too much. Typical-

ly, a telecommunication company specifies a 10% dip,

a petrochemical contractor specifies 15% and a rock-

crusher manufacturer specifies 25 %.

When particularly sensitive electronic equipment

and motor loads have to be supplied from a standby

generator, e.g. a computer installation with air condi-

tioning, consideration should be given to using an

inverter for the 'electronics'.

Case study

The standby generator specified must be capable of

supplying both steady state and transient loads without

exceeding its designed frame overload capacity or pro-

ducing a dangerously depressed voltage. A typical

petrochemical plant at 380 V has the direct-online

(d.o.l)-start, squirrel-cage inducation motors detailed

in Table 3, which are essential to maintaining the via-

bility of the process. The total load of the plant is much

larger, and these motors, together with 63 kW at 0-8

power factor of lighting, are the minimum necessary

for a controlled shutdown in the event of mains-supply

failure.

On an existing installation, the nameplate of the

motor will divulge full-load power, efficiency, power

factor and starting current. The starting kVA can be

determined from the starting current. The running

power requirement is given by the operating load

divided by motor efficiency. If the operation load is not

known, it is best to assume the motor is operating at full

load. The running kVA is given by the running power

divided by the power factor, which varied appreciably

with operating load, typically as shown in Table 4.

On a mains failure* all the motors in Table 3 decel-

erate and probably stop during the 10 to 15 seconds it

takes the standby generator to start and come up to its

operating voltage and frequency. To start them simul-

taneously would need a generator of someMVA capac-

ity. Clearly, this size is uneconomical when the running

load is relatively small and has to be decreased by

applying the load in sequence. The process itself

imposed restrictions on the start sequence and the load

could only be split into the four stages shown in Table

3.

The starting and running kVA are determined for each

stage with a factor of six assumed for the relationship

between running and starting current. Hence,

Stage 1: starting kVA = 3 x 380 V x 6 (30 + 22-5 +

11 + 11 + 61 + 6 + 13) A + (60/0-8) kW

= 686 kVA

482 ELECTRONICS & POWER JUNE 1977

runningkVA = / 3 x 380 V x (30 + 22-5 + 11 + 11 +

61 + 6 + 13) A + (63/0-8) kW

= 181 kVA

Similarly

stage 2: starting = 486 kVA

running = 82 kVA

stage 3: starting = 614 kVA

running = 102 kVA

stage 4: starting = 205 kVA

running = 34 kVA

total: running kVA = 399 kVA

The voltage dip caused by this load application would be

the same wherever it occurred in the sequence regardless of

existing load, and the only justification for trying to start the

largest loads first is that the frame overload capacity is less

likely to be exceeded.

The process operator stipulated a maximum voltage dip

3 Variation of generator voltage after application of full of 16 % at the motor terminals. As some motors are 200 m

load with constant excitation from the generator and voltage drops would occur in the

cables it was decided to aim for a 13-14% dip at the

generator terminals.

First estimate

Given the highest starting load and the acceptable vol-

tage dip, the first estimate of the generator size can be

made. From Fig. 5 it can be seen that, for a voltage dip of

13-14% when applying 686 kVA, a frame capacity of

(686/0-65) kVA is needed, i.e. 1055 kVA. This capacity

requirement is Still relatively expensive and further

methods of decreasing it are needed.

One method is to use a generator with a low reactance

that would have an inherently lower voltage-dip charac-

teristic. Alternatively, the frame size of the generator could

4 Variation of generator voltage after application of full be very large compared with the power output of the

load with automatic voltage regulator engine. Both solutions are relatively expensive and give a

hybrid set with limitation on subsequent load growth and a

very low resale value. The solution used in this case was to

change the largest motors in the groups to star-delta start-

ing, with a starting kVA of 2-5 times the running kVA. (In

this case, the motors did not require high starting torques;

therefore star-delta starting was suitable.)

running = 181 kVA

stage 2: starting : 210 kVA

running = 82 kVA

stage 3: starting : 244 kVA

running = 102 kVA

stage 4: starting : 200 kVA

running = 34 kVA

13-14% voltage dip from the curve in Fig. 5, a frame

capacity is needed of 334/0-65, i.e. 514 kVA.

Therefore a generator of say 520 kVA will probably

suffice, but a check has to be made to ensure the

overload capacity of the machine is not exceeded at

any stage (Table 5). Typically, the overload capacity

will be twice the fullload rating of the machine for a

period of 10 s.

At no stage does the total kVA load on the machine

exceed the overload capacity available. Thus the

chosen generator is rated at 520 kVA and an engine to

drive it has to be chosen.

Engine sizing: Estimating the maximum power

demand during the starting periods is difficult as the

power factor is seldom available. Motor manufac-

turer's figures vary from 0-35 to 0-5. To be safe, I

always work with the worse figures of 0-5, and a

theoretical analysis justifies this.

A squirrel-cage motor is designed to develop a high

5 3-phase voltage dips. Curves supplied by a generator torque the breakdown torque when the speed has

manufacturer risen to within about 2 0 % of full speed. Motor stan-

ELECTRONICS & POWER JUNE 1977 483

least 1-6 times the rated torque, and, in practice, it is

usually in excess of two times rated torque, so that, at

about 80% full speed, the power developed in the

motor will approach the rated power times per unit

breakdown torque. The power requirement can be

higher, since the substantial internal losses occurring at

this speed can result in an efficiency less than that at

full speed.

The engine will experience a transient load,

although this is seldom seen as a marked reduction in

speed since the system inertia is normally sufficient to

carry it through this point. The engine has a 10%

overload capacity dictated by British Standards and is Shell's Brent ' C platform's float-out is powered by four

dependent on the permissible temperature rise. 460 kVA Dawson-Keith diesel-generator sets. The sets

The power factor of 0-5 on starting has been found to can be automatically paralleled and supply four 150 kW

be acceptable although slip-ring motors may have a pump motors for ballasting and trimming duties. All

motors start d.o.l., and the 35% transient voltage dip

starting power factor up to 0-8. Maximum power/load recovers to within 10% of nominal voltage in less than

occurs in stage 4 and is the sum of the running power 0 5s

divided by generator efficiency.

(365 x 0-8 + 200 x ,0-5)/0-93

= 421 kW

The engine net output in accordance with BS649

must therefore exceed 421 kW at the operating speed

and after derating for the ambient conditions. So, to

meet the motor starting needs of that particular plant,

it was necessary to use a generator with a minimum

capacity of 514 kVA and an engine with minimum

output of 421 kW.

- 140417 DL 30130 - Extract From the ManualUploaded bylpestana
- 533714 - Maximizing Starting Torque on PowerFlex 753 _ 755 AC Drives.pdfUploaded byAndres Antonio Romero
- Cascada SubsincronaUploaded byfrsantos123
- Electrical Motors - Frame Sizes.pdfUploaded byGustavo Cuatzo
- Electrical Technology Manual JWFILESUploaded byRavi Ande
- DOUBLY-FED ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINE WITH 3-LEVEL VSI FOR VARIABLE SPEED PUMP STORAGEUploaded bymario.camacho4698
- Motors BasicUploaded byjvilasis
- Electricity Billing and Power Factor Correction improvementUploaded bykmuralikrish007
- Task 1-Ste & AnswerUploaded byYulian Deni Adhitama
- Function.docxUploaded byalfian
- 01627198Uploaded byfathieldrassi
- 45A16OBUploaded byMartin Rojas Lujan
- What is Power FactorUploaded byKartikbhati
- Impact of Reduced Voltage on Induction Machine PerformanceUploaded byShayan Behzadi
- Final Project- 575Uploaded bygourav
- 95-00333_11_14_9188_FRAKO-Produktkatalog_2015_en_redUploaded byEdwin Leon
- energies-12-00157.pdfUploaded bysunilkumarece
- ModellingUploaded bykrcdewanew
- AssignmentUploaded byMalkeet Prince
- 432E4050Uploaded byDouglas Fernando
- Leading Power Factor LoadsUploaded byBala Krishnan
- Power Factor Correction of Three Phase Induction MotorUploaded byIJSTE
- Induction GeneratorUploaded bykamlesh
- EE-2003.pdfUploaded byArjun Mudlapur
- Capacitor BankUploaded byLalinda Senevirathna
- Power Factor and Distortion Measuring for Small Loads Using USB Acquisition ModuleUploaded byCristian Ortiz
- QA TransformersUploaded byjinmenchie
- IEC Standards & Power Factor CorrectionUploaded bySephoraStone
- Datasheet Inverter 25000TLUploaded byDodok Penghuni Surga
- 05 MASTERYSUploaded bySua Heo

- 变电站综合自动化系统存在的问题Uploaded byyao
- 石油与石油设施雷电安全规范GB15599.docUploaded byyao
- EG400-1000技术参数Uploaded byyao
- 10kV负荷统计Uploaded byyao
- 1600静音箱技术说明Uploaded byyao
- 用于GIS串外电流互感器配置的T区保护装置.pdfUploaded byyao
- 临县二次材料表Uploaded byyao
- 04 Example of Transformer Damage Curve 1Uploaded byyao
- Busbar ProtectionUploaded byyao
- IEC60034 旋转电机规范Uploaded byyao
- 4_电力系统仿真云计算研究现状和前瞻（陈勇）.pdfUploaded byyao
- 浪涌保护器[1].docUploaded byyao
- Abb Pr221电子脱口器曲线Uploaded byyao
- ANSI IEC Comparison Filed Under ProtectionUploaded byyao
- Re CloserUploaded byyao
- Annex I - Grid Code 2005 巴基斯坦规范Uploaded byyao
- Voltage Drop Calculation Considering TransformerUploaded byyao
- Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motorUploaded byHans De Keulenaer
- MODELING OF EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATORS.pdfUploaded byyao
- Considerations_in_Medium_Voltage_Reduced_Voltage_Motor_Starting.pdfUploaded byyao
- 17-Generator and Generator Transf ProtUploaded bySristick
- Application Note Protection ClassUploaded byshuwing
- IEC 60076-20-2017 TSUploaded byyao
- GB 1984-2014Uploaded byyao
- Simulation of Parallel Resonance Condition in ElectricalUploaded byyao
- Harmonic Digital Simulation TechniqueUploaded byyao
- English Telephoning Koncilia 2005[1]Uploaded byyao
- Arrester Protection DistanceUploaded byyao
- Comparison of IEEE and IEC Standards for Calculations of Insulation Levels and Electrical Clearances for 230 KV Air Insulated SubstationUploaded byyao

- SKY12208_478LF_201671DUploaded byAnanda Krishna
- Tushar ProjectUploaded byPayal Agarwal
- Final Report Li-fiUploaded byदेवेश सिंह राजपूत
- fuji_pyxUploaded byOla Skeik
- WA 05 08 E Electrical DevicesUploaded byNageswar Makala
- DVR2000E+ TrainingUploaded bysonhuegli
- Qucs - GetstartedUploaded byback49
- CHF100 English Manual INVT_1.4.1Uploaded byMandala DevilDice
- Tests on EquipmentUploaded bybuntysurat
- 20130726_Hwang.pdfUploaded byPrashant Salvi
- TES-P-107-01-R0Uploaded bysrinivasaphanikiran
- CLS Aipmt 18 19 XII Phy Study Package 5 SET 2 Chapter 2Uploaded byTanishq Verma
- HW2ElectricChargeAndElectricFieldUploaded byjaneassdotcom
- Duke-Energy-(Progress-Energy-Carolinas-Inc)-Large-General-Service-Curtailable-Time-of-Use-/-LGS-CUR-TOUUploaded byGenability
- WAA2890DMUploaded bytrutlept
- Display Technology.ppt RajUploaded byRaushan Raj
- IMAX-B6Uploaded byMr.Nothing
- A Photovoltaic Panel Model in Matlab SimulinkUploaded byAnonymous kxFNcp
- Protection of Power TransformersUploaded byEko Parjono
- ANSI-ISA-1982-R1992Uploaded bydaniel rodriguez villegas
- all_India_RE_RAP_database.xlsUploaded byXplore Engg
- 3RB20661GC2_datasheet_en.pdfUploaded byIME Salvador Zurita Hernandez
- Protection PrimerUploaded bydurraizali
- LVDS hannstarUploaded bybingolah
- Distributed-Generation-Impact-on-Fault-Response-of-a-Distrubution-Network-Venkata thesis.pdfUploaded bygrand_ammar
- Electronics for Model Railways.pdfUploaded bymancub
- Murata filter catalogUploaded bystamasd
- Eaton E Series DX Datasheet LowresUploaded byYoYoRamez
- Scr 7Uploaded byeuqehtb
- IXDN604SIUploaded bycatsoithahuong84