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International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation agw, Poland, 2008

Harmonic Digital Simulation Technique


on an Industrial Environment
M. Dumitrescu IEEE Member
* University "Dunarea de Jos" of Galati, Romania

Abstract The paper proposes to study a real industrial system. Sparse-matrix and vector techniques are used to
power system and to presents the Digital Harmonic Analysis solve for the equivalent system impedances at the various
using EDSA Technical software. The objectives of the study points of interest, for all the frequency range, thus
are to evaluate the potentially negative impact of non-linear completing the so called frequency scanning. When
loads on the system, and to study possible techniques that harmonic current sources are included in the network,
will minimize this impact. On this goal, will be presented harmonic voltages will be calculated. Numerical
eight harmonic interesting analysis cases and will be techniques, such as the matrix Inversion Lemma are also
considered three different working conditions (alternatives) used for fast re- calculation of the system impedances,
of the analyzed power system. under single or multiple contingencies.
Section 1 introduces the most important and actual
I. INTRODUCTION aspects in harmonics effect on industrial environment.
Harmonic analysis is required when devices that Section 2 presents the Digital Harmonic Analysis EDSA
generate harmonics, such as rectifiers, arc furnaces, procedure for a real industrial power system. Section 3
AC/DC drives etc, are present or anticipated to be added gives the comparative results of the harmonic and power
to the power system. Frequent failure of power system flow study for eight analysis cases considered in three
components [1] may also justify the undertaking of different working conditions (alternatives) of the proposed
harmonic studies. Another important reason may be to real study case.
arrive at harmonic filter specifications. The response of an
electric power system to harmonics can be studied by any II. HARMONIC ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
of the following techniques [2]-[4]: The following summarizes the necessary steps,
1. Hand-Calculations restricted to small-size networks normally required for a harmonic study in the industrial
since it is not only very tedious but quite susceptible to environment:
errors as well. 1. Prepare system one -line diagram;
2. Transient Network Analyzer is also restricted to 2. Gather equipment data and rating;
rather small network sizes because it is, generally found to 3. Obtain from the utility company the relevant data
be expensive and time consuming. and requirements at the point of common coupling. These
3. Field measurements are often used to determine the must include:
level of harmonic pollution of the power system. It is Minimum and maximum fault levels or preferably
widely recognized, however, that undertaking harmonic system impedances as a function of frequency for
measurements in a systematic fashion, can be quite different system conditions;
expensive and time consuming. Harmonic measurements, Permissible limits on harmonics including distortion
although quite useful in many cases could be of limited factors and IT factor. The criteria and limits vary
validity because they reflect only the system topology considerably from country to country. Typical values
they have been taken at. Moreover, measurements can be for different voltage levels are given in IEEE 519
in error due to inaccuracies of measuring instruments or standard.
erroneous utilization. Field measurements are used 4. Carry out harmonic analysis for the base system
effectively to validate and refine system modelling for configuration by calculating the system impedances at the
digital simulations. harmonic source bus bars as well as all shunt capacitors
4. Digital computer simulation is the most convenient, locations.
and perhaps more economical, way of tackling the 5. Compute harmonic voltage distortion factors and IT
problem of harmonic analysis. The reason is that the value at the point of common coupling.
advent of computer technology has made available quite 6. Examine the results and, eventually, go back to step 1
sophisticated computer programs featuring a large array of or step 4, depending on whether the network data or only
system component models to be used in a variety of cases. the parameters of the analysis need to be modified.
Computer simulations are centred on system-wide 7. Compare the composite (fundamental plus harmonic)
approaches utilizing the notions of system impedance and/ loading requirements of shunt capacitor banks with the
or admittance matrices, backed by elegant and powerful maximum rating permitted by the standards. There was
numerical calculation techniques. defined the following operating limits [5], [6]:
Power system networks are modelled as sets of Continuous operating voltage 110% of rated
frequency-dependent models of the various, above voltage;
described, system components. For every frequency of RMS Crest Voltage 1.2-2 times rated RMS
interest, an admittance matrix is built for the whole Voltage;

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International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation agw, Poland, 2008

KVAr 135% of rated KVAr; 2. Run a frequency scan to determine the natural
8. Relocate the capacitors or change the bank ratings if oscillation response(s) of the network model;
they are found to exceed their ratings. Apply a detuning 3. Compare the results of the frequency scan with the
reactor if a resonance condition is found. Go back to step harmonic components of the nonlinear loads that are fed
4. or will be fed from the network. This will give an
9. Add filters if the harmonic distortion factors and IT indication of what frequencies the potential resonant
values at the point of common coupling exceed the limit conditions lie at;
imposed by the utility. 4. Place the nonlinear loads at the appropriate nodes
To illustrate the Digital Harmonic Analysis, EDSA (busses) on the mod el;
Technical software will be used for a real industrial 5. Run Voltage & Current THD analyses at all busses
system (Fig. 1) consists of the Utility Supply, which feeds and branches.
a two-bus system. Bus No.1 is fed via a 10 MVA During the procedure we have to pay strict attention to:
transformer TR1 that steps the voltage down to 6 kV, and Wave -shape Distortion/Oscillations;
supplies power to two AC motors (3000 & 1500 HP), a Parallel & Series Resonant Conditions.
780 kVAR power factor correction capacitor bank, and Total Harmonic Distortion Levels (Voltage &
Bus No.2 via transformer TR2. Transformer TR 2 steps Current);
the voltage down to 400V and feeds a 500 HP AC motor, True RMS loading of Lines, Transformers,
and two Variable Frequency AC Drives (VFD) rated at Capacitors, etc;
300 kVAR / 75% PF [7]-[10]. Negative Sequence harmonics being absorbed
The objectives of the study are: by AC motors;
1. To evaluate the potentially negative impact of both Transformer K-Factor Levels.
VFD's on the system, and For frequency scan of the system the program runs a
2. To study possible techniques that will minimize this positive sequence scan starting from the fundamental
impact. frequency 50 Hz up to 1800 Hz (30th harmonic), using
A suggested procedure to run the study follows: 300 points.
1. Model the network under study using the EDSA
ECAD interface;

Figure 1. Industrial power system case study.

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International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation agw, Poland, 2008

The frequency scan to the bus of interest is presented in


Fig. 2. The upper scan from Fig. 2 a indicates that the Bus
No.1-6 kV has a parallel resonance condition close to the
11th harmonic, which is being imposed by the presence of
the capacitor bank at this bus. The lower scan indicates the
angle response throughout the scanned spectrum.
The impedance diagram for Bus No.2-400 V from Fig.
2b indicates that a parallel resonance condition also exists
somewhere between the 10.5th and the 11th harmonic
order (10.6 to be precise). This condition is consistent
with Bus No.1 since the capacitor bank located there is
defining this resonance for the system. The lower scan
diagram shows the angle response for the impedance at
this bus.
When we place the nonlinear loads at the appropriate
busses on the model and conduct the Harmonic Analysis,
the program shows the waveform that corresponds to the
source in question (Fig. 3).
Figure 3. Waveform of the harmonic source (VFD).

III. COMPARATIVE HARMONIC ANALYSIS


RESULTS
The above list indicates eight harmonic interesting
results, which will be considered for this network. The
results are described as follows:
Analysis 1: Voltage THD at Bus No.2 - 400 V;
Analysis 2: Current THD at the secondary of
Transformer TRX 2;
Analysis 3: Current THD at the secondary of
Transformer TRX 1;
Analysis 4: Current THD at the 400 V - 500 HP AC
motor fed from Bus No.2;
Analysis 5: Voltage THD at the main Bus No.1;
Analysis 6: Current THD at the Capacitor Bank;
Analysis 7: Current THD at the 110 kV Supply;
Analysis 8: Voltage THD at the 110 kV Supply.
a These eight analyses will assume three alternatives:
1. no capacitor banks;
2. capacitor on line;
3. harmonic filters and capacitor on line.
For Alternative 1, if the breaker feeding the 780 Kvar
capacitor bank is open, his will enable us to study the
effect of the capacitors on the system while supplying
power to the VFD's.
Table 1 presents the bus results for 1, 5, 8 Analysis
cases, meaning the RMS voltage (Vrms), the fundamental
voltage (V(1)), voltage harmonic coefficient (VTHD) for
the three proposed alternatives. Table 2 presents the
branch results in 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 Analysis cases, meaning the
RMS current (Irms), the fundamental current (I(1)),
current harmonic coefficient (ITHD) for the three
proposed alternatives.
The voltage waveform at Buses 1, 2 and at Power
Supply result of the harmonic currents injected by both
Variable Frequency Drives.
The secondary current being demanded from
transformer TRX 2 is the result of the two VFD load
b currents, plus the load current demanded by the 500 HP
AC motor fed from the same bus.
Figure 2. Frequency response of the system to Bus 1 (a), Bus 2 (b).

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International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation agw, Poland, 2008

TABLE I.
BUS HARMONIC ANALYSIS COMPARATIVE RESULTS

Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3


NO CAPACITOR CAPACITOR ON LINE FILTERS AND CAPACITOR
Vrms V(1) VTHD Vrms V(1) VTHD Vrms V(1) VTHD
[KV] [KV] % [V] [V] % [V] [V] %
Analysis 1 0.385 0,378 4,94 0,395 0,383 8,47 0,395 0,389 3,27
Analysis 5 5,9 5,87 1,33 6,07 5,92 9,17 6,04 5, 92 1,28
Analysis 8 110 110 0,52 115 110 3,61 110 110 0,5

TABLE II.
BRANCH HARMONIC ANALYSIS COMPARATIVE RESULTS

Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3


NO CAPACITOR CAPACITOR ON LINE FILTERS AND CAPACITOR
Irms I(1) ITHD Irms I(1) ITHD Irms I(1) ITHD
[A] [A] % [A] [A] % [A] [A] %
Analysis 2 1376 1361,68 14,91 1372,86 1356,84 15,42 1352,1 1347,45 3,25
Analysis 3 765,52 765,34 2,13 720,68 717,18 9,9 716,54 716,43 2,42
Analysis 4 646,31 645,85 3,78 641,71 640,82 5,26 639,35 639,77 1,35
Analysis 7 230,76 230,71 2,13 217,2 216,1 9,9 215,9 215,8 2,42
Irms In ITHD Irms In ITHD
[A] [A] % [A] [A] %
Analysis 6 - - - 149,85 108,4 100,91 106,21 102,46 4,06

In addition of the current harmonic regime, there is also The capacitor bank would be operating at a load
the heating effect imposed by the harmonics by means of condition of 138% of its rated current capacity. Obviously
the K-Factor=1,95. it could not sustain this duty, and would either fail or its
For Alternative 2, with the 780 kVAR capacitor bank supply breaker would trip it off-line. The harmonic
connected to Bus No.1, in Analysis 1 case the voltage spectrum shows the 11th harmonic as the predominant
THD has increased from 4.94% (already unacceptable) to component of the capacitor current (Fig. 4).
8.47%. The spectrum gives the 11th harmonic as the Analysis 7 case presents the Power Supply total load
predominant component of the distortion. In Analysis 5 current and reflects the distortion of the capacitor bank
case the voltage THD has suffered a more dramatic current. Since this is the current seen by the utility supply,
increase than for Bus No.2. The distortion increased from it may affect adjacent customers fed from the same
1.33% to 9.17%. supply. References [5], [8] limit this current distortion
For Analysis 6 case (capacitor bank current), to better based on the Short Circuit to Load ratio (Isc/IL). The
appreciate the effect of the harmonics on this capacitor distortion at this point increased from 2.13% to 9.90%. the
bank, let's consider its nominal RMS current value (In), harmonic spectrum gives the 11th harmonic as the
and compare it with the current it is drawing under the predominant component of the distortion.
resonant conditions Irms. The results of Analysis 8 case (Power Supply) present
the voltage THD who has reached a value of 3.61. The
harmonic spectrum gives the 11th harmonic as the
predominant component of the distortion.
Alternative 3 imposes the condition of the tuned filters
addition. We will attempt to filter the harmonic conditions
studied (capacitors on-line), by adding 3 single tuned
filters, one tuned for the 11th harmonic, one tuned for the
7th harmonic, and one for the 5th harmonic to our case-
study network. We will place the filters directly at the
400V Bus No.2.
Fig. 5 shows the 5th harmonic filter impedance-
response characteristics. The upper graph represents the
magnitude of the impedance in ohms, and the lower graph
shows the angle response characteristic. Fig. 6 shows the
results of Analyze 5 for Bus No.1, notice the remarkable
voltage THD reduction from 9.17% down to 1.28%.
Also to Bus No.2 notice the voltage THD reduction from
8,47% down to 3.27% (Analysis 1).

Figure 4. The harmonic spectrum of the capacitor current.

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International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation agw, Poland, 2008

Figure 5. The 5th harmonics filter impedance-response characteristics. Figure 7. Harmonic Analyze 6 (Capacitor Bank Current) after tuned
filters addition.

Figure 6. Harmonic Analyze 5 for Bus No.1 after tuned filters Figure 8. Impedance Response of Bus No.1.
addition.
Fig. 9 shows the Impedance Response of Bus No.2,
In Alternative 3 conditions, for Analysis 6 case which reflects the additional series and parallel resonance
(Capacitor Bank Current) RMS current has been reduced introduced by the filters
to 106.21A, down from the 138% overload condition
arrived at Alternative 2 case (Fig. 7). The 11th harmonic
has been practically eliminated from the current spectrum.
The ripple riding on the current waveform corresponds
mainly to a combination of the unfiltered 13th & 17th
harmonic components. Since the capacitor's reactance is
inversely proportional to the frequency, it acts a sink for
these higher frequency components
In Analysis 7 case (Power Supply current) notice the
remarkable current THD reduction from 9.90 down to
2.42 %. Also for Analysis 8 case (Bus No.1) notice the
remarkable voltage THD reduction from 3.61% down to
0.50%. This result is well within the IEEE 519 Voltage
THD limits at the Point of Common Coupling.
The final step in this study is to re-evaluate the
frequency response at Bus No.1 and Bus No.2 with the
filters on -line. Fig. 8 shows the Impedance Response of
Bus No.1 which reflects the additional series and parallel
resonance introduced by the filters.

Figure 9. Impedance Response of Bus No.2.

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International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation agw, Poland, 2008

IV. CONCLUSION equipments modelling. The harmonic and power flow


Today we must take into account the technological simulation conducts to viable results, we could implement
developments and energy saving devices that have been into the real industrial environment.
developed in the last years. The new generation of
electrical equipments has brought the need to include one REFERENCES
additional dimension to traditional power analysis: The
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these nonlinear devices, phenomena such as overloaded systems quality , New York: Mc.Graw-Hill, 1996, pag. 39-80..
neutrals in spite of perfectly balanced phases are common [2] IEC 61000-3-7, Part 3: Limits - Section 7: Assessment of emission
occurrences that require a different approach in order to be limits for fluctuating power in MV and HV power systems.
understood. Utilities should consider the harmonic content [3] IEEE P1366, Trial Use Guide for Electric Power Distribution
Reliability Indices, Working Group on System Design, Draft 5, Ian. 2001.
of the AC wave as a factor in determining the quality of
[4] IEC 61400-21, Measurement and assessment of power quality
their service. Reference [5], suggests the values as characteristics of grids.
maximum recommended limits for voltage distortion and [5] IEEE Standard 519-1992 Power Grids Distortion Limits.
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[6] Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public distribution
individual customers, so as to maintain the voltage systems, European Norm EN 50160 , Nov. 1999.
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currents and the magnitude of the system's impedance at [8] M. Dumitrescu, Efficiency and Reliability on Power Systems,
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manner between the customers, the utility's capability to 30-2187-3, pp. 150-161.
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Harmonic modelling differs somewhat from the system network, INT.J.Elect. Power Energy Systems, vol 23, pp. 427-
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frequencies well above the fundamental. So it becomes
more and more an important task of the digital computer
to make complex simulation of the harmonic regime.
EDSA software is able to give adequate electric

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