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2015 3rd International Conference on Electric Power Equipment - Switching Technology (ICEPE-ST) Oct.

25-28, 2015 Busan, Korea

Voltage Drop Calculation Considering Transformer

Inrush Current with EDG Operation

Jeong-Hyeok Heo, Seong-Il Kim, Joon-Ho Kim, Soo-Nam Kim

Distribution Equipment Research Department
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.
Yongin, Korea,,,,

Abstract A purpose of voltage drop calculation is to

evaluate the dynamic capability of the EDG for loading steps. II. DATA FOR SIMULATION
This calculation is intended to carry out a simulation in the most
severe emergency diesel generator loading sequence condition. It A. Single Line Diagram of Case Study
is important to ensure that EDGs operate safely and consistently. Fig.1 shows a simplified single line diagram of the power
For this reason voltage drop calculation is necessary at the system on the nuclear power plant. This power system has two
planning and conceptual design stage of the project. ETAP, power transformers. The capacity of one of them is 1,500 kVA
which can simulate the dynamic characteristic of emergency
and the capacity of another power transformer is 1,000 kVA.
diesel generator, has been commonly used in this study. Normally,
All power transformers voltage level is 4.16/0.48 kV and
ETAP is difficult to consider the transformer inrush current for
voltage drop calculation. It brings out inaccuracy of simulation,
connection is delta-wye. Each transformer has a load center
and leads to decrease reliability of the calculation. This paper that is lumped loads. It is operating when transformer is
suggests a transformer inrush current modeling method in injected.
consideration of loading sequence.

KeywordsVoltage Drop Calculation; Inrush Current; EDG;

ETAP; Transformer; Nuclear Power Plant; Load Sequence

When the power plant is constructed, electrical system
study is conducted for stable design of power system. Various
and comprehensive electrical system studies are carried out at
the planning and conceptual design stage of the project.
Purposes of electrical system study are verification of power
system basic/detail design and stability evaluation.
Generally electrical system study has been conducted using
commercial power system analysis program [1]. Certified
analysis program, which is ETAP nuclear license version, is Fig. 1. Single Line Diagram of Case Study
used to carry out the electrical system study in most of nuclear
power plant.
B. Diesel Engine Data
Voltage drop calculation, one of the electrical system
Table I shows a diesel engine data. The diesel engine
studies, is conducted to evaluate the dynamic capability of the
impedance is 0.011013+ j0.318264 ohm. It is calculated using
EDG for loading steps. For voltage drop calculation, major
sub-transient reactance of the diesel engine.
loads are injected successively follow the loading sequence.
Sometimes owner engineering company needs to consider the
transformer inrush current. It is difficult to apply the TABLE I. DIESEL ENGINE DATA
transformer inrush current on ETAP, because electro-magnetic
Rated Voltage 4.16 kV
behavior such as inrush current is not provided in the program.
This paper suggests the voltage drop calculation solution Rated Speed 750 rpm
considering the transformer inrush current and simulates this Rated Power 8,970 kW
solution by ETAP.

978-1-4673-7414-9/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE 455

C. Loads of The System It is modeled by Electro-Magnetic Transients Program -
The loads connected with the systems are industrial loads, Restructured Version (EMTP-RV).
fans, pumps, air conditioners, water pumps and the other
industrial equipment. All major loads are modeled in ETAP B. Inrush Current Simulation
based upon motors data. Table II shows the rated output of The simulation schematic for the inrush current is shown in
loads and loading sequence. Fig. 2.


Driven Equipment Rated Output [HP] Injection Time [sec]

1,500 kVA
480V Load Center 20
+ 1,000 kVA
SI Pump 1,000 25
SI Pump 1,000 30
AF Pump 1,300 35 Fig. 2. Simulation Schematic for Inrush Current of The Transformer
SC Pump 1,000 40
A diesel generator is modeled as a power source, and
CCW Pump 1,600 45
impedance is the diesel engine data. The system simulates
ESW Pump 940 50 inrush current due to the characteristics of the transformer
Essential Chiller 1,207 55 when the circuit breaker is closed. Inrush current is shown in
ESW Pump 442 60 Fig. 3.


When the transformer is injected, inrush current occurs as
shown in Fig. 3. Magnitude of inrush current is about 8 ~ 12
times more than rated current of the transformer. It becomes
disappeared after a short time [2].
ETAP does not consider the transformer inrush current, and (a) Inrush Current of The 1,000 kVA Transformer
simulation is not carried out correctly. For more correct
simulation, the inrush current must be applied to simulation.
This section suggests the solution to solve this problem. To
apply the inrush current, new transformer inrush current model
is used instead of the existing model provided by ETAP.

A. Transformer Modeling
A Transformer inrush current that is one of the transient
phenomenon is influenced by transformer core inductance,
circuit impedance, an input phase of primary side voltage and (b) Inrush Current of The 1,500 kVA Transformer
residual flux of core [3]. Table III is a transformer no load test
result for voltage - current characteristic modeling. Residual Fig. 3. Inrush Current of The Transformer
flux of a transformer is below equation:
Fig. 3 (a) is inrush current of the 1,000 kVA transformer,
(b) is inrush current of the 1,500 kVA transformer. The peak
{Leg1, Leg2, Leg3} = {-0.35, 0.7, -0.35}[ nom (1) current of the 1,000 kVA transformer is 2,285 Apeak. It converts
into rms value that is 1,615 Arms. It is 11.6 times the rating
current (138.79 Arms). The peak current of the 1,500 kVA
transformer is 2,780 Apeak. It converts into rms value that is
1,966 Arms. It is 9.44 times the rating current (208.18 Arms). The
No Load Test inrush current may decrease rapidly. However if the simulation
Capacity Voltage
tion No Load is carried out without considering it, voltage drop will be very
[kVA] Voltage Current
Loss [kW] small. It can be referred to as a correct simulation. It must be
4.16/ 100% 0.26% 1.469
1,000 kVA Dyn1 simulated to reflect the generated current as a function of time
0.48kV 110% 0.50% 1.943
in order to accurately apply the inrush current.
4.16/ 100% 0.27% 2.177
1,500 kVA Dyn1
0.48kV 110% 0.59% 2.962

TABLE IV. MAXIMUM INRUSH CURRENT OF THE TRANSFORMER [APEAK] assumed that the inrush current is disappeared. Table V is
instantaneous power inrush current.
Time 1,000 kVA 1,500 kVA Second, calculate instantaneous power when the inrush
current of the transformer occurs. Inrush current are modeled
0 sec 2,285 2,780 separately each section. This inrush current modeling absorbs
0.02 sec 2,007 2,515 same amount of instantaneous power of inrush current. Each
0.04 sec 1,774 2,268
load is eliminated with time successively. And instantaneous
power decreases while the loads are rejected successively. All
0.06 sec 1,576 2,054
loads are rejected in 2.2 sec. It means that the inrush current is
0.08 sec 1,402 1,865 eliminated. Table VI and table VII are shown the PQ load
0.1 sec 1,258 1,699 calculation result for a transformer inrush current modeling.
0.2 sec 829 1,097
1.0 sec 93 152
2.0 sec 30 50 TR Inrush Current PQ Load
[sec] Condition Time [sec] [Mvar]
0 5.64 Close 0.02 1.00
Time 1,000 kVA 1,500 kVA
0.02 4.64 Close 0.04 0.88
0.04 3.76 Close 0.06 0.71
0s 4.90 5.64
0.06 3.05 Close 0.08 0.55
0.02s 3.83 4.64 0.08 2.50 Close 0.1 0.26
0.04s 2.98 3.76 0.1 2.24 Close 0.2 0.78
0.06s 2.31 3.05 0.2 1.46 Close 0.5 0.87
0.08s 1.90 2.50 0.5 0.59 Close 1.0 0.44
0.1s 1.68 2.24 1.0 0.15 Close 2.0 0.12
0.2s 0.96 1.46 2.0 0.03 Close 2.2 0.03
0.5s 0.33 0.59 Sum 5.64
1.0s 0.08 0.15
2.0s 0.02 0.03


TR Inrush Current PQ Load

Time Initial Opening Q Load
[sec] Condition Time [sec] [Mvar]
0 4.90 Close 0.02 1.07
0.02 3.83 Close 0.04 0.85
0.04 2.98 Close 0.06 0.67
0.06 2.31 Close 0.08 0.41 Fig. 4. Comparison to Instantaneous Power of 1,000kVA TR.
0.08 1.90 Close 0.1 0.22
0.1 1.68 Close 0.2 0.72
0.2 0.96 Close 0.5 0.63
0.5 0.33 Close 1.0 0.25
1.0 0.08 Close 2.0 0.06
2.0 0.02 Close 2.2 0.02
Sum 4.90

C. Inrush Current Modeling Method

First, measure the inrush current of transformer. This table Fig. 5. Comparison to Instantaneous Power of 1,500kVA TR.
shows inrush current with time. The change of inrush current is
measured every 0.02 sec up to 0.1 sec, because the decrease of
inrush current occurs significantly during this period. And it is
measured at appropriate intervals up to 2 sec. After 2 sec, it is

D. Comparison to Inrush Current
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 are shown comparing the instantaneous
power of loads with instantaneous power of inrush current.
They present that instantaneous power of loads are similar to
instantaneous power of inrush current.


This section compare to voltage drop calculation by
traditional method and proposed method using ETAP.

Fig. 7. Voltage Drop with Inrush Current Load Modeling

Electro-magnetic behavior such as transformrer inrush
current is difficult to simulate applied in ETAP. In order to
carry out voltage drop calculation consdering the transformer
inrush current precisely, inrush current load modeling method
Fig. 6. Voltage Drop without Inrush Current Load Modeling based on instantaneous power is proposed in this paper. This
method is also applied for another electrical study using ETAP,
and it will improve the accuracy of analysis.
A. Simulation without Inrush Current Load Modeling
In case there is no inrush current load, the voltage drop
occurs a little. It means that a transformer inrush current does
not reflect to simulation for voltage drop calculation.
Maximum voltage drop is about 23% of nominal voltage at 45
sec, then it is satisfied the regulation that should come within [1] Jalili-Marandi, Vahid, et al. "A real-time transient stability simulation
tool for large-scale power systems," Power and Energy Society General
25% of nominal voltage. Meeting, 2012.
[2] Jalili-Marandi, Vahid, et al. " IEEE Recommended Practice for
B. Simulation witht Inrush Current Load Modeling Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power
In case there is inrush current load, the voltage drop occurs Systems (IEEE Buff Book)," IEEE Std 242-2001 (Revision of IEEE Std
242-1986) [IEEE Buff Book], 2001.
larger than previous case. Compare to Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, they
[3] Martinez-Velasco, Juan A., Transformer modeling for low frequency
are different about 20 sec, because inrush current exists only a transients: the state of the art, Proceedings of the IPST International
few second. In this power system, maximum voltage drop Conference on Power Systems Transients, 2003
appear at 45 sec, and inrush current doesn`t have an effect
analysis result. However if excessive inrush current occurs or
continuous by characteristics of the transformer, severe voltage
drop will happen.