You are on page 1of 6

Tenth International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation

Topic: Simulation of Parallel Resonance condition in Electrical


Network using EDSA (a Power system Analysis Software)
Author: Kamlesh K Wadhwani
SABIC E&PM , P.O. Box -11425 , Al Jubail,31961 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract: In Electrical model (Refer Annexure-1 with Utility details


This paper covers the effects of parallel resonance in the as 34.5 kV, Swing bus , Short circuit levels 100000 KVA ,
Electrical Network due to Power Factor correction (PFC)/VAR X/R 20) load flow analysis was carried out, and it was
compensation. Parallel Resonance can make entire electrical noted that power factor at Bus # 480 B was 0.78.
network unstable as THD (voltage) may rise upto 26% of Calculated the reactive power required to increase this
fundamental (which is nearly seven to eight times of THD
produced by the harmonic source) resulting in highly distorted power factor using formula
Electrical wave. This will result in misfiring in UPS, Variable Q = P (Tan1 Tan2) /e
Frequency Drives, and Battery Charges. The Protection system
may mal-operate due to resonance. The losses in various The reactive power required to raise this power factors
electrical equipments will increase, which will result in heating from 0.78 to 0.85, 0.78 to 0.90 and 0.78 to 0.95 are 475
and ultimately premature failure of equipments. KVAR, 789 KVAR and 1178 KVAR respectively.
A typical Electrical network was modeled in EDSA (Electrical
design software) and parallel resonance condition was
simulated to analyze the effect of resonance on following: The effect of power factor improvement in upstream
THD on various busses in the electrical network transformer (6.9KV/480V, 3.5 MVA) feeding Bus-480V
Impedance response with/without the PFC B is summarized below in Table 1:
Distortion of waveform at various buses Table 1: Effects of Power Factor improvement
Corrective measures to avoid resonance due to PFC
Pf PFC S P Q I P Q
Index Term: Parallel resonance, Power factor correction, loss loss
distortion, THD, Impedance response

I. INTRODUCTION 0.78 - 3.58 2.65 2.4 358 30.9 305


0.78 475 3.32 2.65 2.01 329 25.5 257
Good Quality Electrical power is defined as electrical power to
with stable voltage and stable frequency. The power quality 0.85
gets affected due to presence of voltage dips/sags, 0.78 789 3.17 2.65 1.74 311 22.8 230
surges/swells, transients and harmonic distortions. to
Nowadays use of power electronic devices, such as variable 0.90
speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), static 0.78 1178 2.98 2.64 1.39 290 19.9 201
power converters, etc., are increasing day by day but these to
equipments induce harmonics in the mains supply. This 0.95
affects the power system voltage and current quality. The
problem gets compounded if PFC/VAR compensation is Here PFC is the KVAR required to raise the power factor.
added without proper design. Q is the reactive power flow in MVAR
In Electrical network parallel resistance is a condition S is the apparent power flow in MVA
wherein Inductive reactance becomes equal to capacitive P is the active power flow in MW
reactance. Ploss is the active power loss (KW) in Transformer
A typical electrical model (refer Annexure-1) was developed QLoss is reactive power loss (KVAR) in Transformer
in EDSA (Electrical design software). A Capacitor was
added in the network and its value was varied so that parallel It is observed that when reactive power is compensated
resonance condition was achieved. It was observed that at a locally, following advantages are achieved:
value of capacitor (435 KVAR) , parallel resonance was
taking place. The resonance frequency was near 11th Apparent Power: As the Power factor is increased from
harmonic. A current Harmonic source of 500 KVA was 0.78 to 0.95 the apparent power flow reduces from 3.58
introduced which has predominant 11th harmonic source MVAR to 2.98 MVAR. It means MVA loading is reduced
(THD 3.38%). This created parallel resonance condition. by approximately 17%. The transformer can feed
additional load demand of 0.6 MVA.

978-0-7695-3114-4/08
0-7695-3114-8/08 $25.00
$25.00
2008
2008
IEEEIEEE 708
DOI 10.1109/UKSIM.2008.134
EDSA Harmonic Analysis
Reactive Power Flow: As Power factor is increased from 150.0
0.78 to 0.95, reactive power flow through the upstream
Transformer network reduces from 2.4 MVAR to 1.39 100.0

MVAR, a reduction of nearly 42%. This compensates the 50.0

Magnitude %
voltage drop as well.
0.0

Active Power and Reactive Power Losses in the network: -50.0

As Power factor is increased from 0.78 to 0.95, active -100.0


power losses and reactive power losses are reduced by
-150.0
approximately 30-35%. 0 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720
Angle in Degrees
II. HARMONIC ANALYSIS
Diagram 2: Harmonic Spectrum on Bus 480-B without PFC
Harmonic Analysis was carried with and without PF E D S A H a rm o n ic A n a ly s is

capacitor on Bus#480VB on parameters like THD, 1 0 0 .0

impedance, waveforms etc. During harmonic analysis with 8 3 .3

capacitor of 435 KVAR, the THD on Bus 480V-B was 6 6 .7

Magnitude %
found to be 26.5%. The 11th harmonic was nearly 5 0 .0

25.09%, indicating heavy waveform distortion. This 3 3 .3

indicated that Capacitor may be creating parallel 1 6 .7

resonance condition with the inductance of the network. 0 .0

When PF Capacitor was removed the THD was found to 0 .0 4 .0 8 .0 1 2 .0 1 6 .0 2 0 .0 2 4 .0 2 8 .0 3 2 .0 3 6 .0 4 0 .0


H arm onic
be within limits, this required further/detailed
investigation to confirm the existence of resonance and Case II: Harmonic Analysis with Power Factor
effects. correction of 435 KVAR:
When PFC of 435 KVAR was connected on Bus-480V-B:
Case I: Harmonic Analysis without any Power Factor The THD values were found as covered in Table 3:
correction :
The PFC was removed from the electrical network and run Table 3: THD on various buses with PFC during
the harmonic module. Following observations were noted. Parallel Resonance
The main source of harmonic on the bus was 6 pulse Sr. Bus reference THD (%)
converter (500 KVA producing 5th,7th ,11th harmonics) on 1 Bus 13.8 A 0.37%
Bus # 480 V-B. The THD without any PF capacitor on
2 Bus 13.8B 1.91%
various Buses were as shown in Table 2 :
3 Bus 34.5 0.39%
Table 2: THD on various buses without PFC 4 Bus 480 - B 26.50%
Sr. Bus reference THD (%) 5 Bus 480- A 0.34%
1 Bus 34.5 KV 0.10 6 Bus 6.9 - A 0.35%
2 Bus- 13.8KV-B 0.27 7 Bus 6.9- B 5.47 %
3 Bus- 13.8KV-A 0.10
4 Bus- 6.9 KV-B 0.70 It was noted that THD on Bus# 480 V- B was nearly
5 Bus- 6.9 KV-A 0.09 26.5%. The THD on upstream buses viz. Bus # 6.9 KV- B
6 Bus- 480V-A 0.09 and Bus # 13.8 KV-B were 5.47% & 1.91% respectively,
7 Bus- 480V-B 3.38 indicating heavy distortion in the waveforms at respective
buses.
The voltage wave at Bus- 480 V -B (section B where To further evaluate the effect of PFC, The Impedance
Harmonic source was connected) was a sine wave as diagram with 435 KVAR capacitor was analyzed and was
shown in diagram 1.The Diagram 2 covers harmonic noted that Capacitor was creating resonance at 11th
spectrum on Bus-480 V-B without PFC. harmonic. The peak was found near to 11th harmonic.

Diagram 1: Voltage waveform on Bus-480 V-B without Diagram 3: Impedance response with PFC during
PFC Parallel Resonance:

709
EDSA Harmonic Analysis E DS A Harm onic Analysis
0.4937 150.0
Impedance Response (Ohms)

0.4114 100.0

50.0

Magnitude %
0.3291

0.2468 0.0

0.1646 -50.0

-100.0
0.0823

-150.0
0.0000
0 80 1 60 2 40 320 400 480 560 640 720
0.0 2.2 4.4 6.7 8.9 11.1 13.3 15.6 17.8 20.0
A ngle in Degrees
Frequency (pu)

Waveforms at resonance: Harmonic spectrum at Bus # 6.9KV-B:


Such heavy THD during resonance caused distortion of The harmonic spectrum confirmed that there was
the Electrical waveform. Following were the waveforms at presence of 11th harmonic at 6.9 KV Bus but there is no
various buses during resonance. source of 11th harmonic on this bus.
Diagram 4: Voltage waveform on Bus 480 V-B during
parallel resonance. Waveform at Bus# 13.8 KV-B:
The voltage waveform at 13.8 KV was also distorted but
EDSA Harmonic Analysis
distortion level was less than that of seen at 6.9 KV bus.
150.0

100.0 Harmonic spectrum at Bus # 13.8 KV:


50.0
The harmonic spectrum indicated that there was presence
Magnitude %

of 11th harmonic at 13.8 KV Bus but there was no source


0.0
of 11th harmonic on this bus. This is propagated from
-50.0 downstream bus i.e. Bus- 480V-B
-100.0
Case III: When PFC of 789 KVAR was connected in the
-150.0
0 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720
network.The THD on the various buses are indicated as
Angle in Degrees
shown in Table 4:
Table 4: THD on various buses with PFC 798 KVAR
Harmonic spectrum at Bus # 480-B: The harmonic
spectrum indicated 11th harmonic was getting amplified. Sr. Bus reference THD
Diagram 5: Harmonic Spectrum at Bus - 480 V-B during 1 Bus 13.8 A 0.27%
Parallel resonance 2 Bus 13.8B 0.57%
EDSA Harmonic Analysis 3 Bus 34.5 0.29%
100.0 4 Bus 480 - B 5.83%
5 Bus 480- A 0.23%
83.3
6 Bus 6.9 - A 0.25%
66.7 7 Bus 6.9- B 1.34%
Magnitude %

50.0
It was noted that THD on the Bus# 480 V- B had risen to
33.3
5.83% indicating the addition of capacitor indeed was
16.7 causing distortion in the voltage wave.
0.0
To investigate further, impedance diagram was
0.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 32.0 36.0 40.0 analyzed, it was noted that addition of PFC of 789 KVAR
Harmonic was also causing resonance condition but it was near to
8th harmonic since there was no source of 8th harmonic in
the system. The problem did not get compounded but still
Waveform at Bus # 6.9 KV- B (upstream bus):Refer
the THD was increased, which was because of presence of
diagram 6, which indicated that waveform was distorted
7th harmonic in the network. The impedance network
due to propagated harmonics from downstream bus.
indicated that harmonics between 6.5 and 9.5 would get
amplified.
Diagram 6: Voltage waveform on Bus 6.9 KV-B during
Diagram 5: Impedance wavefrom with PFC of 789
Parallel resonance.
KVAR

710
Tuned/Detuned Filters: A series reactor was introduced
E D S A H arm on ic Analysis with PF Capacitor, which was tuned to 11th harmonic.
1 6 2 .2
Following Formulae have been used to arrive at the
Impedance Response (pu)

1 3 5 .2
correct value of Inductor
n2 = XC / XL
1 0 8 .2

8 1 .1

5 4 .1 XC = V * V / Q
2 7 .0

0 .0
The calculated values of I11 , XC , XL are as follows:
0 .0 1 .6 3 .1 4 .7 6.2 7 .8
F requenc y (pu)
9 .3 1 0 .9 1 2.4 1 4 .0
I11 = 105 Amp , XC = 0.485 Ohm , XL = 0.004 ohm

A reactor of above values was introduced in series with


III. EFFECT OF RESONANCE ON THE ELECTRICAL
PFC and load flow was executed and it was noted the
NETWORK
Load flow did not converge but Harmonic analysis
Power Electronic Devises: No UPS can survive the THD
converged indicating there is some inconsistency. The
of 26%. The rectifier fuses will blow due to misfiring.
values of reactor were changed to see the effect on load
There will be persistent Unsynchronized condition and
flow analysis and Harmonic analysis and the following
finally the UPS will trip leading to the plant shutdown.
were the observations. (refer table 5 for details)
The Battery Charger/Rectifier also use either semi
Table 5: THD with various series reactor during Parallel
controlled or full controlled rectifier. The fuses will blow
Resonance
during the resonance condition. The VFDs normally use
diode rectifiers so the rectifier fuses may not blow but it
XL XC LF Harmonic Analysis
will cause heavy ripples on the DC bus, which will Conv. * Impedance THD
weaken the capacitor on the DC bus and may cause DC 0.004 0.485 No Straight line Straight line
bus fuse to blow. If the VFD is using thyristorised rectifier 0.02 0.485 No Straight line Straight line
then VFD will trip immediately on misfiring. 0.04 0.485 Yes Straight line Straight line
0.1 0.485 Yes Straight line Straight line
Transformer: The eddy current losses are proportional to 0.5 0.485 No Straight line Straight line
square of frequency and hysterisys losses are * Load flow Converged.
proportional to power of 1.4 of frequency. Both these
losses will greatly increase during resonance. The copper Following were the observations with series reactor of 0.1
losses will also increase. This will cause heating and will ohm reactance with the PFC of 435 KVAR
affect the performance and life of Transformer.
The THD on various buses in the Electrical network:
Induction Motors: The eddy current and hysterisys losses It indicates a great reduction in THD on all the buses and
will increase. The oscillating Torque will develop. The absence of resonance. .(Refer table 6 for details).
noise will increase. Table 6: THD on various buses with Tuned filter during
Parallel Resonance
Protection system: The performance of electro-mechanic Sr. Bus reference THD
relay may get affected. The digital relay are generally not 1 Bus 13.8 A 0.08%
affected but it depends on the application ,if the digital
relay function on the peak value sensing then the relay 2 Bus 13.8B 0.22%
will mal-operate. 3 Bus 34.5 0.09%
4 Bus 480 - B 2.72%
Capacitors: The current flowing in capacitors depends on 5 Bus 480- A 0.07%
the voltage. The distorted voltages may cause variation in 6 Bus 6.9 - A 0.08%
7 Bus 6.9- B 0.56%
capacitor currents and may result in fuse failure. The surge
in voltage may cause failure of capacitor.
The impedance diagram with the introduction of reactor
It may be concluded that resonance condition will was found to be a straight line further confirming the
definitely be harmful to the entire electrical network. absence of resonance; the impedance diagram was as
shown below in diagram 6:
IV. CORRECTIVE SOLUTIONS Diagram 6: Impedance response with introduction of
Following are the solution to avoid the resonance Series reactor with PFC
condition:

711
EDSA Harmonic Analysis Diagram 10 : Harmonic Spectrum with introduction of
59.5 2 Separate filter
Impedance Response (pu)

49.6 0

39.6 8

29.7 6

19.8 4

9.9 2

0.0 0
0.0 4.2 8.4 12 .7 16 .9 21 .1 25 .3 2 9.6 33.8 38.0
Frequency (pu)

Diagram 7 : The waveform at Bus# 480 V- B with series


reactor
E D S A H a rm o n ic A n a ly s is Analysis/Interpretation of the results with separate filter:
1 5 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
The introduction of separate filter caused suppression of
5 0 .0
the 11th harmonic but it also causes resonance for other
Magnitude %

0 .0 harmonic so the filters for these harmonics should also be


- 5 0 .0 designed and incorporated in the network to reduce the
-1 0 0 .0
effect of resonance. This may not be an ideal solution in
-1 5 0 .0
0 80 160 2 40 320 4 00 480 5 60 640 7 20
the case considered from the cost point of view.
A n g le in D e g re e s

Analysis/Interpretation of the results with series reactor: V. Conclusion


The addition of series reactor will be a good solution. The Power factor capacitors/VAR compensation do
With the introduction of filter, the waveform gets provide advantages of reduced flow of apparent power ,
improved; the impedance diagram becomes a straight line reactive power and reduced active and reactive power
indicating absence of resonance, the harmonics are also losses however the PFC must be designed to take care of
reduced, THD reduces to 2.72 at Bus#480 V-B. resonance conditions.
The presence of harmonics coupled with resonance
Introduction of Filter (separate) during resonance condition in a power system may cause sever problems
condition: viz. equipment overheating due to increased losses,
It was tried to see the effect of introduction of filter (tuned Improper operation of protective relays, failure of Power
for 11th Harmonic) during resonance conditions with the electronic equipments. Harmonic currents produced in one
PFC of 435 KVAR in the network. , the details of filter are area can travel (propagate) into the power grid and other
XL= 0.1 , Xc= 36.3 , (it was series filter) and following areas, resulting in voltage and current distortions in the
are the observations: entire electrical system. This condition will definitely be
Diagram 8: Impedance diagram of Bus#480 V-B detrimental to the petrochemical/ refinery or any industry
EDSA Harmonic Analysis and no plant can survive the condition of resonance hence
285.9
it is strongly reccomended to carry out Harmonic analysis
Impedance Response (pu)

238.3
, if Power factor is added to a bus where Harmonic source
190.6
is presnt in the electrical network.
143.0
There are solutions for resonance condition like
95.3
separate filters and Tuned/Detuned filters (reactors in
47.7
series with PF capacitors). There is no universal solution.
0.0
0.0 4.2 8.4 12.7 16.9 21.1 25.3 29.6 33.8 38.0
These should be applied on case basis depending upon
Frequency (pu) suitability and merits.
Diagram 9 : Waveform at Bus # 480-B:
ED S A H armo n ic An alysis REFERENCES
1 5 0 .0
IEEE-519 Std -1992: Recommended practices
1 0 0 .0
and requirements for Harmonic control in
5 0 .0
Electrical power system.
Magnitude %


0 .0

-5 0 .0
IEEE -399 -1997:IEEE recommended practices
-1 0 0 .0
for Industrial Power System analysis
-1 5 0 .0
Power system analysis by J.C. Das
0 80 160 2 40 32 0 400
A ngle in Deg rees
480 560 640 720
Understanding power quality problems by H.J.
Bolen

712
Annexure 1 : Model of Electrical Distribution of a typical Petrochemical plant/refinery
0011
Vs: 34.5 kV
34.5 kV
PF: 81.43 %

GRID

Ql : 1.07 kVar
Pl: 1.45 kW
11.25 MVar
15.79 MW
19.38 MVA
324.39 A
Bus 34.5 kV
Vs: 34.5 kV
34.5 kV
PF: 81.44 %

83.06 A
247.54 A
4.96 MVA 14.79 MVA
4.77 MW 11.01 MW
1.37 MVar 9.87 MVar
Pl: 6.53 kW
Ql : 98.3 kVar Pl: 70.02 kW
Ql : 1309.89 kVar
Bus 13.8 kV - B
Vs: 13.8 kV
12.96 kV
PF: 78.74 %

Ql : 0.13 kVar
Pl: 0.18 kW
0.94 MVar
2.38 MW
2.56 MVA
114.03 A
Bus 13.8 kV - A

Ql: 0 .07 kVar


Pl: 0.16 kW
0.63 MVar
1.59 MW
1.71 MVA
76.03 A
Ql: 0.02 kVar
Pl: 0.02 kW
0 MVar
1 MW
1 MVA
42.12 A

95.59 A
Vs: 13.8 kV
Ql: 0.06 kVar
Pl: 0.14 kW
0.63 MVar
1.59 MW
1.71 MVA
71.9 A

2.27 MVA 439.93 A


13.71 kV
2.18 MW PF: 96.6 % 9.88 MVA
0.65 MVar 6.97 MW
Pl: 5.47 kW 7 MVar
Ql: 51.92 kVar Pl: 115.75 kW
Ql: 1 099.67 kVar
0071 0161 Bus 6.9 kV - B
Bus 6.9 kV - A Vs: 13.8 kV I 0061
I 0062
I Vs: 13.8 kV Vs: 6.9 kV
Vs: 6.9 kV 13.71 kV 12.96 kV
Vs: 13.8 kV Vs: 13 .8 kV 5.93 kV
6.8 kV PF: 100 % PF: 93 % PF: 75.82 %
PF: 96 .45 % 13.71 kV 12.96 kV
PF: 93 % PF: 93 %

Ql: 1.04 kVar


Pl: 1.4 1 kW
2.25 MVar
2.4 MW
3.29 MVA
320.21 A
111.52 A

Ql: 0.52 kVar


Pl: 0.7 1 kW
1.59 MVar
1.7 MW
2.33 MVA
226.78 A
1.31 MVA
Ql : 0.0 7 kVar
Pl: 0.1 kW
0 MVar
1 MW
1 MVA
84.97 A

1.17 MW
0.59 MVar 334.42 A
Pl: 3.25 kW 3.44 MVA
Ql : 32.78 kVar 2.75 MW
2.06 MVar
I I 0162
Pl: 29.21 kW
0121 0172 Ql: 2 94.82 kVar
Vs: 6.9 kV Bus 480 V - B
Vs: 6.9 kV Vs: 6.9 kV
Bus 480 V - A 5.93 kV Vs: 0.48 kV
6.79 kV 5.93 kV PF: 73 %
PF: 100 % Vs: 0.48 kV PF: 73 % 0.39 kV
0.47 kV PF: 84.05 %
PF: 90.11 %
463.76 A
755.09 A 0.31 MVA
226.67 A 0.51 MVA -0 MW
138.49 A 1239 .13 A
0.18 MVA 0.41 MW 0.31 MVar
0.11 MVA 1 MVA 0.3 MVar
0.17 MW 0.1 MW Pl: 0.0 5 kW
0.08 MVar 0.9 MW Pl: 0.12 kW 414.41 A Ql: 0 kVar

Ql: 58.19 kVar


Pl: 78.85 kW
1.1 MVar
1.19 MW
1.62 MVA
2395.46 A
Pl: 0.01 kW 0.05 MVar 0.44 MVar Ql: 0.01 kVar 0.28 MVA

Ql: 2 4.29 kVar


Pl: 32.92 kW
0.56 MVar
0.88 MW
1.04 MVA
1547 .78 A
Ql : 0 kVar Pl: 0 kW Pl: 0.32 kW 0.25 MW
Ql : 0 kVar Ql : 0.03 kVar 0.12 MVar
Pl: 0 k W
Ql: 0.04 kVar
Ql: 1 .72 kVar
Pl: 2.33 kW
0.3 MVar
0.4 MW
0.5 MVA
745.88 A

I 0141 AC
Vs: 0.48 kV 0171
DC 0151 Vs: 0.48 kV
0.47 kV
PF: 91 % Vs: 0.48 kV
1010 67 AC I MCC MC C
0.39 kV
Vs: 0.4 8 kV
0.47 kV 0.47 kV DC
PF: 89 .44 % PF: 90 %
0153
0201 0181 0152
Vs: 0.48 kV
Vs: 0.48 kV Vs: 0.48 kV 0.37 kV Vs: 0.48 kV
0.39 kV 0.39 kV PF: 84.49 % 0.37 kV
PF: 80 % PF: 91 % PF: 73.02 %

713