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# Multivariable control

Multivariable process
(Seborg Chapter 18 )
Control Loop Interaction
Single input and single output
Control of Multiple-Input, Multiple-
Output Processes
Multiloop controllers
Modeling the interactions
Relative Gain Array (RGA)
Singular Value Analysis (SVA)
Decoupling strategies
Control of multivariable processes

## In practical control problems there typically are a number of

process variables which must be controlled and a number
which can be manipulated

## Several simple physical examples are shown in Fig. 18.1.

Note "process interactions" between controlled and
manipulated variables.
Chapter 18
Controlled Variables: xD , xB , P, hD , and hB
Manipulated Variables: D, B, R , Q D , and Q B
Chapter 18
Characterizing process interactions and selecting an appropriate
multiloop control configuration.

## If process interactions are significant, even the best multiloop control

system may not provide satisfactory control.

## In these situations there are incentives for considering multivariable

control strategies
Chapter 18

Definitions:

## Multiloop control: Each manipulated variable depends on only a

single controlled variable, i.e., a set of conventional feedback
controllers.

## Multivariable Control: Each manipulated variable can depend on two

or more of the controlled variables.

## Examples: decoupling control, model predictive control

Multiloop Control Strategy
Typical industrial approach
Consists of using n standard FB controllers (e.g. PID), one for each
controlled variable.

## Control system design

1. Select controlled and manipulated variables.
2. Select pairing of controlled and manipulated variables.
3. Specify types of FB controllers.
Chapter 18

Example: 2 x 2 system

## Two possible controller pairings:

U1 with Y1, U2 with Y2 or
U1 with Y2, U2 with Y1

## Note: For n x n system, n! possible pairing configurations.

Chapter 18
Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)

## Two controlled variables and two manipulated variables

(4 transfer functions required)

Y1 ( s ) Y1 ( s )
Chapter 18

GP11 ( s ), GP12 ( s )
U1 ( s) U 2 (s)
Y2 ( s ) Y2 ( s )
GP 21 ( s), GP 22 ( s )
U1 ( s) U 2 ( s)

## Thus, the input-output relations for the process can be

written as:
Y1 ( s ) GP11 ( s )U1 ( s ) GP12 ( s )U 2 ( s )
Y2 ( s ) GP 21 ( s )U1 ( s ) GP 22 ( s )U 2 ( s )
Or in vector-matrix notation as,
Y ( s ) GP ( s )U ( s )

## where Y(s) and U(s) are vectors,

Chapter 18

Y1 ( s ) U 1 ( s )
Y (s) , U (s)
Y (
2 s ) U
2 ( s )
And Gp(s) is the transfer function matrix for the process

## G P11 (s) G P12 (s)

G P (s )
G
P 21 (s ) G P 22 ( s )
Control-loop interactions

## Process interactions may induce undesirable interactions

between two or more control loops.
Example: 2 x 2 system
Chapter 18

## Control loop interactions are due to the presence of a

third feedback loop.
Problems arising from control loop interactions
i) Closed -loop system may become destabilized.
ii) Controller tuning becomes more difficult
Block Diagram Analysis

## For the multiloop control configuration the transfer function

between a controlled and a manipulated variable depends
on whether the other feedback control loops are open or
closed.
Chapter 18

## Example: 2 x 2 system, 1-1/2 -2 pairing, From block

diagram algebra we can show
Y1 ( s ) (second loop open)
GP11 ( s),
U1 ( s)
Y1 ( s ) GP12GP 21GC 2 (second loop closed)
GP11
U1 (s) 1 GC 2GP 22

## Note that the last expression contains GC2 .

Chapter 18
Relative gain array

## Provides two useful types of information:

1) Measure of process interactions
2) Recommendation about best pairing of controlled and
Chapter 18

manipulated variables.
Requires knowledge of steady state gains but not process
dynamics.
Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system
Y1 K11U1 K12U 2
Y2 K 21U1 K 22U 2
Chapter 18

11 12
RGA

21 22

## where the relative gain, ij, relates the ith controlled

variable and the jth manipulated variable
open - loop gain
ij
closed - loop gain
Scaling Properties:

i) ij is dimensionless
ii) ij ij 1.0
i j
Chapter 18

For 2 x 2 system,
1
11 , 12 1 11 21
K K
1 12 21
K11K 22

## Corresponds to the ij which has the largest positive value.

In general:
1. Pairings which correspond to negative pairings should not be
selected.
2. Otherwise, choose the pairing which has ij closest To one.

Examples:
Process Gain Relative Gain
Matrix, : Array, :
Chapter 18

K11 0 1 0
0
K 22
0 1

0 K12
0 1
K
21 0 1 0

K11
0
K12
K 22
1 0
0 1

K11 0
K
21 K 22 1 0
0 1

Recall, for 2X2 systems...
1
Y1 K11U 1 K12U 2 11 , 12 1 11 21
K K
1 12 21
Y2 K 21U1 K 22U 2 K11K 22

EXAMPLE:
K K12 2 1.5
K 11
K 21 K 22 1.5 2
Chapter 18

2.29 1.29

Recommended pairing is Y1
and U1,Y2 and U2.
1.29 2.29

EXAMPLE:

## 2 1.5 0.64 0.36

K 0.36 0.64
1 . 5 2
Recommended pairing isY with U ,Y with U .
1 1 2 2
EXAMPLE:Thermal Mixing System

Chapter 18

Wh Wc
W Wc Wh
W W Wc Wh
c h

Wh Wc
T W W Wc Wh
c h

## Note that each relative gain is between 0 and 1. Recommended

controller pairing depends on nominal values of W,T, Th, and Tc.

## See Exercise 18.16

EXAMPLE: Ill-conditioned Gain Matrix

y = Ku

2 x 2 process y 1 = 5 u1 + 8 u2

y2 = 10 u1 + 15.8 u2
Chapter 18

## specify operating point y, solve for u

-1
u=K y = y
det K

K11K 22 K11K 22
RGA : 11
K11K 22 K12K 21 det K

effect of det K 0 ?
RGA for Higher-Order Systems:
For and n x n system,

U1 U2 Un
Y1 11 12 1n
Y2 21 22 2 n

Chapter 18

Yn n1 n1 nn
Each ij can be calculated from the relation
ij K ijH ij
Where Kij is the (i,j) -element in the steady-state gain matrix, K:
Y KU

## And Hij is the (i,j) -element of the .

H K 1 T

Note that,
KH
EXAMPLE 18.4 : Hydrocracker

U1 U2 U3 U4
Chapter 18

## Y1 0.931 0.150 0.080 0.164

Y2 0.011 0.429 0.286 1.154

Y3 0.135 3.314 0.270 1.910

Y4 0.215 2.030 0.900 1.919

## Recommended controller pairing?

Singular Value Analysis
K = W S VT

(s1, s2, , sr)

## The singular values are the positive square roots of the

eigenvalues of
KTK (r = rank of KTK)
W,V are input and output singular vectors Columns of W and
V are orthonormal. Also
WWT = I
VVT = I
Calculate S, W, V using MATLAB (svd = singular value
decomposition)
Condition number (CN) is the ratio of the largest to the
smallest singular value and indicates if K is ill-conditioned.
CN is a measure of sensitivity of the matrix properties to changes in
a specific element.
Consider 1 0
K
10 1
(RGA) = 1.0
If K12 changes from 0 to 0.1, then K becomes a singular matrix,
which corresponds to a process that is hard to control.
Chapter 18

RGA and SVA used together can indicate whether a process is easy
(or hard) to control.

10.1 0
(K ) = CN = 101
0 0.1

## K is poorly conditioned when CN is a large number (e.g., > 10).

Hence small changes in the model for this process can make it very
difficult to control.
Selection of Inputs and Outputs

## Arrange the singular values in order of largest

to smallest and look for any i/i-1 > 10; then
one or more inputs (or outputs) can be deleted.
Chapter 18

## Delete one row and one column of K at a time

and evaluate the properties of the reduced gain
matrix.
Example 18.7:
0 .4 8 0 .9 0 0 .0 0 6
K 0 .5 2 0 .9 5 0 .0 0 8
0 .9 0 0 .9 5 0 .0 2 0
0.5714 0.3766 0.7292
W 0.6035 0.4093 0.6843

0.5561 0.8311 0.0066
1.618 0 0
0 1.143 0
0 0 0.0097

## 0.0541 0.9984 0.0151

V 0.9985 0.0540 0.0068
18
Chapter18

Chapter

CN = 166.5 (1/3)

## The RGA is as follows:

2.4376 3.0241 0.4135
1.2211 0.7617 0.5407

2.2165 1.2623 0.0458

## Preliminary pairing: y1-u2, y2-u3,y3-u1.

CN suggests only two output variables can be controlled. Eliminate one input and one output
(3x32x2).
Chapter 18
Chapter 18
Alternative Strategies for Dealing with Undesirable
Control Loop Interactions

## 1. "Detune" one or more FB controllers.

2. Select different manipulated or controlled variables.
e.g., nonlinear functions of original variables
3. Use a decoupling control scheme.
4. Use some other type of multivariable control scheme.
Chapter 18

## Basic Idea: Use additional controllers to compensate for process

interactions and thus reduce control loop interactions

## Ideally, decoupling control allows setpoint changes to affect only the

desired controlled variables.

## Typically, decoupling controllers are designed using a simple process

model (e.g. steady state model or transfer function model)
Chapter 18
Design Equations:
We want cross-controller, GC12, to cancel out the effect of U2 on Y1.
Thus, we would like,

T12GP11U 2 GP12U 2 0
Since U2 0 (in general), then
Chapter 18

GP12
T12
GP11
Similarly, we want G21 to cancel the effect of M1 on C2. Thus, we
require that...

## T21GP 22U1 GP 21U1 0

GP 21
T21
GP 22
cf. with design equations for FF control based on block diagram
analysis
Alternatives to Complete Decoupling

## Static Decoupling (use SS gains)

Partial Decoupling (either GC12 or GC21 is set equal to zero)
Chapter 18

Process Interaction

## Corrective Action (via cross-controller or decoupler).

Ideal Decouplers:
GP12 ( s )
T12 ( s )
GP11 ( s )
GP 21 ( s )
T21 ( s )
GP 22 ( s )
Variations on a Theme:

Partial Decoupling:
Use only one cross-controller.

Static Decoupling:
Design to eliminate SS interactions
Chapter 18

## Ideal decouplers are merely gains:

K P12
T12
K P11
K P 21
T21
K P 22
Nonlinear Decoupling
Appropriate for nonlinear processes.