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DEDICATORIA A mi padre por su amor, confianza, estimulo y su poyo por siempre. A mis
hermanos por haberme inculcado la perseverancia y superacin en mi vida. A mis amigos por
brindarme su apoyo incondicional en todo momento. Agradecimiento especial a la Magster
Edna Ramrez Miranda por su apoyo y colaboracin en la realizacin del presente estudio.

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El presente estudio fue realizado gracias a la colaboracin del personal docente y administrativo
de la Institucin Educativa Isaas Ardiles del Distrito de Pachacmac, para quienes expreso a
travs de estas lneas mi reconocimiento y gratitud, en la persona del Director y a los alumnos
por su colaboracin para hacer posible la aplicacin del instrumento.
Mi reconocimiento a mi Escuela Acadmico Profesional de Enfermera de la Facultad de
Medicina de la U. N. M. S. M., y a todos mis docentes quienes colaboraron en mi formacin
profesional y personal.
A mis compaeros por los aos vividos en los claustros de la facultad, de quienes aprend a
compartir y visualizar un futuro mejor; y a todas aquellas personas que con su apoyo y estimulo
me permitieron superar obstculos y continuar adelante.
La autora

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A pesar de los adelantos cientficos en la bsqueda por encontrar la cura del Sida, an no se ha
avanzado en el logro de este objetivo, constituyendo un grave problema de salud pblica debido
el incremento incesante de este mal que atenta contra la salud de muchos individuos y sobre todo
que es la causante de muertes en personas activamente productivas en el Per y en el mundo.
En el Per los adolescentes de 10 a 19 aos lo constituyen aprox. mas del 20% de la
poblacin total, de modo que si tomamos en cuenta que el periodo desde que el virus del VIH
ingresa al organismo hasta la fase de infecciones asintomtico pasan mas de 10 aos, se deduce
entonces que los casos notificados en la actualidad adquirieron el Sida durante sus aos de
adolescencia.
Es por eso que se crey conveniente realizar un estudio sobre: Cul es la relacin que
existe entre el nivel de conocimientos acerca de las formas de transmisin del VIH/Sida con las
actitudes hacia las prcticas sexuales riesgosas en los adolescentes de la Institucin Educativa
Isaas Ardiles del distrito de Pachacmac?. En tal sentido el estudio tuvo como Objetivos
especficos: Identificar el nivel de conocimiento en los adolescentes acerca de las formas de
transmisin del VIH/Sida, Identificar la direccin de las actitudes hacia las prcticas sexuales
riesgosas en los adolescentes. El propsito del presente estudio permitir al equipo de salud del
Centro Materno Infantil Pachacmac reforzar las actividades preventivo promocionales
estableciendo alianzas estratgicas entre salud y educacin para la intervencin del profesional
de enfermera, enfatizando su rol educativo a la poblacin escolar; y proponer a los docentes y
directivos de las Instituciones Educativas que aborden temas sobre el VIH/Sida dentro de sus
actividades educativas, la hiptesis de estudio planteada fue: Aquellos alumnos con un mayor
nivel de conocimiento acerca de las formas de transmisin del VIH/Sida, tienen una actitud de
rechazo hacia las prcticas sexuales riesgosas que aquellos cuyo nivel de conocimiento es menor
o bajo. La investigacin es de tipo cuantitativo, el mtodo es Descriptivo correlacional, y de
corte transversal, nivel aplicativo, la poblacin estuvo conformada por 243 alumnos de ambos
sexos. La tcnica utilizada para la recoleccin de datos fue la Encuesta, utilizando el cuestionario
y la Escala de Lickert como instrumentos, las cuales fueron validadas previamente mediante un
juicio de expertos y sometidos a la prueba piloto para realizar la confiabilidad estadstica.
Posteriormente se realizo la recoleccin de datos propiamente dicho y luego se procesaron los
datos para ser presentados en tablas estadsticas para su anlisis e interpretacin, llegndose a las
siguientes resultados: la mayora de los estudiantes tiene un nivel de conocimiento medio 49%
acerca de las formas de transmisin del VIH/Sida, refiriendo conocer mas la va sangunea, en
relacin a la direccin de las actitudes se evidencia una actitud de aceptacin hacia la prctica
sexual riesgosa; existiendo relacin entre el nivel de conocimiento acerca de las formas de
transmisin del VIH/Sida con las actitudes hacia las prcticas sexuales riesgosas lo que fue
evidenciado que a bajo o medio nivel de conocimiento mayor es la aceptacin hacia la prctica
sexual riesgosa.
PALABRAS CLAVES: CONOCIMIENTO, ACTITUD, VIAS DE TRANSMISIN,
ADOLESCENTE, PRACTICA SEXUAL RIESGOSA.

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In spite of the scientific advances in the search to find the cure of AIDS, not yet a serious
problem of public health which had the incessant increase of this badly has advanced in the
profit of this objective, constituting that attempts against the health of many individuals and
mainly that is the cause of deaths in actively productive people in Peru and the world. In Peru the
adolescents of 10 to 19 years constitute approx but of 20% of the total population, so that if we
took into account that the period since the virus of the VIH enters the organism until the phase of
infections asintomtico happens but of 10 years, she is deduced then that the cases notified at the
present time acquired AIDS during their years of adolescence. It is why one was believed
advisable to make a study on: Which is the relation that exists between the level of knowledge
about the forms of transmission of the VIH/Sida with the attitudes towards the risky sexual
practices in the adolescents of the Educative Institution Isaiah Ardiles of the district of
Pachacmac. In such sense the study had like specific Objectives: To identify the level of
knowledge in the adolescents about the forms of transmission of the VIH/Sida, To identify the
direction of the attitudes towards the risky sexual practices in the adolescents. The intention of
the present study will allow the equipment of health of the Maternal Center Infantile Pachacmac
to reinforce the promotional activities preventive establishing strategic alliances between health
and education for the intervention of the professional of infirmary, emphasizing its educative roll
to the scholastic population; and to propose to educational and the directive ones of the
Educative Institutions that approach subjects on the VIH/Sida within their educative activities,
the raised hypothesis of study was: Those students with a greater level of knowledge about the
forms of transmission of the VIH/Sida, by ricochet have an attitude towards the risky sexual
practices that those whose level of knowledge is smaller or low. The investigation is of
quantitative type, the method is Descriptive corelational, and of cross section, aplicativo level,
the population was conformed by 243 students of both sexes. The technique used for the data
collection was the Survey, using the questionnaire and the Scale of Lickert like instruments,
which were validated previously by means of a judgment of experts and put under the test pilot
to make the statistical trustworthiness. Later I am made the data collection itself and soon the
data were processed to be presented/displayed in statistical tables for their analysis and
interpretation, reaching the following results: most of the students it has a level of average
knowledge 49% about the forms of transmission of the VIH/Sida, referring to know but the route
sanguineous, in relation to the direction of the attitudes demonstrates an acceptance attitude
towards the risky sexual practice; existing relation between the level of knowledge about the
forms of transmission of the VIH/Sida with the attitudes towards the risky sexual practices what
it was demonstrated that at low or average level of greater knowledge is the acceptance towards
the risky sexual practice. KEY
WORDS: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, VIAS OF TRANSMISSION, ADOLESCENT,
PRACTICE SEXUAL RISKY.

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El Sida sigue siendo un problema de salud pblica, y nuestro pas no esta exento a la progresin
de esta pandemia. Actualmente estamos enfrentando un incremento continuo y sostenido de
casos, siendo vctimas las personas de todas las edades y toda condicin socioeconmica, donde
los adolescentes son los ms afectados en la actualidad. Para atender a esta poblacin el
Ministerio de Salud a travs del Programa de Salud Escolar y Adolescente presenta un plan de
atencin integral a la poblacin de 15 a 19 aos que desarrolla propuestas para la atencin
integral promoviendo factores de proteccin, como programas de prevencin, a travs de una red
de servicios, enfatizando la atencin primaria, y promoviendo la activa participacin de los
adolescentes y jvenes en el cuidado de su propia salud.
Ante este contexto se realizo el siguiente estudio de investigacin titulado: Nivel de
conocimientos acerca de las formas de transmisin del VIH/Sida y las actitudes hacia las
prcticas sexuales riesgosas en los adolescentes de la Institucin Educativa Isaas Ardiles del
Distrito de Pachacmac, tiene como objetivo principal: determinar el nivel de conocimiento
acerca de las formas de transmisin del VIH/Sida y las actitudes hacia las prcticas sexuales
riesgosas en los adolescentes. Los hallazgos de este estudio permitirn brindar informacin al
equipo de salud de Centro Materno Infantil Pachacmac para reforzar las actividades preventivo
promocionales, estableciendo alianzas estratgicas entre salud y educacin para as enfatizar su
rol educativo en la poblacin escolar, y proponer a docentes y directivos que aborden temas
sobre VIH/Sida dentro de las actividades educativas.
El estudio esta estructurado de la siguiente manera: En el Capitulo I se presenta la
Introduccin e incluye el Planteamiento, Delimitacin del Problema, Formulacin y Justificacin
del mismo, Objetivos y Propsito de la Investigacin, los antecedentes del estudio, la Base
Terica, Hiptesis, y la definicin operacional de trminos, Capitulo II se presenta Material y
Mtodos e incluye Tipo, Nivel y Mtodo de Investigacin, Descripcin de rea de estudio,
Poblacin y Muestra, Tcnicas e Instrumento de recoleccin de datos, validez y Confiabilidad
del Instrumento, Plan de recoleccin de datos, Plan de Procesamiento, anlisis e interpretacin.
El Capitulo III: Resultados y Discusin. El Capitulo IV: Conclusiones, Recomendaciones y
Limitaciones y finalmente se presenta las Referencias Bibliogrficas, Bibliografa, y Anexos.

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