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GrammarQuizzesVerbPhrasesVerbComplementsParticipialModfiers1

ParticiplesasModifiers1ed/ing
Expresstheexperiencervs.theagentofanexperience

Participlesendinginedvs.ing

ED

Apastparticiple,endingined(en,ort)modifiesanounthatistheexperiencerofthefeelingor
emotion.

EXPERIENCER

VERB

Thefamilywasentertainedbytheclown. passiveverb
ADJECTIVE

Thefamilywasentertained. be+ pastparticipleform


Thefamilywasveryentertained. very+pastparticipleform
Thefamilyseemedentertained. seem+pastparticipleform

ING

Apresentparticiple,endingining,modifiesanounthatisthesource(agentorcause)ofthefeeling
oremotion.

SOURCE

VERB

Theclownwasentertainingthefamily. presentprogressiveverb

ADJECTIVE

Theclownwasentertaining. be+presentparticiple form


Theclownwasveryentertaining. very+presentparticiple form
Theclownseemedentertaining. seem+presentparticiple (Adj)

Testsforadjectives:(1)ifyoucanputvery(anadverbofdegree)beforetheword,thenthewordformisan
adjectiveoradverbbutnotaverb(2)Ifyoucanreplacethebeverbwithseemorbecome,thentheparticiple
formisanadjectiveandisnotpartoftheverb.(Huddleston533,541)

AlsoseePast/ParticipleVerbForms1andPast/ParticipleVerbForms2(foreachverb).

Relatedpage:ParticipialModifiers2(completed/ongoing)breakingvs.broken.


ParticipleModifierList
Experiencervs.Agent(source)

ParticipleModifierList

EXPERIENCEROFTHEFEELING

Thefollowingparticiplesexpresshowonefeelsastheexperiencerofaparticularactivityoraction.

alarmed frustrated

amused humiliated

annoyed interested

astonished intrigued

bored overwhelmed

compelled perplexed

concerned pleased

confused relaxed

embarrassed relieved

encouraged satisfied

energized shocked

enlightened stunned

entertained surprised

excited terrified

exhausted tired

frightened

AGENTOFTHEFEELING

Thefollowingparticiplesexpresshowonefeelsaboutthesource(cause)ofaparticularactivityoraction.
Thefollowingparticiplesexpresshowonefeelsaboutthesource(cause)ofaparticularactivityoraction.

alarming frustrating

amusing humiliating

annoying interesting

astonishing intriguing

boring overwhelming

compelling perplexing

concerning pleasing

confusing relaxing

embarrassing relieving

encouraging satisfying

energizing shocking

enlightening stunning

entertaining surprising

exciting terrifying

exhausting tiring

frightening

AlsoseeIrregVerbForms1andIrregVerbForms2.

ParticiplesasModifierstoNouns
ed(experiencer)/ing(agent)

ParticipialModifiersedvs.ing

PASTPARTICIPIALMODIFIERED

Thepastparticiplemodifiesthenounthatistheexperiencerofthefeelingoremotion.

Anamusedchild
Thechildreceivesthefeelingofamusement.

Interestedpeoplecansignupfortheclass.
(Thepeoplefeelinterestinthesubject.)

Boredspeakersshouldfindsomethingexcitingtosay.
(Thespeakerfeelsboredomwhilespeaking!)

Amusedviewersenjoytheshortfilms.
(Theviewersfeeltheamusement.)

Overwhelmedstudentsendupdroppingacourseortwo. (Thestudentsfeeloverwhelmed.)

PRESENTPARTICIPIALMODIFIERING

Thepresentparticiplemodifiesthenounthatistheagent(source)ofthefeelingoremotion.

Anamusingride
Theridecausesamusement.

Interestingpeoplewillspeakduringtheclass.
(Peoplecauseotherstofeelinterest.)

Boringspeakersputtheirattendeestosleep.
(Thespeakercausesotherstobebored.)
Amusingshortfilmsareshownattheanimatedfilmfestival.
(Thefilmscausetheamusement.)

Overwhelmingamountsofworkaregiventohighschoolstudents. (Theamountofworkcausesthe
overwhelming.)

CommonMistakes
ErrorsandSolutions

ErrorandSolution

ERROR

*Iwassurprisingtoseesheepwalkingontheroad.
PopQ"Sheep"

*ThetowersoftheGoldenGateBridgeareveryimpressingfrombelow.
PopQ"Impress"

*Wehadsomeunexpectingvisitors.Wewereunexpected.
SOLUTION

Iwassurprisedtoseesheepwalkingontheroad.
Use surprisedinsteadof surprisingasthemodifierfortheexperiencerofthefeelingoremotion.
Thatsheepwerewalkingontheroadwassurprising.
Itwassurprisingtoseesheepwalkingontheroad.
SeeCleftSentences(It/That)

ThetowersoftheGoldenGateBridgeareveryimpressivefrombelow.
Use impressiveinsteadof impressingasthemodifierforthesourceofthefeelingoremotion. (impressingisnota
word)

Theywerenotexpectedbyus.Theywereunexpectedvisitors
Wewerenotexpectingthem.Weweresurprised. (rephrase)
Shewasexpecting.(ababy)ThebabywasexpectedinJune.

*Yellowhighlightingindicatesexampleofincorrectusage.

Show Grammar Notes?

Practice1
Causeorfeeling?