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3 (Solutions)

MathCity.org Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12

Page 215

Inclination of a Line:

The angle (0 < 180 ) measure anti-

clockwise from positive x axis to the straight line B( x2 , y2 )

l is called inclination of a line l .

Slope or Gradient of Line A ( x1 ,y1)

The slope m of the line l is defined by:

m = tan

If A( x1 , y1 ) and B( x2 , y2 ) be any two

distinct points on the line l then

y y y y2

m= 2 1 = 1

x2 x1 x1 x2

See proof on book at page: 191

Note: l is horizontal, iff m = 0 ( = 0 )

l is vertical, iff m = i.e. m is not defined. ( = 90 )

If slope of AB = slope of BC , then the points A, B and C are collinear

i.e. lie on the same line.

Theorem

The two lines l1 and l2 with respective slopes m1 and m2 are

(i) Parallel iff m1 = m2

1 y

(ii) Perpendicular iff m1m2 = 1 or m1 = 15

m2

Question # 1 10 (5,11)

5

y y 11 4 7 (-2,4)

Slope m = 2 1 = = =1

x2 x1 5+ 2 7

10 5 5 10 15 x

Since tan = m = 1

= tan 1 (1) = 45 5

y

(ii) (3, 2) ; (2,7) 10

y y 7+2 9

Slope m = 2 1 = = = 9 (2,7)

x2 x1 2 3 1 5

Since tan = m = 9

tan = 9 tan (180 ) = 9

5 5 10 x

180 = tan 1 ( 9 ) (3,-2)

180 = 8340 5

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 2

y

(ii) (4,6) ; (4,8) 10

y y (4,8)

Slope m = 2 1 (4,6)

x2 x1 5

86 2

= = =

44 0

5 5 10 x

Since tan = m =

= tan 1 () 5

= 90

Question # 2

Since A(8,6) , B(4, 2) and C (2, 6) are vertices of triangle therefore

26 4 1

(i) Slope of side AB = = = A

4 8 12 3

6 2 8

Slope of side BC = = = 4

2 + 4 2

6 + 6 12 6

Slope of side CA = = = B C

8 + 2 10 5

Then A

8 4 6 + 2 4 8

Coordinate of D = , = , = ( 2,4 )

2 2 2 2 F

D

4 2 2 6 6 4

Coordinate of E = , = , = ( 3, 2 )

2 2 2 2

2 + 8 6 + 6 6 0 B E C

Coordinate of F = , = , = ( 3,0 )

2 2 2 2

2 6 8 8

Hence Slope of median AE = = =

3 8 11 11

0 2 2

Slope of median BF = =

3+ 4 7

4 + 6 10 5

Slope of median CD = = =

2+2 4 2

(iii) Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of a triangle therefore

1 1 1

Slope of altitude from vertex A = = =

slope of side BC 4 4 A

1 1 5

Slope of altitude from vertex B = = =

slope of side AC 6 6

5

1 1

Slope of altitude from vertex C = = = 3

slope of side AB 1 B C

3

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 3

Question # 3

(a) Let A(1, 3) , B(1,5) and C (2,9) be given points

5+3 8

Slope of AB = = =4

1+1 2

95 4

Slope of BC = = =4

2 1 1

Since slope of AB = slope of BC

Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line.

(b) & (c) Do yourself as above

(d) Let A(a, 2b), B(c, a + b) and C (2c a , 2a ) be given points.

(a + b) 2b a b

Slope of AB = =

ca ca

2a ( a + b) 2a a b a b

Slope of BC = = =

(2c a ) c 2c a c c a

Since slope of AB = slope of BC

Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line.

Question # 4

Since A(7,3) , B(k , 6) , C (4,5) and D(6,4)

6 3 9

Therefore slope of AB = m1 = =

k 7 k 7

4 5 1 1

Slope of CD = m2 = = =

6 + 4 2 2

(i) If AB and CD are parallel then m1 = m2

9 1

= 18 = k 7

k 7 2

k = 18 + 7 k = 11

(ii) If AB and CD are perpendicular then m1m2 = 1

9 1

= 1 9 = 2(k 7)

k 7 2

9 = 2k 14 2k = 9 + 14 = 23

23

k=

2

Question # 5

Since A(6,1), B (2,7) and C (6, 7) are vertices of triangle therefore

7 1 6 3

Slope of AB = m1 = = = REMEMBER

2 6 4 2 The symbols

7 7 12 7 (i) stands for parallel

Slope of BC = m2 = = =

6 2 8 4 (ii) stands for not parallel

(iii) stands for perpendicular

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 4

1+ 7 8 2

Slope of CA = m3 = = =

6 + 6 12 3

3 2

Since m1m3 = = 1

2 3

The triangle ABC is a right triangle with m A = 90

Question # 6

Let D(a, b) be a fourth vertex of the parallelogram.

2 +1 3 1

Slope of AB = = = D (a,b) C(1,4)

2 7 9 3

42 2

Slope of BC = =

1+ 2 3

b4

Slope of CD =

a 1 A (7,-1) B (-2,2)

1 b

Slope of DA =

7a

Since ABCD is a parallelogram therefore

Slope of AB = Slope of CD

1 b4

= (a 1) = 3(b 4)

3 a 1

a + 1 3b + 12 = 0 a 3b + 13 = 0 .............(i )

Also slope of BC = slope of DA

2 1 b

= 2(7 a ) = 3(1 b) 14 2a = 3 3b

3 7a

14 2a + 3 + 3b = 0 2a + 3b + 17 = 0.............(ii )

Adding (i) and (ii)

a 3b + 13 = 0

2a + 3b + 17 = 0

3a + 30 = 0 3a = 30 a = 10

Putting value of a in (i)

10 3b + 13 = 0 3b + 3 = 0 3b = 3 b = 1

Hence D (10,1) is the fourth vertex of parallelogram.

Question # 7

Let D(a, b) be a fourth vertex of rhombus.

1 2 3

Slope of AB = = D (a,b) C(6,3)

3 +1 4

3 +1 4

Slope of BC = =

63 3

b3

Slope of CD =

a6 A (-1,2) B(3,-1)

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 5

2b

Slope of DA =

1 a

Since ABCD is a rhombus therefore

Slope of AB = Slope of CD

3 b3

= 3(a 6) = 4(b 3)

4 a6

3a + 18 = 4b 12 3a + 18 4b + 12 = 0

3a 4b + 30 = 0.............(i )

Also slope of BC = slope of DA

4 2b

= 4(1 a ) = 3(2 b)

3 1 a

4 4a = 6 3b 4 4a 6 + 3b = 0

4a + 3b 10 = 0 .............(ii )

ing eq. (i) by 3 and (ii) by 4 and adding.

9a 12b + 90 = 0

16a + 12b 40 = 0

25a + 50 = 0 25a = 50 a = 2

Putting value of a in (ii)

4(2) + 3b 10 = 0 3b 18 = 0 3b = 18 b = 6

Hence D ( 2,6 ) is the fourth vertex of rhombus.

3 2 1

Now slope of diagonal AC = =

6 +1 7

b (1) 6 + 1 7

Slope of diagonal BD = = = = 7

a 3 2 3 1

Since

1

(Slope of AC )(Slope of BD ) = (7) = 1

7

Diagonals of a rhombus are to each other.

Question # 8

4+2 6

(a) Slope of line joining (1, 2 ) and ( 2, 4 ) = m1 = = =6

2 1 1

2 1 1

Slope of line joining ( 4,1) and ( 8,2 ) = m2 = =

8 4 12

Since m1 m2

1 1

Also m1m2 = 6 = 1

12 2

lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

(b) Do yourself as above.

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 6

(i) Slope-intercept form

Equation of straight line with slope m and y intercept c is given by:

y = mx + c

See proof on book at page 194

(ii) Point-slope form

Let m be a slope of line and A( x1 , y1 ) be a point lies on a line then equation of

line is given by:

y y1 = m ( x x1 )

See proof on book at page 195

Let be an inclination of line and A( x1 , y1 ) be a point lies on a line then

equation of line is given by:

y y1 x x1

=

cos sin

See proof on book at page 195

Let A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 ) be points lie on a line then its equation is given by:

x y 1

y y y y

y y1 = 2 1 ( x x1 ) or y y2 = 2 1 ( x x2 ) or x1 y1 1 = 0

x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 y2 1

See proof on book at page 196

(v) Two-intercept form

When a line intersect x axis at x = a and y axis at y = b

i.e. x intercept = a and y intercept = b , then equation of line is given by:

x y

+ =1

a b

See proof on book at page 197

(vi) Normal form l

Let p denoted length of perpendicular from the

origin to the line and is the angle of the perpendicular p

from +ive x-axis then equation of line is given by:

x cos + y sin = p

See proof on book at page 198

Question # 9

(a) Since slope of horizontal line = m = 0

& ( x1 , y1 ) = (7, 9)

therefore equation of line:

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 7

y (9) = 0( x 7)

x + 9 = 0 Answer

1

(b) Since slope of vertical line m = =

0

& ( x1 , y1 ) = (5,3)

therefore required equation of line

y 3 = ( x (5) )

1

y 3 = ( x + 5) 0( y 3) = 1( x + 5)

0

x+5=0 Answer

(c) The line bisecting the first and third quadrant makes an angle of 45 with the

x axis therefore slope of line = m = tan 45 = 1

Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation

y 0 = 1( x 0) y = x

x y=0 Answer

(d) The line bisecting the second and fourth quadrant makes an angle of 135 with

x axis therefore slope of line = m = tan135 = 1

Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation

y 0 = 1( x 0) y = x

x+ y=0 Answer

Question # 10

(a) ( x1 , y1 ) = ( 6,5 )

and slope of line = m = 7

so required equation

y 5 = 7 ( x (6) )

y 5 = 7 ( x + 6) y 5 = 7 x + 42

7 x + 42 y + 5 = 0 7 x y + 47 = 0 Answer

(b) Do yourself as above.

(c) ( x1 , y1 ) = (8,5)

and slope of line = m =

So required equation

y 5 = ( x (8) )

1

y 5 = ( x + 8) 0( y 5) = 1( x + 8)

0

x +8= 0 Answer

(d) The line through ( 5, 3) and ( 9, 1) is

1 (3) 2

y (3) = ( x (5) ) y+3= ( x + 5)

9 (5) 14

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 8

1

y+3= ( x + 5) 7 y + 21 = x + 5

7

x + 5 7 y 21 = 0 x 7 y 16 = 0 Answer

(e) y intercept = 7

(0, 7) lies on a required line

Also slope = m = 5

So required equation

y (7) = 5( x 0)

y + 7 = 5 x 5 x + y + 7 = 0 Answer

(f) x intercept = 9

(9,0) lies on a required line

Also slope = m = 4

Therefore required line

y 0 = 4( x + 9)

y = 4x + 9 4x y + 9 = 0 Answer

(g) x intercept = a = 3

y intercept = b = 4

Using two-intercept form of equation line

x y x y

+ =1 + =0

a b 3 4

4 x 3 y = 12 ing by 12

4 x 3 y + 12 = 0 Answer

Question # 11

Given points A(3,5) and B(9,8)

3 + 9 5 + 8 12 13 13

Midpoint of AB = , = , = 6,

2 2 2 2 2

85 3 1

Slope of AB = m = = =

93 6 2

1 1 A (3,5) B(9,8)

Slope of line to AB = = =2

m 1

2

13

Now equation of bisector having slope 2 through 6,

2

13

y = 2( x 6)

2

13 13

y = 2 x + 12 y + 2 x 12 = 0

2 2

37

2x + y =0 4 x + 2 y 37 = 0 Answer

2

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 9

Question # 12

Given vertices of triangle are A(3,2) , B(5, 4) and C (3, 8) .

Equation of sides:

42 2 1 A

Slope of AB = m1 = = =

5 (3) 8 4

8 4 12

Slope of BC = m2 = = =6

35 2

2 (8) 10 5 B C

Slope of CA = m3 = = =

3 3 6 3

1

Now equation of side AB having slope passing through A(3,2)

4

[You may take B ( 5, 4 ) instead of A( 3, 2) ]

1

y 2 = ( x (3) ) 4 y 8 = x + 3

4

x + 3 4 y + 8 = 0 x 4 y + 11 = 0

Equation of side BC having slope 6 passing through B(5, 4) .

y 4 = 6( x 5) y 4 = 6 x 30

6 x 30 y + 4 = 0 6 x y 26 = 0

5

Equation of side CA having slope passing through C (3, 8)

3

5

y (8) = ( x 3) 3( y + 8) = 5( x 3)

3

3 y + 24 = 5 x + 15 5 x 15 + 3 y + 24 = 0

5x + 3 y + 9 = 0

Equation of altitudes:

Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of triangle therefore

1 1

Slope of altitude on AB = = = 4

m1 1

4 A

Equation of altitude from C (3, 8) having slope 4

y + 8 = 4( x 3) y + 8 = 4 x + 12

4 x 12 + y + 8 = 0 4x + y 4 = 0

1 1 B C

Slope of altitude on BC = =

m2 6

1

Equation of altitude from A(3,2) having slope

6

1

y 2 = ( x + 3) 6 y 12 = x 3

6

x + 3 + 6 y 12 = 0 x + 6y 9 = 0

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 10

1 1 3

Slope of altitude on CA = = =

m3 5 5

3

3

Equation of altitude from B(5, 4) having slope

5

3

y 4 = ( x 5) 5 y 20 = 3 x 15

5

3 x 15 5 y + 20 = 0 3x 5 y + 5 = 0

Equation of Medians:

Suppose D, E and F are midpoints of sides AB , BC and CA respectively.

3 + 5 2 + 4 2 6

Then coordinate of D = , = , = (1,3) A

2 2 2 2

5 + 3 4 8 8 4

Coordinate of E = , = , = ( 4, 2 ) D F

2 2 2 2

3 3 8 + 2 0 6

Coordinate of F = , = , = ( 0, 3)

2 2 2 2 B E C

Equation of median AE by two-point form

2 2

y2= ( x (3) )

4 (3)

4

y2= ( x + 3) 7 y 14 = 4 x 12

7

7 y 14 + 4 x + 12 = 0 4 x + 7 y 2 = 0

Equation of median BF by two-point form

3 4

y4= ( x 5)

05

7

y4= ( x 5) 5 y + 20 = 7 x + 35

5

5 y + 20 + 7 x 35 = 0 7 x 5 y 15 = 0

Equation of median CD by two-point form

3 (8)

y (8) = ( x 3)

1 3

11

y + 8 = ( x 3) 2 y 16 = 11x 33

2

11x 33 + 2 y + 16 = 0 11x + 2 y 17 = 0

Question # 13

Here ( x1 , y1 ) = ( 4, 6 )

3

Slope of given line = m =

2

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 11

1 1 2

slope of required line = = =

m 3 3

2

2

Now equation of line having slope passing through ( 4, 6 )

3

2

y (6) = ( x (4) )

3

3 ( y + 6 ) = 2( x + 4) 3 y + 18 = 2 x + 8

2 x + 8 3 y 18 = 0 2 x 3 y 10 = 0 Answer

Question # 14

Here ( x1 , y1 ) = (11, 5 )

Slope of given line = m = 24

required line is to given line

slope of required line = m = 24

Now equation of line having slope 24 passing through (11, 5 )

y (5) = 24 ( x 11)

y + 5 = 24 x + 264 24 x 264 + y + 5 = 0

24 x + y 259 = 0 Answer

Question # 15

Given vertices A(1, 2) , B(6,3) and C (2, 4) A

Since D and E are midpoints of sides AB and AC

D E

respectively.

1 + 6 2 + 3 5 5

Therefore coordinate of D = , = , B C

2 2 2 2

1 + 2 2 4 1 2 1

Coordinate of E = , = , = , 1

2 2 2 2 2

1 5 7

Now slope of DE = 2 = 2 =7

1 5 4 4

2 2 2

4 3 7 7

slope of BC = = =

2 6 4 4

Since slope of DE = slope of BC

Therefore DE is parallel to BC .

2 2 2 2

1 5 5 4 7

Now DE = + 1 = +

2 2 2 2 2

49 65 65

= 4+ = = ... (i)

4 4 2

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 12

2 2 2 2

BC = ( 2 6) + ( 4 3 ) = ( 4 ) + ( 7 )

= 16 + 49 = 65 (ii)

From (i) and (ii)

1

DE = BC Proved.

2

Question # 16

Let l denotes the number of litres of milk and p denotes the price of milk,

Then ( l1 , p1 ) = ( 560,12.50 ) & ( l2 , p2 ) = ( 700,12.00 )

Since graph of sale price and milk sold is a straight line

Therefore, from two point form, its equation

p p1

p p1 = 2 (l l1 )

l2 l1 ALTERNATIVE

12.00 12.50 You may use determinant

p 12.50 = (l 560) form of two-point form to

700 560

find an equation of line.

0.50

p 12.50 = (l 560) l p 1

140 l1 p1 1 = 0

140 p 1750 = 0.50l + 280

l2 p2 1

140 p 1750 + 0.50l 280 = 0

0.50l + 140 p 2030 = 0

If p = 12.25

0.50l + 140(12.25) 2030 = 0

0.50l + 1715 2030 = 0 0.50l 315 = 0

315

0.50l = 315 l= = 630

0.50

Hence milkman can sell 630 litres milk at Rs. 12.25 per litre.

Question # 17

Let p denotes population of Pakistan in million and t denotes year after 1961,

Then ( p1 , t1 ) = ( 60,1961) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 95,1981)

Equation of line by two point form:

t t

t t1 = 2 1 ( p p1 )

p2 p1

1981 1961

t 1961 = ( p 60)

95 60

20 4

t 1961 = ( p 60) t 1961 = ( p 60)

35 7

7t 13727 = 4 p 240 7t 13727 + 240 = 4 p

7 13487

4 p = 7t 13487 p = t . (i)

4 4

This is the required equation which gives population in term of t .

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 13

7 13487

p = (1947) = 3407.25 3371.75 = 35.5

4 4

Hence population in 1947 is 35.5 millions.

(b) Put t = 1997 in eq. (i)

7 13487

p = (1997) = 3494.75 3371.75 = 123

4 4

Hence population in 1997 is 123 millions.

Question # 18

Let p denotes purchase price of house in millions and t denotes year then

( p1, t1 ) = (1,1980 ) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 4,1996 )

Equation of line by two point form:

ALTERNATIVE

t2 t1 You may use determinant

t t1 = ( p p1 )

p2 p1 form of two-point form to

1996 1980 find an equation of line.

t 1980 = ( p 1)

4 1 p t 1

16 p1 t1 1 = 0

t 1980 = ( p 1)

3 p2 t2 1

3 t 5940 = 16 p 16

3 t 5940 + 16 = 16 p 16 p = 3 t 5924

3 5924 3 1481

p= t p= t . (i)

16 16 16 4

This is the required equation which gives value of house in term of t .

Put t = 1990 in eq. (i)

3 1481

p = (1990) = 373.125 370.25 = 2.875

16 4

Hence value of house in 1990 is 2.875 millions.

Question # 19

F

and y-axis respectively to draw graph.

Take scale 10ss = 20C and 10ss = 20F on x-axis

(100,212)

and boiling point of water = 100 C = 212 F 200

therefore we have points ( C1 , F1 ) = ( 0,32 ) and 180

( C2 , F2 ) = (100, 212 ) 160

Equation of line by two point form 140

F F1 120

F F1 = 2 ( C C1 ) 100

C2 C1

80

212 32

F 32 = (C 0) 60

100 0

40

180 (0,32)

F 32 = C 20

100

20 40 60 80 100 C

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 14

9

F = C + 32

5

Question # 20

Let s denotes entry test score and y denotes year.

Then we have ( s1 , y1 ) = ( 592,1998 ) and ( s2 , y2 ) = ( 564,2002 )

By two point form of equation of line

y y

y y1 = 2 1 ( s s1 )

s2 s1

2002 1998 4

y 1998 = ( s 592) y 1998 = ( s 592)

564 592 28

1

y 1998 = ( s 592) 7 y 13986 = s + 592

7

7 y 13986 + s 592 = 0 s + 7 y 14578 = 0

Put y = 2006 in (i)

s + 7(2006) 14578 = 0 s + 14042 14578 = 0

s 536 = 0 s = 536

Hence in 2006 the average score will be 536 .

Question # 21 (a)

(i) - Slope-intercept form

2 x 4 y + 11 = 0

2 x + 11

4 y = 2 x + 11 y =

4

1 11

y= x+

2 4

1 11

is the intercept form of equation of line with m = and c =

2 4

(ii) - Two-intercept form

2 x 4 y + 11 = 0 2 x 4 y = 11

2 4 x y

x y =1 + =1

11 11 11 11

2 4

11 11

is the two-point form of equation of line with a = and b = .

2 4

(iii) - Normal form

2 x 4 y + 11 = 0 2 x 4 y = 11

Dividing above equation by (2) 2 + (4)2 = 20 = 2 5

2x 4y 11 x 2 y 11

= =

2 5 2 5 2 5 5 5 2 5

x 2y 11

+ = ing by 1 .

5 5 2 5

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 15

1 2

Suppose cos = <0 and sin =

>0

5 5

1

lies in 2nd quadrant and = cos 1 = 116.57

5

Hence the normal form is

11

( ) (

x cos 116.57 + y sin 116.57 =

2 5

)

11

And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p =

2 5

Question # 21 (b)

(i) - Slope-intercept form

4x + 7 y 2 = 0

4x + 2

7 y = 4x + 2 y=

7

4 2

y= x+

7 7

4 2

is the intercept form of equation of line with m = and c =

7 7

(ii) - Two-intercept form

4x + 7 y 2 = 0 4x + 7 y = 2

7

2x + y = 1 ing by 2

2

x y

+ =1

1 2

2 7

1 2

is the two-point form of equation of line with a = and b = .

2 7

(iii) - Normal form

4x + 7 y 2 = 0

4x + 7 y = 2

Dividing above equation by (4) 2 + (7) 2 = 16 + 49 = 65

4 7 2

x+ y= .

65 65 65

4 7

Suppose cos = > 0 and sin = >0

65 65

4

lies in first quadrant and = cos 1 = 60.26

65

Hence the normal form is

2

( )

x cos 60.26 + y sin 60.26 = ( 65

)

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 16

2

And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p =

65

Question # 21 (c)

(i) - Slope-intercept form

15 y 8 x + 3 = 0

8x 3

15 y = 8 x 3 y=

15

8 3 8 1

y= x y= x

15 15 15 5

8 1

is the intercept form of equation of line with m = and c =

15 5

(ii) - Two-intercept form

15 y 8 x + 3 = 0 8 x + 15 y = 3

8x x y

5y =1 + =1

3 3 1

8 5

3 1

is the two-point form of equation of line with a = and b = .

8 5

(iii) - Normal form

15 y 8 x + 3 = 0

8 x 15 y = 3

Dividing above equation by (8) 2 + (15)2 = 64 + 225 = 289 = 17

8 15 3

x y= .

17 17 17

8 15

Suppose cos = > 0 and sin = < 0

17 17 8

= cos 1

8 17

lies in 4th quadrant and = cos 1 = 298.07

17 = 61.93 , 298.07

Hence the normal form is Taking value that

3 lies in 4th quadrant.

(

) (

x cos 298.07 + y sin 298.07 =

) 17

3

And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p =

17

A general equation of straight line (General linear equation) in two variable x

and y is given by:

ax + by + c = 0

where a , b and c are constants and a and b are not simultaneously zero.

See proof on book at page: 199.

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 17

a c

Note: Since ax + by + c = 0 by = ax c y= x

b b

a c

Which is an intercept form of equation of line with slope m = and c =

b b

Question # 22

(a) Let l1 : 2 x + y 3 = 0

l2 : 4 x + 2 y + 5 = 0

2

Slope of l1 = m1 = = 2

1

4

Slope of l2 = m2 = = 2

2

Since m1 = m2 therefore l1 and l2 are parallel.

(b) Let l1 : 3 y = 2 x + 5 2 x 3 y + 5 = 0

l2 : 3 x + 2 y 8 = 0

2 2

Slope of l1 = m1 = =

3 3

3

Slope of l2 = m2 = =

2

2 3

Since m1m2 = = 1 l1 and l2 are perpendicular.

3 2

(c) Let l1 : 4 y + 2 x 1 = 0 2 x + 4 y 1 = 0

l2 : x 2 y 7 = 0

2 1

Slope of l1 = m1 = =

4 2

1 1

Slope of l2 = m2 = =

2 2

1 1 1

Since m1 m2 and m1m2 = = 1

2 2 4

l1 and l2 are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

(d) & (e) Do yourself as above.

Question # 23 (a)

l1 : 3 x 4 y + 3 = 0.............(i )

l2 : 3 x 4 y + 7 = 0.............(ii )

We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form

(i ) 3 x + 4 y = 3

Dividing by (3) 2 + (4) 2 = 25 = 5

3 4 3

x+ y=

5 5 5

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 18

3 4

Let cos = < 0 and sin = > 0

5 5

3

lies in 2nd quadrant and = cos 1 = 126.87

5

3

x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) =

5

3

Hence distance of l1 form origin =

5

Now (ii ) 3 x + 4 y = 7

Dividing by (3) 2 + (4) 2 = 25 = 5 y

3 4 7

x+ y=

5 5 5

l2

3 4

Let cos = < 0 and sin = > 0

5 5 B

l1

lies in 1st quadrant

3 A

and = cos 1 = 126.87 126.87

5

x

x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 7 O

5

Hence distance of l2 form origin = 7

5

From graph we see that both lines lie on the same side of origin therefore

7 3 4

Distance between lines = AB = OB OA = =

5 5 5

Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then

AB 4

3 3 4

Distance of l3 from origin = OA + = + 5 = + =1

2 5 2 5 10

Hence equation of l3

x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 1

3 4

x + y = 1 3x + 4 y = 5

5 5

3x 4 y + 5 = 0

Question # 23 (b)

l1 : 12 x + 5 y 6 = 0.............(i )

l2 : 12 x + 5 y + 13 = 0.............(ii )

We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form

(i ) 12 x + 5 y = 6

Dividing by (12) 2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13

12 5 6

x+ y=

13 13 13

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 19

12 5

Let cos = > 0 and sin = > 0

13 13

12

lies in 1st quadrant and = cos 1 = 22.62

13

6

x cos(22.62) + y sin(22.62) =

13

6

Hence distance of l1 form origin =

13

y

Now (ii ) 12 x 5 y = 13

Dividing by (12) 2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13

12 5 l1

x y =1 l2

13 13 A

12 5

Let cos = < 0 and sin = < 0 O x

13 13

lies in 3rd quadrant B

12

and = cos 1 = 202.62

13

x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) = 1

Hence distance of l2 form origin = 1

From graph we see that lines lie on the opposite side of origin therefore

6 19

Distance between lines = AB = OA + OB = + 1 =

13 13

Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then

AB 19

19 7

Distance of l3 from origin = OB = 1 13 = 1 =

2 2 26 26

Hence equation of l3

7

x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) =

26

12 5 7

x + y = 24 x 10 y = 7

13 13 26

24 x + 10 y + 7 = 0

Question # 23 (c)

Do yourself as Question # 23 (a)

Question # 24

Let l : 2 x 7 y + 4 = 0 REMEMBER

2 2 If l : ax + by + c = 0

Slope of l = m = =

7 7 a

Since required line is parallel to l then slope of l =

b

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 20

2

Therefore slope of required line = m =

7

2

Now equation of line having slope passing through ( 4,7 )

7

2

y 7 = ( x (4))

7

7( y 7) = 2( x + 4)

7 y 49 = 2 x + 8 2 x + 8 7 y + 49 = 0

2 x 7 y + 57 = 0

Question # 25

Given: A ( 15, 18 ) , B (10,7 ) and ( 5,8 )

7 (18)

Slope of AB = m =

10 (15)

7 + 18 25

= = = 1

10 + 15 25

Since required line is perpendicular to AB

1 1

Therefore slope of required line = = = 1

m 1

Now equation of line having slope 1 through ( 5, 8 )

y (8) = 1( x 5)

y + 8 = x + 5

x + y +85= 0 x + y +3= 0 Ans.

Question # 26

Let l : 2 x y + 3 = 0

2

Slope of l = m = = 2

1

Since required line is perpendicular to l

1 1

Therefore slope of required line = =

m 2

Let y intercept of req. line = c

1

Then equation of req. line with slope and y intercept c

2

1

y = x + c (i)

2

1

x+ y = c

2

x y

+ =1

2c c

This is two intercept form of equation of line with

x intercept = 2c and y intercept = c

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 21

3 3

(c) ( 2c ) = 3 2c 2 = 3 c2 = c=

2 2

Putting in (i)

1 3

y = x

2 2

1 3 1 3 2

x+y = 0 x+y = 0

2 2 2 2 2

1 6

x+y = 0

2 2

x + 2 y 6 = 0 are the required equations.

Question # 27

Let A (1, 4 ) be a given vertex and B ( x1 , y1 ) , C ( x2 , y2 ) and D ( x3 , y3 ) are remaining

vertices of parallelogram.

Since diagonals of parallelogram bisect at (2,1) therefore

( 2,1) = 2 ,

1 + x 4 + y2

D (x3 , y3) 1 C (x2 , y2)

2 2

1 + x2 4 + y2

2= and 1 = 1

2 2 (2,1) 1

4 = 1 + x2 , 2 = 4 + y2 7

7

x2 = 4 1 , y2 = 4 + 2

x2 = 3 , y 2 = 2

A (1,4) 1 B (x1 ,y1)

Hence C ( x2 , y2 ) = C ( 3, 2 )

Now slope of AB = 1

y 4

1 = 1 y1 4 = x1 1

x1 1

x1 y1 1 + 4 = 0 x1 y1 + 3 = 0 . (i)

1

Also slope of BC =

7

y y1 1 2 y1 1

2 = =

x2 x1 7 3 x1 7

14 7 y1 = 3 + x1 3 x1 + 14 + 7 y1 = 0

x1 + 7 y1 + 11 = 0 (ii)

Subtracting (i) and (ii)

x1 y1 + 3 = 0

x1 + 7 y1 +11 = 0

8 y1 8 = 0

y1 + 1 = 0 y1 = 1

Putting in (i)

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 22

x1 ( 1) + 3 = 0 x1 + 4 = 0 x1 = 4

B ( x2 , y2 ) = B ( 4, 1)

Now E is midpoint of BD

x + x y + y3

( 2,1) = 1 3, 1

2 2

4 + x3 1 + y3

= ,

2 2

4 + x3 1 + y3

2 = , 1 =

2 2

4 = 4 + x3 , 2 = 1 + y3

x3 = 8 , y3 = 3

D ( x3 , y3 ) = D ( 8,3)

Hence ( 4, 1) , ( 3, 2 ) and D ( 8,3) are remaining vertex of gram .

Consider l : ax + by + c = 0 with b > 0

Then point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies

i) above the line l if ax1 + by1 + c > 0

ii) below the line l if ax1 + by1 + c < 0

The point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies above the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have the same sign and

the point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies below the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have opposite signs.

Question # 28

(a) 2x 3y + 6 = 0

To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 .

2x + 3y 6 = 0

Putting ( 5,8 ) on L.H.S of above

2(5) + 3(8) + 6 = 10 + 24 6 = 8 > 0

Hence ( 5,8 ) lies above the line.

(b) Alternative Method

4x + 3y 9 = 0 *Correction

Putting ( 7,6 ) in L.H.S of given eq.

4(7) + 3(6) 9 = 28 + 18 9 = 19 ... (i)

Since coefficient of y and expression (i) have opposite signs therefore ( 7,6 ) lies

below the line.

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 23

Question # 29

(a) 6 x 7 y + 70 = 0

To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 .

6 x + 7 y 70 = 0 . (i)

Putting (0,0) on L.H.S of (i)

6(0) + 7(0) 70 = 70 < 0

( 0,0 ) lies below the line.

Putting ( 4,7 ) on L.H.S of (i )

6(4) + 7(7) 70 = 24 + 49 70 = 3 > 0

( 4,7 ) lies above the line.

Hence ( 0,0 ) and ( 4,7 ) lies on the opposite side of line.

(b) 3x 5 y + 8 = 0

To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 .

3 x + 5 y 8 = 0 . (i)

Putting (2,3) on L.H.S of (i)

3(2) + 5(3) 8 = 6 + 15 8 = 1 > 0

( 2,3) lies above the line.

Putting ( 2,3) on L.H.S of (i )

3(2) + 5(3) 8 = 6 + 15 8

= 13 > 0

( 2,3) lies above the line

Hence ( 2,3) and ( 2,3) lies on the same side of line.

(Page 212)

The distance d from the point P ( x1 , y1 ) to the line l ,

where l : ax + by + c = 0 ,

ax1 + by1 + c

is given by: d =

a 2 + b2

Question # 30

l : 6x 4 y + 9 = 0

Let d denotes distance of P ( 6, 1) from line l then

6(6) 4(1) + 9 36 + 4 + 9 49 49

d = = = =

(6) 2 + (4)2 36 + 16 52 2 13

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 24

Let A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x2 , y2 ) and C ( x3 , y3 ) are vertices of triangle then

x y1 1

1 1

Area of triangle = x2 y2 1

2

x3 y3 1

x1 y1 1

If A , B and C are collinear then x2 y2 1 = 0

x3 y3 1

Question # 32

Given: A ( 2,3) , B ( 1,1) , C ( 4, 5 )

2 3 1

Area of ABC = 1 1 1

4 5 1

1

= ( 2(1 + 5) 3(1 4) + 1(5 4) )

2

1 1

= (12 + 15 + 1) = ( 28 ) = 14 sq. unit

2 2

Area of triangle 0

A, B and C are not collinear.

Error Analyst

http://www.mathcity.org/error

Calculus and Analytic Geometry Mathematic 12

Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore.

Edition: May 2013.

Available online at http://www.MathCity.org in PDF Format

(Picture format to view online).

Page Setup used A4

Printed: February 25, 2015.

Available at http://www.mathcity.org

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