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Exercise 4.

3 (Solutions)
MathCity.org Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12
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 Inclination of a Line:
The angle (0 < 180 ) measure anti-
clockwise from positive x axis to the straight line B( x2 , y2 )
l is called inclination of a line l .
 Slope or Gradient of Line A ( x1 ,y1)
The slope m of the line l is defined by:

m = tan
If A( x1 , y1 ) and B( x2 , y2 ) be any two
distinct points on the line l then
y y y y2
m= 2 1 = 1
x2 x1 x1 x2
See proof on book at page: 191
 Note: l is horizontal, iff m = 0 ( = 0 )
l is vertical, iff m = i.e. m is not defined. ( = 90 )
If slope of AB = slope of BC , then the points A, B and C are collinear
i.e. lie on the same line.
 Theorem
The two lines l1 and l2 with respective slopes m1 and m2 are
(i) Parallel iff m1 = m2
1 y
(ii) Perpendicular iff m1m2 = 1 or m1 = 15
m2
 Question # 1 10 (5,11)

(i) (2, 4) ; (5,11)


5
y y 11 4 7 (-2,4)
Slope m = 2 1 = = =1
x2 x1 5+ 2 7
10 5 5 10 15 x
Since tan = m = 1
= tan 1 (1) = 45 5

y
(ii) (3, 2) ; (2,7) 10
y y 7+2 9
Slope m = 2 1 = = = 9 (2,7)
x2 x1 2 3 1 5
Since tan = m = 9
tan = 9 tan (180 ) = 9
5 5 10 x
180 = tan 1 ( 9 ) (3,-2)
180 = 8340 5

= 180 8340 = 9620


FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 2

y
(ii) (4,6) ; (4,8) 10
y y (4,8)
Slope m = 2 1 (4,6)
x2 x1 5
86 2
= = =
44 0
5 5 10 x
Since tan = m =
= tan 1 () 5

= 90
 Question # 2
Since A(8,6) , B(4, 2) and C (2, 6) are vertices of triangle therefore
26 4 1
(i) Slope of side AB = = = A
4 8 12 3
6 2 8
Slope of side BC = = = 4
2 + 4 2
6 + 6 12 6
Slope of side CA = = = B C
8 + 2 10 5

(ii) Let D, E and F are midpoints of sides AB , BC and CA respectively.


Then A
8 4 6 + 2 4 8
Coordinate of D = , = , = ( 2,4 )
2 2 2 2 F
D
4 2 2 6 6 4
Coordinate of E = , = , = ( 3, 2 )
2 2 2 2
2 + 8 6 + 6 6 0 B E C
Coordinate of F = , = , = ( 3,0 )
2 2 2 2
2 6 8 8
Hence Slope of median AE = = =
3 8 11 11
0 2 2
Slope of median BF = =
3+ 4 7
4 + 6 10 5
Slope of median CD = = =
2+2 4 2
(iii) Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of a triangle therefore
1 1 1
Slope of altitude from vertex A = = =
slope of side BC 4 4 A
1 1 5
Slope of altitude from vertex B = = =
slope of side AC 6 6
5
1 1
Slope of altitude from vertex C = = = 3
slope of side AB 1 B C
3

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 3

 Question # 3
(a) Let A(1, 3) , B(1,5) and C (2,9) be given points
5+3 8
Slope of AB = = =4
1+1 2
95 4
Slope of BC = = =4
2 1 1
Since slope of AB = slope of BC
Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line.
(b) & (c) Do yourself as above
(d) Let A(a, 2b), B(c, a + b) and C (2c a , 2a ) be given points.
(a + b) 2b a b
Slope of AB = =
ca ca
2a ( a + b) 2a a b a b
Slope of BC = = =
(2c a ) c 2c a c c a
Since slope of AB = slope of BC
Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line.
 Question # 4
Since A(7,3) , B(k , 6) , C (4,5) and D(6,4)
6 3 9
Therefore slope of AB = m1 = =
k 7 k 7
4 5 1 1
Slope of CD = m2 = = =
6 + 4 2 2
(i) If AB and CD are parallel then m1 = m2
9 1
= 18 = k 7
k 7 2
k = 18 + 7 k = 11
(ii) If AB and CD are perpendicular then m1m2 = 1
9 1
= 1 9 = 2(k 7)
k 7 2
9 = 2k 14 2k = 9 + 14 = 23
23
k=
2

 Question # 5
Since A(6,1), B (2,7) and C (6, 7) are vertices of triangle therefore
7 1 6 3
Slope of AB = m1 = = = REMEMBER
2 6 4 2 The symbols
7 7 12 7 (i)  stands for parallel
Slope of BC = m2 = = =
6 2 8 4 (ii)  stands for not parallel
(iii) stands for perpendicular

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 4

1+ 7 8 2
Slope of CA = m3 = = =
6 + 6 12 3
3 2
Since m1m3 = = 1
2 3
The triangle ABC is a right triangle with m A = 90

 Question # 6
Let D(a, b) be a fourth vertex of the parallelogram.
2 +1 3 1
Slope of AB = = = D (a,b) C(1,4)
2 7 9 3
42 2
Slope of BC = =
1+ 2 3
b4
Slope of CD =
a 1 A (7,-1) B (-2,2)
1 b
Slope of DA =
7a
Since ABCD is a parallelogram therefore
Slope of AB = Slope of CD
1 b4
= (a 1) = 3(b 4)
3 a 1
a + 1 3b + 12 = 0 a 3b + 13 = 0 .............(i )
Also slope of BC = slope of DA
2 1 b
= 2(7 a ) = 3(1 b) 14 2a = 3 3b
3 7a
14 2a + 3 + 3b = 0 2a + 3b + 17 = 0.............(ii )
Adding (i) and (ii)
a 3b + 13 = 0
2a + 3b + 17 = 0
3a + 30 = 0 3a = 30 a = 10
Putting value of a in (i)
10 3b + 13 = 0 3b + 3 = 0 3b = 3 b = 1
Hence D (10,1) is the fourth vertex of parallelogram.

 Question # 7
Let D(a, b) be a fourth vertex of rhombus.
1 2 3
Slope of AB = = D (a,b) C(6,3)
3 +1 4
3 +1 4
Slope of BC = =
63 3
b3
Slope of CD =
a6 A (-1,2) B(3,-1)

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 5

2b
Slope of DA =
1 a
Since ABCD is a rhombus therefore
Slope of AB = Slope of CD
3 b3
= 3(a 6) = 4(b 3)
4 a6
3a + 18 = 4b 12 3a + 18 4b + 12 = 0
3a 4b + 30 = 0.............(i )
Also slope of BC = slope of DA
4 2b
= 4(1 a ) = 3(2 b)
3 1 a
4 4a = 6 3b 4 4a 6 + 3b = 0
4a + 3b 10 = 0 .............(ii )
ing eq. (i) by 3 and (ii) by 4 and adding.
9a 12b + 90 = 0
16a + 12b 40 = 0
25a + 50 = 0 25a = 50 a = 2
Putting value of a in (ii)
4(2) + 3b 10 = 0 3b 18 = 0 3b = 18 b = 6
Hence D ( 2,6 ) is the fourth vertex of rhombus.
3 2 1
Now slope of diagonal AC = =
6 +1 7
b (1) 6 + 1 7
Slope of diagonal BD = = = = 7
a 3 2 3 1
Since
1
(Slope of AC )(Slope of BD ) = (7) = 1
7
Diagonals of a rhombus are to each other.

 Question # 8
4+2 6
(a) Slope of line joining (1, 2 ) and ( 2, 4 ) = m1 = = =6
2 1 1
2 1 1
Slope of line joining ( 4,1) and ( 8,2 ) = m2 = =
8 4 12
Since m1 m2
1 1
Also m1m2 = 6 = 1
12 2
lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.
(b) Do yourself as above.

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 6

 Equation of Straight Line:


(i) Slope-intercept form
Equation of straight line with slope m and y intercept c is given by:
y = mx + c
See proof on book at page 194
(ii) Point-slope form
Let m be a slope of line and A( x1 , y1 ) be a point lies on a line then equation of
line is given by:
y y1 = m ( x x1 )
See proof on book at page 195

(iii) Symmetric form


Let be an inclination of line and A( x1 , y1 ) be a point lies on a line then
equation of line is given by:
y y1 x x1
=
cos sin
See proof on book at page 195

(iv) Two-points form


Let A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 ) be points lie on a line then its equation is given by:
x y 1
y y y y
y y1 = 2 1 ( x x1 ) or y y2 = 2 1 ( x x2 ) or x1 y1 1 = 0
x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 y2 1
See proof on book at page 196
(v) Two-intercept form
When a line intersect x axis at x = a and y axis at y = b
i.e. x intercept = a and y intercept = b , then equation of line is given by:
x y
+ =1
a b
See proof on book at page 197
(vi) Normal form l
Let p denoted length of perpendicular from the
origin to the line and is the angle of the perpendicular p
from +ive x-axis then equation of line is given by:
x cos + y sin = p
See proof on book at page 198

 Question # 9
(a) Since slope of horizontal line = m = 0
& ( x1 , y1 ) = (7, 9)
therefore equation of line:

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 7
y (9) = 0( x 7)
x + 9 = 0 Answer
1
(b) Since slope of vertical line m = =
0
& ( x1 , y1 ) = (5,3)
therefore required equation of line
y 3 = ( x (5) )
1
y 3 = ( x + 5) 0( y 3) = 1( x + 5)
0
x+5=0 Answer
(c) The line bisecting the first and third quadrant makes an angle of 45 with the
x axis therefore slope of line = m = tan 45 = 1
Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation
y 0 = 1( x 0) y = x
x y=0 Answer
(d) The line bisecting the second and fourth quadrant makes an angle of 135 with
x axis therefore slope of line = m = tan135 = 1
Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation
y 0 = 1( x 0) y = x
x+ y=0 Answer

 Question # 10
(a) ( x1 , y1 ) = ( 6,5 )
and slope of line = m = 7
so required equation
y 5 = 7 ( x (6) )
y 5 = 7 ( x + 6) y 5 = 7 x + 42
7 x + 42 y + 5 = 0 7 x y + 47 = 0 Answer
(b) Do yourself as above.
(c) ( x1 , y1 ) = (8,5)
and slope of line = m =
So required equation
y 5 = ( x (8) )
1
y 5 = ( x + 8) 0( y 5) = 1( x + 8)
0
x +8= 0 Answer
(d) The line through ( 5, 3) and ( 9, 1) is
1 (3) 2
y (3) = ( x (5) ) y+3= ( x + 5)
9 (5) 14

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 8

1
y+3= ( x + 5) 7 y + 21 = x + 5
7
x + 5 7 y 21 = 0 x 7 y 16 = 0 Answer
(e) y intercept = 7
(0, 7) lies on a required line
Also slope = m = 5
So required equation
y (7) = 5( x 0)
y + 7 = 5 x 5 x + y + 7 = 0 Answer
(f) x intercept = 9
(9,0) lies on a required line
Also slope = m = 4
Therefore required line
y 0 = 4( x + 9)
y = 4x + 9 4x y + 9 = 0 Answer
(g) x intercept = a = 3
y intercept = b = 4
Using two-intercept form of equation line
x y x y
+ =1 + =0
a b 3 4
4 x 3 y = 12 ing by 12
4 x 3 y + 12 = 0 Answer
 Question # 11
Given points A(3,5) and B(9,8)
3 + 9 5 + 8 12 13 13
Midpoint of AB = , = , = 6,
2 2 2 2 2
85 3 1
Slope of AB = m = = =
93 6 2
1 1 A (3,5) B(9,8)
Slope of line to AB = = =2
m 1
2
13
Now equation of bisector having slope 2 through 6,
2
13
y = 2( x 6)
2
13 13
y = 2 x + 12 y + 2 x 12 = 0
2 2
37
2x + y =0 4 x + 2 y 37 = 0 Answer
2

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 9

 Question # 12
Given vertices of triangle are A(3,2) , B(5, 4) and C (3, 8) .
Equation of sides:
42 2 1 A
Slope of AB = m1 = = =
5 (3) 8 4
8 4 12
Slope of BC = m2 = = =6
35 2
2 (8) 10 5 B C
Slope of CA = m3 = = =
3 3 6 3
1
Now equation of side AB having slope passing through A(3,2)
4
[You may take B ( 5, 4 ) instead of A( 3, 2) ]
1
y 2 = ( x (3) ) 4 y 8 = x + 3
4
x + 3 4 y + 8 = 0 x 4 y + 11 = 0
Equation of side BC having slope 6 passing through B(5, 4) .
y 4 = 6( x 5) y 4 = 6 x 30
6 x 30 y + 4 = 0 6 x y 26 = 0
5
Equation of side CA having slope passing through C (3, 8)
3
5
y (8) = ( x 3) 3( y + 8) = 5( x 3)
3
3 y + 24 = 5 x + 15 5 x 15 + 3 y + 24 = 0
5x + 3 y + 9 = 0
Equation of altitudes:
Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of triangle therefore
1 1
Slope of altitude on AB = = = 4
m1 1
4 A
Equation of altitude from C (3, 8) having slope 4
y + 8 = 4( x 3) y + 8 = 4 x + 12
4 x 12 + y + 8 = 0 4x + y 4 = 0
1 1 B C
Slope of altitude on BC = =
m2 6
1
Equation of altitude from A(3,2) having slope
6
1
y 2 = ( x + 3) 6 y 12 = x 3
6
x + 3 + 6 y 12 = 0 x + 6y 9 = 0

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 10

1 1 3
Slope of altitude on CA = = =
m3 5 5
3
3
Equation of altitude from B(5, 4) having slope
5
3
y 4 = ( x 5) 5 y 20 = 3 x 15
5
3 x 15 5 y + 20 = 0 3x 5 y + 5 = 0
Equation of Medians:
Suppose D, E and F are midpoints of sides AB , BC and CA respectively.
3 + 5 2 + 4 2 6
Then coordinate of D = , = , = (1,3) A
2 2 2 2
5 + 3 4 8 8 4
Coordinate of E = , = , = ( 4, 2 ) D F
2 2 2 2
3 3 8 + 2 0 6
Coordinate of F = , = , = ( 0, 3)
2 2 2 2 B E C
Equation of median AE by two-point form
2 2
y2= ( x (3) )
4 (3)
4
y2= ( x + 3) 7 y 14 = 4 x 12
7
7 y 14 + 4 x + 12 = 0 4 x + 7 y 2 = 0
Equation of median BF by two-point form
3 4
y4= ( x 5)
05
7
y4= ( x 5) 5 y + 20 = 7 x + 35
5
5 y + 20 + 7 x 35 = 0 7 x 5 y 15 = 0
Equation of median CD by two-point form
3 (8)
y (8) = ( x 3)
1 3
11
y + 8 = ( x 3) 2 y 16 = 11x 33
2
11x 33 + 2 y + 16 = 0 11x + 2 y 17 = 0

 Question # 13
Here ( x1 , y1 ) = ( 4, 6 )
3
Slope of given line = m =
2

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 11

required line is to given line


1 1 2
slope of required line = = =
m 3 3
2
2
Now equation of line having slope passing through ( 4, 6 )
3
2
y (6) = ( x (4) )
3
3 ( y + 6 ) = 2( x + 4) 3 y + 18 = 2 x + 8
2 x + 8 3 y 18 = 0 2 x 3 y 10 = 0 Answer

 Question # 14
Here ( x1 , y1 ) = (11, 5 )
Slope of given line = m = 24
required line is  to given line
slope of required line = m = 24
Now equation of line having slope 24 passing through (11, 5 )
y (5) = 24 ( x 11)
y + 5 = 24 x + 264 24 x 264 + y + 5 = 0
24 x + y 259 = 0 Answer

 Question # 15
Given vertices A(1, 2) , B(6,3) and C (2, 4) A
Since D and E are midpoints of sides AB and AC
D E
respectively.
1 + 6 2 + 3 5 5
Therefore coordinate of D = , = , B C
2 2 2 2
1 + 2 2 4 1 2 1
Coordinate of E = , = , = , 1
2 2 2 2 2
1 5 7
Now slope of DE = 2 = 2 =7
1 5 4 4
2 2 2
4 3 7 7
slope of BC = = =
2 6 4 4
Since slope of DE = slope of BC
Therefore DE is parallel to BC .
2 2 2 2
1 5 5 4 7
Now DE = + 1 = +
2 2 2 2 2
49 65 65
= 4+ = = ... (i)
4 4 2

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 12
2 2 2 2
BC = ( 2 6) + ( 4 3 ) = ( 4 ) + ( 7 )
= 16 + 49 = 65 (ii)
From (i) and (ii)
1
DE = BC Proved.
2
 Question # 16
Let l denotes the number of litres of milk and p denotes the price of milk,
Then ( l1 , p1 ) = ( 560,12.50 ) & ( l2 , p2 ) = ( 700,12.00 )
Since graph of sale price and milk sold is a straight line
Therefore, from two point form, its equation
p p1
p p1 = 2 (l l1 )
l2 l1 ALTERNATIVE
12.00 12.50 You may use determinant
p 12.50 = (l 560) form of two-point form to
700 560
find an equation of line.
0.50
p 12.50 = (l 560) l p 1
140 l1 p1 1 = 0
140 p 1750 = 0.50l + 280
l2 p2 1
140 p 1750 + 0.50l 280 = 0
0.50l + 140 p 2030 = 0
If p = 12.25
0.50l + 140(12.25) 2030 = 0
0.50l + 1715 2030 = 0 0.50l 315 = 0
315
0.50l = 315 l= = 630
0.50
Hence milkman can sell 630 litres milk at Rs. 12.25 per litre.

 Question # 17
Let p denotes population of Pakistan in million and t denotes year after 1961,
Then ( p1 , t1 ) = ( 60,1961) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 95,1981)
Equation of line by two point form:
t t
t t1 = 2 1 ( p p1 )
p2 p1
1981 1961
t 1961 = ( p 60)
95 60
20 4
t 1961 = ( p 60) t 1961 = ( p 60)
35 7
7t 13727 = 4 p 240 7t 13727 + 240 = 4 p
7 13487
4 p = 7t 13487 p = t . (i)
4 4
This is the required equation which gives population in term of t .

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 13

(a) Put t = 1947 in eq. (i)


7 13487
p = (1947) = 3407.25 3371.75 = 35.5
4 4
Hence population in 1947 is 35.5 millions.
(b) Put t = 1997 in eq. (i)
7 13487
p = (1997) = 3494.75 3371.75 = 123
4 4
Hence population in 1997 is 123 millions.

 Question # 18
Let p denotes purchase price of house in millions and t denotes year then
( p1, t1 ) = (1,1980 ) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 4,1996 )
Equation of line by two point form:
ALTERNATIVE
t2 t1 You may use determinant
t t1 = ( p p1 )
p2 p1 form of two-point form to
1996 1980 find an equation of line.
t 1980 = ( p 1)
4 1 p t 1
16 p1 t1 1 = 0
t 1980 = ( p 1)
3 p2 t2 1
3 t 5940 = 16 p 16
3 t 5940 + 16 = 16 p 16 p = 3 t 5924
3 5924 3 1481
p= t p= t . (i)
16 16 16 4
This is the required equation which gives value of house in term of t .
Put t = 1990 in eq. (i)
3 1481
p = (1990) = 373.125 370.25 = 2.875
16 4
Hence value of house in 1990 is 2.875 millions.

 Question # 19
F
and y-axis respectively to draw graph.
Take scale 10ss = 20C and 10ss = 20F on x-axis

Since freezing point of water = 0 C = 32 F 220


(100,212)
and boiling point of water = 100 C = 212 F 200
therefore we have points ( C1 , F1 ) = ( 0,32 ) and 180
( C2 , F2 ) = (100, 212 ) 160
Equation of line by two point form 140
F F1 120
F F1 = 2 ( C C1 ) 100
C2 C1
80
212 32
F 32 = (C 0) 60
100 0
40
180 (0,32)
F 32 = C 20
100
20 40 60 80 100 C

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 14

9
F = C + 32
5

 Question # 20
Let s denotes entry test score and y denotes year.
Then we have ( s1 , y1 ) = ( 592,1998 ) and ( s2 , y2 ) = ( 564,2002 )
By two point form of equation of line
y y
y y1 = 2 1 ( s s1 )
s2 s1
2002 1998 4
y 1998 = ( s 592) y 1998 = ( s 592)
564 592 28
1
y 1998 = ( s 592) 7 y 13986 = s + 592
7
7 y 13986 + s 592 = 0 s + 7 y 14578 = 0
Put y = 2006 in (i)
s + 7(2006) 14578 = 0 s + 14042 14578 = 0
s 536 = 0 s = 536
Hence in 2006 the average score will be 536 .

 Question # 21 (a)
(i) - Slope-intercept form
2 x 4 y + 11 = 0
2 x + 11
4 y = 2 x + 11 y =
4
1 11
y= x+
2 4
1 11
is the intercept form of equation of line with m = and c =
2 4
(ii) - Two-intercept form
2 x 4 y + 11 = 0 2 x 4 y = 11
2 4 x y
x y =1 + =1
11 11 11 11
2 4
11 11
is the two-point form of equation of line with a = and b = .
2 4
(iii) - Normal form
2 x 4 y + 11 = 0 2 x 4 y = 11
Dividing above equation by (2) 2 + (4)2 = 20 = 2 5
2x 4y 11 x 2 y 11
= =
2 5 2 5 2 5 5 5 2 5
x 2y 11
+ = ing by 1 .
5 5 2 5

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 15

1 2
Suppose cos = <0 and sin =
>0
5 5
1
lies in 2nd quadrant and = cos 1 = 116.57


5
Hence the normal form is
11
( ) (
x cos 116.57 + y sin 116.57 =
2 5
)
11
And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p =
2 5

 Question # 21 (b)
(i) - Slope-intercept form
4x + 7 y 2 = 0
4x + 2
7 y = 4x + 2 y=
7
4 2
y= x+
7 7
4 2
is the intercept form of equation of line with m = and c =
7 7
(ii) - Two-intercept form
4x + 7 y 2 = 0 4x + 7 y = 2
7
2x + y = 1 ing by 2
2
x y
+ =1
1 2
2 7
1 2
is the two-point form of equation of line with a = and b = .
2 7
(iii) - Normal form
4x + 7 y 2 = 0
4x + 7 y = 2
Dividing above equation by (4) 2 + (7) 2 = 16 + 49 = 65
4 7 2
x+ y= .
65 65 65
4 7
Suppose cos = > 0 and sin = >0
65 65
4
lies in first quadrant and = cos 1 = 60.26


65
Hence the normal form is
2
( )
x cos 60.26 + y sin 60.26 = ( 65
)

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 16

2
And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p =
65

 Question # 21 (c)
(i) - Slope-intercept form
15 y 8 x + 3 = 0
8x 3
15 y = 8 x 3 y=
15
8 3 8 1
y= x y= x
15 15 15 5
8 1
is the intercept form of equation of line with m = and c =
15 5
(ii) - Two-intercept form
15 y 8 x + 3 = 0 8 x + 15 y = 3
8x x y
5y =1 + =1
3 3 1
8 5
3 1
is the two-point form of equation of line with a = and b = .
8 5
(iii) - Normal form
15 y 8 x + 3 = 0
8 x 15 y = 3
Dividing above equation by (8) 2 + (15)2 = 64 + 225 = 289 = 17
8 15 3
x y= .
17 17 17
8 15
Suppose cos = > 0 and sin = < 0
17 17 8
= cos 1
8 17
lies in 4th quadrant and = cos 1 = 298.07  
17 = 61.93 , 298.07
Hence the normal form is Taking value that
3 lies in 4th quadrant.
( 
) (
x cos 298.07 + y sin 298.07 = 
) 17
3
And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p =
17

 General equation of the straight line


A general equation of straight line (General linear equation) in two variable x
and y is given by:
ax + by + c = 0
where a , b and c are constants and a and b are not simultaneously zero.
See proof on book at page: 199.

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 17

a c
Note: Since ax + by + c = 0 by = ax c y= x
b b
a c
Which is an intercept form of equation of line with slope m = and c =
b b

 Question # 22
(a) Let l1 : 2 x + y 3 = 0
l2 : 4 x + 2 y + 5 = 0
2
Slope of l1 = m1 = = 2
1
4
Slope of l2 = m2 = = 2
2
Since m1 = m2 therefore l1 and l2 are parallel.
(b) Let l1 : 3 y = 2 x + 5 2 x 3 y + 5 = 0
l2 : 3 x + 2 y 8 = 0
2 2
Slope of l1 = m1 = =
3 3
3
Slope of l2 = m2 = =
2
2 3
Since m1m2 = = 1 l1 and l2 are perpendicular.
3 2
(c) Let l1 : 4 y + 2 x 1 = 0 2 x + 4 y 1 = 0
l2 : x 2 y 7 = 0
2 1
Slope of l1 = m1 = =
4 2
1 1
Slope of l2 = m2 = =
2 2
1 1 1
Since m1 m2 and m1m2 = = 1
2 2 4
l1 and l2 are neither parallel nor perpendicular.
(d) & (e) Do yourself as above.

 Question # 23 (a)
l1 : 3 x 4 y + 3 = 0.............(i )
l2 : 3 x 4 y + 7 = 0.............(ii )
We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form
(i ) 3 x + 4 y = 3
Dividing by (3) 2 + (4) 2 = 25 = 5
3 4 3
x+ y=
5 5 5

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 18

3 4
Let cos = < 0 and sin = > 0
5 5
3
lies in 2nd quadrant and = cos 1 = 126.87
5
3
x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) =
5
3
Hence distance of l1 form origin =
5
Now (ii ) 3 x + 4 y = 7
Dividing by (3) 2 + (4) 2 = 25 = 5 y

3 4 7
x+ y=
5 5 5
l2
3 4
Let cos = < 0 and sin = > 0
5 5 B
l1
lies in 1st quadrant
3 A
and = cos 1 = 126.87 126.87
5
x
x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 7 O
5
Hence distance of l2 form origin = 7
5
From graph we see that both lines lie on the same side of origin therefore
7 3 4
Distance between lines = AB = OB OA = =
5 5 5
Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then

AB 4
3 3 4
Distance of l3 from origin = OA + = + 5 = + =1
2 5 2 5 10
Hence equation of l3
x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 1
3 4
x + y = 1 3x + 4 y = 5
5 5
3x 4 y + 5 = 0

 Question # 23 (b)
l1 : 12 x + 5 y 6 = 0.............(i )
l2 : 12 x + 5 y + 13 = 0.............(ii )
We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form
(i ) 12 x + 5 y = 6
Dividing by (12) 2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13
12 5 6
x+ y=
13 13 13

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 19

12 5
Let cos = > 0 and sin = > 0
13 13
12
lies in 1st quadrant and = cos 1 = 22.62
13
6
x cos(22.62) + y sin(22.62) =
13
6
Hence distance of l1 form origin =
13
y
Now (ii ) 12 x 5 y = 13
Dividing by (12) 2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13
12 5 l1
x y =1 l2
13 13 A
12 5
Let cos = < 0 and sin = < 0 O x
13 13
lies in 3rd quadrant B
12
and = cos 1 = 202.62
13
x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) = 1
Hence distance of l2 form origin = 1
From graph we see that lines lie on the opposite side of origin therefore
6 19
Distance between lines = AB = OA + OB = + 1 =
13 13
Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then

AB 19
19 7
Distance of l3 from origin = OB = 1 13 = 1 =
2 2 26 26
Hence equation of l3
7
x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) =
26
12 5 7
x + y = 24 x 10 y = 7
13 13 26
24 x + 10 y + 7 = 0

 Question # 23 (c)
Do yourself as Question # 23 (a)

 Question # 24
Let l : 2 x 7 y + 4 = 0 REMEMBER
2 2 If l : ax + by + c = 0
Slope of l = m = =
7 7 a
Since required line is parallel to l then slope of l =
b

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 20

2
Therefore slope of required line = m =
7
2
Now equation of line having slope passing through ( 4,7 )
7
2
y 7 = ( x (4))
7
7( y 7) = 2( x + 4)
7 y 49 = 2 x + 8 2 x + 8 7 y + 49 = 0
2 x 7 y + 57 = 0

Question # 25
Given: A ( 15, 18 ) , B (10,7 ) and ( 5,8 )
7 (18)
Slope of AB = m =
10 (15)
7 + 18 25
= = = 1
10 + 15 25
Since required line is perpendicular to AB
1 1
Therefore slope of required line = = = 1
m 1
Now equation of line having slope 1 through ( 5, 8 )
y (8) = 1( x 5)
y + 8 = x + 5
x + y +85= 0 x + y +3= 0 Ans.

Question # 26
Let l : 2 x y + 3 = 0
2
Slope of l = m = = 2
1
Since required line is perpendicular to l
1 1
Therefore slope of required line = =
m 2
Let y intercept of req. line = c
1
Then equation of req. line with slope and y intercept c
2
1
y = x + c (i)
2
1
x+ y = c
2
x y
+ =1
2c c
This is two intercept form of equation of line with
x intercept = 2c and y intercept = c

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 21

Since product of intercepts = 3


3 3
(c) ( 2c ) = 3 2c 2 = 3 c2 = c=
2 2
Putting in (i)
1 3
y = x
2 2
1 3 1 3 2
x+y = 0 x+y = 0
2 2 2 2 2
1 6
x+y = 0
2 2
x + 2 y 6 = 0 are the required equations.

Question # 27
Let A (1, 4 ) be a given vertex and B ( x1 , y1 ) , C ( x2 , y2 ) and D ( x3 , y3 ) are remaining
vertices of parallelogram.
Since diagonals of parallelogram bisect at (2,1) therefore

( 2,1) = 2 ,
1 + x 4 + y2
D (x3 , y3) 1 C (x2 , y2)
2 2
1 + x2 4 + y2
2= and 1 = 1
2 2 (2,1) 1
4 = 1 + x2 , 2 = 4 + y2 7
7
x2 = 4 1 , y2 = 4 + 2
x2 = 3 , y 2 = 2
A (1,4) 1 B (x1 ,y1)
Hence C ( x2 , y2 ) = C ( 3, 2 )
Now slope of AB = 1
y 4
1 = 1 y1 4 = x1 1
x1 1
x1 y1 1 + 4 = 0 x1 y1 + 3 = 0 . (i)
1
Also slope of BC =
7
y y1 1 2 y1 1
2 = =
x2 x1 7 3 x1 7
14 7 y1 = 3 + x1 3 x1 + 14 + 7 y1 = 0
x1 + 7 y1 + 11 = 0 (ii)
Subtracting (i) and (ii)
x1 y1 + 3 = 0
x1 + 7 y1 +11 = 0

8 y1 8 = 0
y1 + 1 = 0 y1 = 1
Putting in (i)

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 22

x1 ( 1) + 3 = 0 x1 + 4 = 0 x1 = 4
B ( x2 , y2 ) = B ( 4, 1)
Now E is midpoint of BD
x + x y + y3
( 2,1) = 1 3, 1
2 2
4 + x3 1 + y3
= ,
2 2
4 + x3 1 + y3
2 = , 1 =
2 2
4 = 4 + x3 , 2 = 1 + y3
x3 = 8 , y3 = 3
D ( x3 , y3 ) = D ( 8,3)
Hence ( 4, 1) , ( 3, 2 ) and D ( 8,3) are remaining vertex of  gram .

Position of the point with respect to line (Page 204)


Consider l : ax + by + c = 0 with b > 0
Then point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies
i) above the line l if ax1 + by1 + c > 0
ii) below the line l if ax1 + by1 + c < 0

Corollary 1 (Page 205)


The point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies above the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have the same sign and
the point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies below the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have opposite signs.

Question # 28
(a) 2x 3y + 6 = 0
To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 .
2x + 3y 6 = 0
Putting ( 5,8 ) on L.H.S of above
2(5) + 3(8) + 6 = 10 + 24 6 = 8 > 0
Hence ( 5,8 ) lies above the line.
(b) Alternative Method
4x + 3y 9 = 0 *Correction
Putting ( 7,6 ) in L.H.S of given eq.
4(7) + 3(6) 9 = 28 + 18 9 = 19 ... (i)
Since coefficient of y and expression (i) have opposite signs therefore ( 7,6 ) lies
below the line.

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 23

Question # 29
(a) 6 x 7 y + 70 = 0
To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 .
6 x + 7 y 70 = 0 . (i)
Putting (0,0) on L.H.S of (i)
6(0) + 7(0) 70 = 70 < 0
( 0,0 ) lies below the line.
Putting ( 4,7 ) on L.H.S of (i )
6(4) + 7(7) 70 = 24 + 49 70 = 3 > 0
( 4,7 ) lies above the line.
Hence ( 0,0 ) and ( 4,7 ) lies on the opposite side of line.

(b) 3x 5 y + 8 = 0
To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 .
3 x + 5 y 8 = 0 . (i)
Putting (2,3) on L.H.S of (i)
3(2) + 5(3) 8 = 6 + 15 8 = 1 > 0
( 2,3) lies above the line.
Putting ( 2,3) on L.H.S of (i )
3(2) + 5(3) 8 = 6 + 15 8
= 13 > 0
( 2,3) lies above the line
Hence ( 2,3) and ( 2,3) lies on the same side of line.

Perpendicular distance of P(x1,y1) from line


(Page 212)
The distance d from the point P ( x1 , y1 ) to the line l ,
where l : ax + by + c = 0 ,
ax1 + by1 + c
is given by: d =
a 2 + b2

Question # 30
l : 6x 4 y + 9 = 0
Let d denotes distance of P ( 6, 1) from line l then
6(6) 4(1) + 9 36 + 4 + 9 49 49
d = = = =
(6) 2 + (4)2 36 + 16 52 2 13

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FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 24

Area of Triangular Region


Let A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x2 , y2 ) and C ( x3 , y3 ) are vertices of triangle then
x y1 1
1 1
Area of triangle = x2 y2 1
2
x3 y3 1
x1 y1 1
If A , B and C are collinear then x2 y2 1 = 0
x3 y3 1

Question # 31 Do yourself as below (Just find the area)


Question # 32
Given: A ( 2,3) , B ( 1,1) , C ( 4, 5 )
2 3 1
Area of ABC = 1 1 1
4 5 1
1
= ( 2(1 + 5) 3(1 4) + 1(5 4) )
2
1 1
= (12 + 15 + 1) = ( 28 ) = 14 sq. unit
2 2
Area of triangle 0
A, B and C are not collinear.

Error Analyst

Khawaja Zaigham Feroz 2009-11 GC University, Lahore.

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Book: Exercise 4.3 (Page 215)


Calculus and Analytic Geometry Mathematic 12
Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore.
Edition: May 2013.

Made by: Atiq ur Rehman (Atiq@MathCity.org)


Available online at http://www.MathCity.org in PDF Format
(Picture format to view online).
Page Setup used A4
Printed: February 25, 2015.

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