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# The definition

Mode
totms.

## Closed array Normal distribution

The arithmetic mean of a sample x Ip for the population) is
the sum of the measurements divided by the number of
measurements nr.
Coefficient of X ( X , + ** . . . xl / n - Ix/n

## variation C A closed array is e data array where the individual

variables are not independent of each other but arc related
by, for example, being expressed as a percentage (Section
Compositional 2.6).
The ratio of the standard deviation s to the mean x.

## Data which are expressed as part of a whole, such as

data Correlation
percentages or parts per million. Compositional data form
e dosed array.
Pearson's product moment coefficient of linear correlation
coefficient p measures the strength of the linear relationship between
two variables xand yin 8 population. An estimation of the
sample correlation coefficient r is given by
covariance <x,y)
Vlvariancelx) . variance(y))
(see Eqns 12.1) and 12.21). The Spearman rank coefficient
of correlation r. Is calculated from the difference in rank
order of the variables (sco Eqn I2.3J).
The product of the deviation from the mean for two
variables x arvd y. averaged over the data-set
Covariance Z6-J5Ky-y) s-3
y
Where all the covariances of a data-set are calculated they
are repesented as a covariance matrix.
The number of 'free' available observations (the sample
site n) minus the number of parameters estimated Irom
tho sample.
Degrees of The nth root of the product of positive values Xx. X3 ...
'i
*0-<X,xX1xX,...X).fc
The median value divides the area under a distribution
freedom curve into two equal parts. An estimate of the median is the
value in the sequence of Individual values, ordered
according to size, which divides the sequence in helf. When
Geometric mean, the distribution Is normal tho median and the mean ore tho
same.
For unlmodal distributions the mode Vs the value of the
measurement which has the greatest frequency. When
x^. Median there Is a normal distribution the modo is the same as the
moan.
The normal or Gaussian distribution of samples is
characterized by a symmetrical boll shape on o frequency
diagram.