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Contents

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1 Electromagnetic Theory 9
1.1 Introduction to Microwave Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 Maxwells Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3 Time-Harmonic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

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1.4 Wave Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.5 Plane Wave Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2 Transmission Line Theory 17


2.1 The Lumped-Element Circuit Model for a Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Field Analysis of Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.3 The Terminated Lossless Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4 The Smith Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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2.5 The Quarter-Wave Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.6 Generator and Load Mismatches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.7 Lossy Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.8 Transient Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.8.1 Waveforms and Spectral Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.8.2 Integrated Circuits and Ground Bounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

3 Transmission Lines and Waveguides 57


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3.1 General Solutions for TEM, TE, and TM Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57


3.2 Parallel Plate Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3 Rectangular Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4 Circular Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.5 Coaxial Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.6 Surface Waves on a Grounded Dielectric Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.7 Stripline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.8 Microstrip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.9 The Transverse Resonance Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.10 Wave Velocities and Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
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4 Microwave Network Analysis 79


4.1 Impedance and Equivalent Voltage and Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

5 Impedance Matching and Tuning 85


5.1 Matching with Lumped Elements (L Networks) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.1.1 Lumped Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.2 Single-Stub Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.3 Double-Stub Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
5.4 The Quarter-Wave Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.5 The Theory of Small Reections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5.6 Binomial Multisection Matching Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

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4 CONTENTS

5.7 Chebyshev Multisection Matching Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


5.8 Tapered Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.9 Bode-Fano Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

6 Power Dividers and Directional Couplers 131

7 Electromagnetic Compatibility and Interference (EMS/EMI) 141

8 Microwave Filters 147

9 Appendix 149

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9.1 Transient transmission line current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

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CONTENTS 5

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6 CONTENTS

What is DierentAbout High Frequencies?

The short, and perhaps obvious, answer is wavelength. For any given object, one usually considers a
frequency to be a high frequency if the wavelength ( = c=f ) is small compared to the size of the object.
This is complicated by the fact that an object doesnt have one size (a sphere, for instance, may be an
exception). So if one considers electromagnetic scattering from a raindrop, and scattering from a large
building, you would characterize dierent frequencies as being high frequencies. In a broad sense, through,
many people consider high frequencies to be something like f > 100 MHz ( = 3 m in air). This is because

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we live in a world of characteristic sizes commiserate with this wavelength. For example, people are typically
5-6 feet tall (1.66-2 meters), cars are typically 8-12 feet long (2.66-4 meters), suburban buildings are typically
10-30 feet tall (3.33-10 meters), etc.
An important point to remember is that electromagnetics is the physics of electrical engineering, and
that the governing equations that describe all classical macroscopic electromagnetic phenomena are Maxwells
equations. These are very complicated equations, but they can be simplied in special cases. One such case
is in the event of low frequencies one can derive the classical circuit equations (Ohms law, Kirchhos

or
laws, etc.) as special, simple cases. These simplied equations are often applicable in circuit analysis since
typical circuit dimensions are very small compared to typical wavelengths in common usage.
For example, consider the following discrete (not integrated) circuit)

L= 5 cm
W R1

+ +
-
Vout
Vs
R2
+
- -
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R2
With Vs = V0 cos !t, is Vout = R1 +R2 Vs ?

c 3 1010 cm=s
Case 1 f = 20 kHz ! = f = 20 103 =s = 1; 500; 000 cm.

L 6
= 3:3 10 1:
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The circuit length is very short compared to a wavelength low frequency approximations are applicable,
and Vout = R1R+R
2
2
Vs :

c 3 1010 cm=s
Case 2 f = 6 GHz ! = f = 6 109 =s = 5 cm.

L
= 1:

The circuit length is equal to a wavelength low frequency approximations are not applicable.

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CONTENTS 7

c 3 1010 cm=s
Case 3 f = 300 GHz ! = f = 300 109 =s = 0:1 cm.

L
= 50 1:

The circuit length is long compared to a wavelength low frequency approximations are not applicable.

In particular, for Cases 2 and 3,

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The voltage on the line will be a function of position along the line.
The circuit seenby the source presents a length-dependent input impedance which must be carefully
matched for e cient power transfer.
Practically, the circuit will not work since it will radiate energy into space. Furthermore, the electri-
cally long distances the signal must travel will result insignicant dissipation to the use of imperfect

or
conductors.
Dispersion will degrade the signal before it reaches the output.

6
To make it clear that the important thing is wavelength, consider a circuit of length L = 16:66x10 cm.

c 3 1010 cm=s
Case 4 f = 6 GHz ! = = = 5 cm.
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f 6 109 =s

L 6
= 3:3 10 1:

The circuit length is very short compared to a wavelength (same as Case 1) low frequency approximations
are applicable, and Vout = R1R+R
2
2
Vs .
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8 CONTENTS

Brief Chronology of Early Wireless Communications Developments

Magnetic eects known for much of recorded history.


1755: Benjamin Franklin began investigations which would lead to qualitative and quantitative
ideas about electrostatics.
1769: Dr. John Robison began experiments which would lead to the inverse-square law (Coulombs
law) governing electrostatics. Similarly by Henry Cavendish in 1773. Neither investigator widely
publicized their work.

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1785: Charles Augustin de Coulomb demonstrated the law of electric force, which is now called
Coulombs law.
1820: Hans Christian Oersted found that a current carrying wire (electricity) could produce
magnetism.
1821: Jean-Baptiste Biot and Flix Savart quantify the eect discovered by Oersted.

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1827: Georg Simon Ohm formulates what is now called Ohms law
1831: Michael Faraday demonstrated that a time changing magnetic eld could produce an
electric current.
1845 (or 1854): Gustav Robert Kirchho formulated Kirchhos laws.
1873: James Clerk Maxwell published the rst unied theory of electricity and magnetism.
1886: Heinrich Hertz assembled a radio systema spark applied to a transmitting antenna
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caused a spark to be produced at a receiving antenna, posited near the antenna.
1901: Guglielmo Marconi developed a system to send signals from England to Newfoundland ('
3000 km) using electromagnetic waves.
1903: Marconi began regular transatlantic message service between England and stations in Nova
Scotia and Cape Cod.
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Chapter 1

Electromagnetic Theory

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1.1 Introduction to Microwave Engineering

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Read

1.2 Maxwells Equations

Maxwells Equations Dierential Form


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Classical macroscopic electromagnetic phenomena are governed by a set of vector equations known col-
lectively as Maxwells equations. Maxwells equations in dierential form are

r D(r; t) = e (r; t);


r B(r; t) = m (r; t); (1.1)
@
r E(r; t) = B(r; t) Jm (r; t);
@t
@
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r H(r; t) = D(r; t) + Je (r; t);


@t
E is the electric eld intensity (V=m)
2
D is the electric ux density (C=m )
2
B is the magnetic ux density (Wb=m )
H is the magnetic eld intensity (A=m)
3
is the electric charge density (C=m )
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e
2
Je (= J in text) is the electric current density (A=m )
3
m is the magnetic charge density (Wb=m )
2
Jm (= M in text) is the magnetic current density (V=m )
V stands for volts, C for coulombs, Wb for webers, A for amperes, and m for meters.

The equations are known, respectively, as Gauss law, the magnetic-source law or magnetic Gauss law,
Faradays law, and Ampres law.

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10 CHAPTER 1. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

1.3 Time-Harmonic Fields

Often the elds of interest vary harmonically (sinusoidally) with time. Because Maxwells equations are
linear, and assuming linear constitutive equations (typical below optical range), then

time-harmonic sources ; J will maintain time-harmonic elds E; D; B; H.

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Assume
E(r; t) = E0 (r) cos(!t + E ); (1.2)
then, for instance,
n o
E(r; t) = E0 (r) Re ej(!t+ E) = Re E0 (r)ej!t ej E (1.3)
j!t
= Re E(r)e ;

or
where E(r) E0 (r)ej E is a complex phasor.

Repeating for the other eld quantities of interest,

B(r; t) = B0 (r) cos(!t + B ) (1.4)


D(r; t) = D0 (r) cos(!t + D )
W H(r; t) = H0 (r) cos(!t + H )
J(r; t) = J0 (r) cos(!t + J )
(r; t) = 0 (r) cos(!t + )

we obtain the complex phasors

B(r) B0 (r)ej B (1.5)


D(r) D0 (r)ej D
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H(r) H0 (r)ej H
J(r) J0 (r)ej J
j
(r) 0 (r)e :

To obtain time-harmonic Maxwells equations, consider, for instance, Faradays law,

@
r E(r; t) = B(r; t) Jm (r; t): (1.6)
@t
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This can be rewritten as


Re [r E(r) + j!B(r) + Jm (r)] ej!t = 0; (1.7)
which must be true for all t.

When !t = 0; Re fr E(r) + j!B(r) + Jm (r)g = 0:

When !t = =2; Im fr E(r) + j!B(r) + Jm (r)g = 0:

If both the real part and the imaginary part of a complex number are zero, then the number itself is zero,
and thus
r E(r) = j!B(r) Jm (r): (1.8)

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1.3. TIME-HARMONIC FIELDS 11

Repeating for all Maxwells equations and the continuity equations, we get the time-harmonic forms
r D(r) = e (r);
r B(r) = m (r);
r E(r) = j!B(r) Jm (r); (1.9)
r H(r) = j!D(r) + Je (r);
r Je(m) (r) = j! e(m) (r);
where all quantities are time-harmonic phasors.

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Note that in the time-harmonic case we obtain the convenient correspondence
@=@t $ j! (1.10)
Z
1
( ) dt $ (j!) :

Time-domain quantities can be recovered from the phasor quantities as, for instance,

or
E(r; t) = Re E(r)ej!t : (1.11)

Constitutive Equations

For linear isotropic media


D(r; !) = e(r;!) E(r; !); (1.12)
W B(r; !) = e(r; !) H(r; !);
where e, e are the permittivity and permeability, respectively, of the medium.
e = er "0 , e = er 0
12
0 is the permittivity of free space (' 8:85 10 F=m)
7
0 is the permeability of free space (' 4 10 H=m)
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F stands for farads and H for henrys.


For dimensional analysis, C = A s = F V and Wb = V s = H A, where s stands for seconds.
Note that c0 = p 1 = speed of light in free space (vacuum)
0 "0

Both e and e may be complex. The real parts of e, e are associated with polarization (electric and
magnetic).
The imaginary parts of e, e are due to polarization (molecular) loss, i.e., dipole friction and associated
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time-lag,
e = e0 je00 (1.13)
e = e0 e0 :

Ohms Law

Another relationship that is often useful for lossy media is the point form of Ohms law,
Je (r; !) = e (r; !)E(r; !); (1.14)
Jm (r; !) = m (r; !)H(r; !);

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12 CHAPTER 1. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

1
e (ohms =m ) is the electrical conductivity of the medium

m (ohms=m ) is the magnetic conductivity of the medium

V = A ohms:

Complex Constitutive Parameters

In (either) transform domain it becomes particularly easy to separate applied quantities from induced
eects.

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In (??) the eld quantities represent the total elds at a point in space. Assume that an impressed
current density Jie (r) 6= 0 maintains E; D; H; B 6= 0, which, in turn, results in

Jce (r) = e E(r) 6= 0; (1.15)

where Jce is an induced conduction current density. The total electric current is

or
i
Je (r) = Je (r) + Jce ; (1.16)

and Faradays law becomes

r " E(r) + Jie (r) +


H(r) = j!e e E(r) (1.17)
j
= j! e
" e E(r) + Jie (r):
!
W
Dening a new complex permittivity as
j
" e
" e (1.18)
!
leads to

r H(r) = j!" E(r) + Jie (r); (1.19)


where we have separated the induced e ects from the applied source.
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i i
Repeating for Jm (r) = Jm (r)+ m H(r) = Jm (r) + Jcm and noting that

r Jie(m) + j! i
e(m) = 0; (1.20)

leads to
j
e m : (1.21)
!

Assuming e
", e are real, the imaginary parts of ", account for conduction loss.
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In general, one often writes

" = ("0 j"00 ) ; (1.22)


=( 0 j 00 ) ;

or, in terms of the relative permittivity,

" = ("0r j"00r ) "0 ; (1.23)


= ( 0r j 00r ) 0 :

where the imaginary parts account for all loss mechanisms (conductive and molecular).The following
table lists some typical material parameters for dielectric media.

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1.4. WAVE EQUATIONS 13

Material "0r "00r (1/ohm-m)


air 1.0006
glass 3.88 <0.003 @ 3 GHz
wood 1.52.1 <0.07 @ 3 GHz
gypsum board 2.8 0.046 @ 60 GHz
dry brick 4 0.050.1 @ 4,3 GHz
dry concrete 46 0.10.3 @ 3,60 GHz
fresh water 81 0.010.001
sea water 81 16
snow 1.21.5 <0.006 @ 3 GHz 0.000001

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ice 3.2 0.0029 @ 3GHz
moist ground 2030 0.030.003
dry ground 36 0.0050.00001
copper 1 5:7 107

or
Maxwells equations become
i
r (" E(r)) = e (r);
i
r ( H(r)) = m (r); (1.24)
r E(r) = j! H(r) Jim (r);
W r H(r) = j!" E(r) + Jie (r);

Often the superscript i is omitted in (1.24)the interpretation of J depends on ; ". For example, a
fairly general form is

r D(r) = e (r);
r B(r) = m (r); (1.25)
r E(r) = j!B(r) Jm (r);
r B(r) = j! D(r) + Je (r);
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where B = H and D = "E.

If ; " account only for polarization eects, i.e., if ; " are real-valued, or if ; " are complex-valued
where the imaginary parts are associated with polarization loss (dipole friction), then Jm ; Je are
total currents.
If ; " contain the conductivities, then Jm ; Je are impressed currents.
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1.4 Wave Equations

When ! 6= 0 electric and magnetic quantities are coupled, allowing for wave phenomena.

Vector Wave and Vector Helmholtz Equations for Electric and Magnetic Fields

The independent Maxwells equations

r E(r) = j! H(r) Jm (r); (1.26)


r H(r) = j!" E(r) + Je (r);

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14 CHAPTER 1. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

represent six scalar equations in six unknowns. However, they are coupled vector partial dierential equa-
tions. We want to uncouple the equations and obtain one equation which may be solved, assuming a
homogenous medium.

Taking the curl of r E(r) and of r H(r) leads to

r r E(r) ! 2 " E(r) = j! Je (r) r Jm (r); (1.27)


2
r r H(r) ! " H(r) = j!"Jm (r) + r Je (r):

These are the vector wave equations for the elds.

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Noting that r r A = r (r A) r2 A, we also have

r e
r2 E(r) + ! 2 " E(r) = j! Je (r) + r Jm (r)+ ; (1.28)
"
r m
r2 H(r) + ! 2 " H(r) = j!"Jm (r) r Je (r)+ :

or
These are known as vector Helmholtz equations.

1.5 Plane Wave Propagation


W
We want to consider the simplest solution of source-free wave equations these will represent travelling plane
waves which, under typical conditions, model realistic electromagnetic waves.

Time-Harmonic Plane Waves in Free Space

We rst consider what kind of waves can exist in source-free homogeneous space characterized by "; .

At any point in space where sources are absent the electric eld satises
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r2 + k 2 E (r) = 0: (1.29)

Assume we want to nd a wave travelling along z, independent of x; y, and polarized in the x-coordinate.
Assume
E=x bE (z)
The wave equation (1.29) becomes
@2
+ k 2 E (z) = 0
@z 2
which has solution
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E (z) = E0+ e jkz


+ E0 e+jkz :
Plugging into Faradays law leads to the magnetic eld as

E0+ jkz E0
b
H=y e e+jkz ;

p
where = =", and so the pair

b E0+ e
E = x jkz
+ E0 e+jkz ;
E0+ jkz E0
b
H = y e e+jkz ;

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1.5. PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION 15

form a wave travelling along z. E ? H ?b


z and the wave is called a TEM (Transverse ElectroMagnetic) wave.

Phase and Attenuation Constants of a Uniform Plane Wave

Assume
k=( j ): (1.30)
Then

b E0+ e
E = x j( j )z
+ E0 e+j( j )z
(1.31)

ld
b E0+ e
= x j z
e z
+ E0 e+j z e z
:

is called the phase constant.

is called the attenuation constant.


2
Setting k 2 = ( j ) = ! 2 ", where is real-valued and " = "0 j"00 , and equating real and

or
imaginary parts, leads to
v s !
u
p u1 "00 (!)
2
(!) = ! "0 (!)t 1+ 2 +1 (1.32)
2 "0 (!)
v s !
u
p u1 "00 (!)
2
(!) = ! "0 (!)t 1+ 1 :
W 2 "0 (!)
2

Time-Domain Waves, Phase Velocity, and Wavelength for Uniform Plane Waves

In the time-domain,
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E (r; t) = b E0+ e
Re x j z
e z
+ E0 e+j z e z
ej!t (1.33)
b
= x E0+ e z
cos (!t z) + E0 e z
cos (!t + z)

For the rst term, as t increases, the argument of the cosine remains unchanged if z increases
correspondingly thus the wave travels along the +z-direction. Correspondingly, the second term
travels along the z-direction.
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The phase velocity (actually speed since it is a scalar) of the wave is found from

d d
(!t z) = Const = 0 (1.34)
dt dt
dz
! = 0
dt
leading to
dz !
vp = = : (1.35)
dt

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16 CHAPTER 1. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

The wavelength of the wave is the distance between adjacent wavefronts that produce the same value
of the cosine function. If z1 and z2 are points on adjacent wavefronts,

z1 = z2 2 (1.36)

or
2
= z1 z2 = : (1.37)

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Example 1.1 Assume a plane wave with electric eld oriented in the x b-direction is propagating in the b
z-
direction through dry soil at 1 MHz. At this frequency typical material properties are " = 3"0 and = 10 5
(ohms 1 =m ). Therefore,

j j 5
" e
" e = 3"0 10 (1.38)
! 2 106
j

or
5
= 3 10 "0 = (3 j0:179) "0 = "0 j"00
2 106 "0

such that
v r !
u
p u1 "002
(!) = ! "t
0 1 + 02 + 1 (1.39)
2 "
= 0:0363 v
W p u1
u r
"002
!
(!) = ! "0 t 1 + 02 1
2 "
= 0:00108:

Since k = b
z kz = b
z( j ), the wave has the form
jk r j z z
E (r) = E0 e b E0 e
=x e (1.40)
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and in the time-domain


z
b E0 e
E (r) = x cos (!t z) : (1.41)
The phase velocity of the wave is

! 2 106
vp = = = 1:73 108 m/s (1.42)
0:0363
and the wavelength is
JN

2 2
= = = 173:1m. (1.43)
0:0363
z
In travelling 1 km the amplitude will decrease from E0 to E0 e = 0:339E0 , or by

20 log (0:339) = 9:396 dB.

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Chapter 2

ld
Transmission Line Theory

Transmission lines are used to transfer electrical signals (information) or electrical power from one point to

or
another in an electrical system. Transmission lines take a wide variety of forms, from simple wire pairs and
cables to more complicated integrated structures for high-frequency applications. Some common transmission
lines are:
W
(a)
(b) (c)
TU

w
conducting strip
ground plane

, b

(d)
JN

ground planes

, b

conducting strip

(e)

17

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18 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

b
,
x
a

ld
z

(f)
where
(a) parallel wires (two-wire line)
(b) coaxial cable

or
(c) parallel plates
(d) microstrip
(e) stripline
(f ) rectangular waveguide
The table below lists some characteristics of a few common transmission lines and waveguides.
W
Structure Frequency Impedance Power Ease of Device Low Cost
Range (GHz) Range (ohms) Rating Mounting Production
Coaxial line < 50 10 100 medium medium medium
Stripline < 10 10 100 medium medium good
microstrip line < 100 10 100 low good good
rectangular < 300 100 500 high good poor
waveguide
TU

In this chapter we will study the analysis of general transmission lines, mostly without considering specic
physical structures. In the next chapter we will examine some specic geometries of transmission lines and
waveguides.

2.1 The Lumped-Element Circuit Model for a Transmission Line


To illustrate the analysis of transmission lines and transmission-line resonators, consider the generic two-
conductor1 TEM transmission line depicted in the gure below, where Vs and Is represent distributed
JN

sources.

i(z,t) Vs(z,t)
-
+

v(z,t) Is(z,t)
-

1 Generally
the term conductoris used in transmission-line analysis, and, in fact, the lines are usually conductive. However,
other transmission systems, including those only involving dielectrics (e.g., optical bers), can be modeled using these techniques.

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2.1. THE LUMPED-ELEMENT CIRCUIT MODEL FOR A TRANSMISSION LINE 19

Generic two-conductor TEM transmission line.

We assume that the transmission line has dimensions on the order of a wavelength or larger. In this case,
the traditional circuit equations (v = iz, etc.), which come from Maxwells eld equations specialized for the
case when the physical dimensions of the structure are small compared to a wavelength (i.e., low frequency),
are no longer valid. The low frequency approximations are valid when applied to a small ( z ) section
of the structure. In this way, we treat transmission lines as many cascaded sections of electrically small
circuits, and apply circuit models to each section.
The lumped-element model for a small segment of the line is shown in the gure below.

ld
i(z,t) Vs(z,t) z R z L z i(z+dz,t)
-

+
+

Is(z,t) z G z C z v(z+dz,t)

- -

or
z

The circuit elements are

R: series resistance per unit length for both conductors, ohms=m: (R = 0 for perfect conductors)
W
L: series inductance per unit length for both conductors, H=m

G: shunt conductance per unit length, S=m. (G = 0 for perfect insulators)

C: shunt capacitance per unit length, F=m

is : shunt current source per unit length, A=m

vs : series voltage source per unit length, V=m


TU

The distributed sources may represent, for instance, distributed currents and voltages induced on the
transmission line by an external source. If desired, a localized source can be modeled by vs = v0 (z z 0 ),
and similarly for is . We will assume R; L; G; C 2 R.
Applying Kirchhos voltage law and current law to the circuit of Figure 2.2 yields, respectively,

v(z; t) + vs (z; t) z R z i(z; t) (2.1)


@i(z; t)
L z v(z + z; t) = 0
@t
JN

and

i(z; t) + is (z; t) z G z v(z + z; t) (2.2)


@v(z + z; t)
C z i(z + z; t) = 0:
@t
Dividing these two equations by z and taking the limit as z ! 0 lead to

@v(z; t) @i(z; t)
= R i(z; t) L + vs (z; t); (2.3)
@z @t
@i(z; t) @v(z; t)
= G v(z; t) C + is (z; t);
@z @t

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20 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

and, upon assuming time-harmonic conditions


dv(z)
= R i(z) j!L i(z) + vs (z); (2.4)
dz
di(z)
= G v(z) j!C v(z) + is (z):
dz
These two coupled rst-order dierential equations can be easily decoupled by forming second-order dier-
ential equations
d2 v(z) 2 d vs (z)
v(z) = (R + i!L) is (z) + ; (2.5)

ld
dz 2 dz
d2 i(z) 2 d is (z)
i(z) = (G + i!C) vs (z) + ;
dz 2 dz
where
2
= (R + j!L) (G + j!C) ; (2.6)
and = +j 2 C is called the propagation constant (1=m). The real and imaginary parts of the propagation

or
constant are known as the attenuation constant ( ) and the phase constant ( ), respectively.
Usually in microwave analysis one rst considers the homogeneous equations
d2 v(z) 2
v(z) = 0; (2.7)
dz 2
d2 i(z) 2
i(z) = 0;
dz 2
W
corresponding to the absence of any source or load. General solutions are found as

v(z) = v0+ e z
+ v0 e+ z ; (2.8)
i(z) = i+
0e
z
+ i0 e+ z ;

which represent voltage and current waves. Exploiting (2.4) leads to the relationship between voltage and
current as
1
i(z) = v + e z v0 e+ z ; (2.9)
Z0 0
TU

where
R + j!L
Z0 (2.10)

is called the characteristic impedance (ohms) of the transmission line.

Time-domain form:

Assuming sinusoidal time variation,

v(z; t) = Re v (z) ej!t (2.11)


JN

nh i o
= Re v0+ e ( +j )z
+ v0 e+( +j )z
ej!t :

With
v0 = v0 ej (2.12)
we have
+
v(z; t) = v0+ cos !t z+ + v0 cos !t + z + : (2.13)
z
The rst term, corresponding to e , is a forward (+z-traveling) wave, while the second term, corre-
sponding to e+ z , is a backward ( z-traveling) wave. Also,
2 !
= , vp = = f: (2.14)

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2.2. FIELD ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 21

Lossless Lines:

If the line is lossless (R = G = 0), then

= +j =0+j ; (2.15)
r
p 2 L
= ! LC = ; Z0 = :
C

2.2 Field Analysis of Transmission Lines

ld
In these notes we wont follow the derivations presented in the text, but only summarize some of the results.
Note that the RLGC parameters for a given transmission line are specic to that line (depending on the
geometric conguration of conductors and dielectrics, and on material properties), and are determined by
an electromagnetic eld analysis of the structure.
The circuit parameters are obtained as

or
Z
L = 2 H H dS; (2.16)
jI0 j S
Z
"
C = 2 E E dS;
jV0 j S
Z
Rs
R = H H dl;
W 2
jI0 j l
Z
!"00
G = 2 E E dl;
jV0 j l

where E is a linear function of V0 , H is a linear function of I0 , S = cross section surface of the line, l =
conductor boundary, Rs = 1= ( s ) is the surface resistivity of the conductors, and V0 ; I0 are constants that
cancel out with the numerators .
Some representative results are provided in the table below.
TU

a
w
a ,
D
, , d
b

1 d
L ln ab cosh D
JN

2 2a w
2 "0 "0 "0 w
C b d
ln a cosh 1
( 2a
D
)
Rs 1 1 Rs 2Rs
R 2 a 00 b a w
2 !" !"00 !"00 w
G b d
ln a cosh 1
( 2a
D
)

Note that for TEM transmission lines comprised of perfect conductors, the exact EM eld solution is
in full agreement with the microwave model (with G; L; C appropriately dened). For lossy conductors the
microwave model is no longer an exact solution, but usually provides a very good approximation. For non
TEM transmission lines (well discuss later, microstrip is one example), the microwave engineering model is
an approximation of the rigorous EM eld solution.

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22 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

2.3 The Terminated Lossless Transmission Line


A terminated transmission line is depicted schematically in the gure below.

Zg

Vg +
-
Z 0 ,v p ZL
Z in

ld
z=-L z=0

The generator (modeled by Vg and Zg ) can represent, for example, the output of an IC chip, the output of
an antenna, etc., and the load (modeled by ZL ) represents, for example, the input to an IC chip, antenna,

or
television receiver, etc.
The voltage and current on the line are

v(z) = v0+ e j z
+ v0 e+j z
; (2.17)
v0+ j z v0 +j z
i(z) = e e :
Z0 Z0
W
It is convenient to reform (2.17) as

v0 +j
v(z) = v0+ e j z
+ e z
; (2.18)
v0+
v0+ j z v0 +j z
i(z) = e e :
Z0 v0+

Dening a load reection coe cient


TU

v0
L =
v0+
we have

v(z) = v0+ e j z
+ Le
+j z
; (2.19)
v0+ j z +j z
i(z) = e Le :
Z0

More generally, dene


JN

v0 j2 z
(z) = e ; (2.20)
v0+
where we have the special cases

v0
(0) = L = ; (2.21)
v0+
v0 j2 L
( L) = in = e ;
v0+

such that
(z) = L ej2 z
(2.22)

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2.3. THE TERMINATED LOSSLESS TRANSMISSION LINE 23

leading to

v(z) = v0+ e j z
(1 + (z)) ; (2.23)
v0+ j z
i(z) = e (1 (z)) :
Z0

The total impedance at any point is

v (z) 1+ (z)
Z (z) = = Z0 ; (2.24)
i (z) 1 (z)

ld
and, conversely,
Z (z) Z0
(z) = : (2.25)
Z (z) + Z0

Important special cases:

or
ZL Z0
(0) = L = ; (2.26)
ZL + Z0
Zin Z0
( L) = in = : (2.27)
Zin + Z0

An important formula for Zin can be obtain as follows;


W v (z) v+ e j z
+ L ej z
Z (z) = = 0+ (2.28)
i (z) v0 j z ej z)
Z0 (e L

ZL
jZ0 tan ( z)
= Z0 ;
Z0
jZL tan ( z)
ZL + jZ0 tan ( L)
Zin = Z ( L) = Z0 :
Z0 + jZL tan ( L)
TU

One important use of Zin is that once the input impedance has been determined, the transmission line circuit
can be considered to be

Zg Iin

+
+
Vg -
Vin Z in
JN

such that
8 9
Zin
1 1 < Zin Zin +Zg Vg =
PL = Re fvin iin g = Re V : (2.29)
2 2 : Zin + Zg g Zin ;

Time-average power ow:

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24 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

1
Pav = Re fv (z) i (z)g (2.30)
2 ( )
1 v0+
= Re v0+ e j z + L ej z e j z L ej z
2 Z0
8 9
+ 2 >
< >
=
1 v0 j2 z j2 z 2
= Re 1 + L e e j L j
2 Z0 >
: | {z L } >
;
pure im aginary

ld
1 v0+
2 n o
2
= 1 j Lj = P inc: P ref: in this case not generally :
2 Z0
When the line is not matched, all of the available power is not delivered to the load. The return loss is

RL = 20 log j Lj : (2.31)

or
Special cases:

j Lj = 0; RL = 1; (2.32)
j Lj = 1; RL = 0 dB.

Standing waves and standing wave ratio:


W
In the sinusoidal steady state, for a matched line ( L = 0),

v (z) = v0+ e j z
; jv (z)j = v0+ = constant. (2.33)

For a mismatched line ( L 6= 0),


v (z) = v0+ e j z
1+ L ej2 z
: (2.34)
Let
L =j Lj ej : (2.35)
TU

Then,

jv (z)j = v0+ 1 + j Lj e
j(2 z+ )
; (2.36)
vmax = v0+ (1 + j L j) ;

vmin = v0+ (1 j L j) :

The standing wave ratio (SWR), also known as voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is
JN

vmax 1+j Lj
SW R = = : (2.37)
vmin 1 j Lj

Note that
1 SW R 1; (2.38)
and that SW R = 1 denotes a matched load.
When will SW R = 1? When j L j = 1. This will occur for

(a) a short circuit, ZL = 0, or


(b) an open circuit, ZL = 1, or
(c) a pure reactive load, ZL = jXL , XL 2 R.

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2.3. THE TERMINATED LOSSLESS TRANSMISSION LINE 25

The last case is due to the fact that a pure reactance cannot dissipate power, so everything must be
reected.

Distance between successive minima:

ej(2 zm + )
= ej(2 (zm +dmin )+ ) = ej(2 zm + ) ej2 dmin
(2.39)
! 2 dmin = n ; n = 0; 2; 4; :::

so that
n n n

ld
dmin = = = = : (2.40)
2 22 4 2
To examine the eects of a pure standing wave, consider a short-circuited line (ZL = 0; L = 1).

v (z) = v0+ e j z
ej z
= v0+ 2j sin ( z) ; (2.41)
v0+ j z v0+
i (z) = e + ej z
= 2 cos ( z) :

or
Z0 Z0
In the time domain,

v (z; t) = v0+ 2 sin ( z) sin (!t) ; (2.42)


v0+
i (z; t) = 2 cos ( z) cos (!t) :
Z0
W 1

0.5

-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
bz

-0.5
TU

-1

sin ( z) sin (!t) vs. z for !t = 0; ; 2; 6:

Observations:

1. Voltage is zero at the short and at multiples of =2,


JN

v = 0 at z=n ; n = 0; 1; 2; :::

2. Voltage is a maximum at all points such that

z=m ; m = 1; 3; 5; :::
2

3. Current is maximum at the short circuit and at all points where v = 0. At all points where v = vmax ,
i = 0.

4. The total energy in any length of line a multiple of a quarter wavelength is constant, merely inter-
changing between energy in the electric eld (voltage) and energy in the magnetic eld (current). This
is similar to energy relations in a resonant LC circuit.

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26 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

For j Lj 6= 1, SW R < 1 and both a standing wave and a travelling wave exist on the line. Let L = ej .
Then,

v (z) = v0+ e j z
+ ej( z+ )
(2.43)

= v0+ e j z
+ ej( z+ )
+ e j z
e j z

= v0+ (1 )e j z
+ v0+ ej( z+ )
+e j z

= v0+ (1 )e j z
+ 2 v0+ ej 2 cos z+
| {z } 2

ld
pure travelling wave | {z }
pure standing wave

1.4

1.2

or
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
W = 0:5; (1 :5) e
bz
j z
+ cos ( z) vs. z

It is easy to see that no real power ow is associated with standing waves, since

1 1 v0+
Pav = Re fv (z) i (z)g = Re 2jv0+ sin z 2 cos ( z) = 0: (2.44)
2 2 Z0

Example 2.1 A lossless, air-lled transmission line having characteristic impedance 50 ohms is terminated
TU

with a load ZL . The line is 1:2 m long, and operated at a frequency of 900 MHz. Determine (a) SWR, (b)
Zin , (c) RL for ZL = 100 ohms and ZL = 50 ohms.
Solution:

c 3 108
f = 900 MHz, ! = = = 0:333 m. (2.45)
f 900 106
L 1:2 2
= = 3:6; L= L = 7:2 (2.46)
0:333
JN

ZL = 100 :

(a)

ZL Z0 100 50 1
L = = = (2.47)
ZL + Z0 100 + 50 3
1 + j Lj
SW R = =2
1 j Lj

(b)
ZL + jZ0 tan ( L)
Zin = Z0 = 49:10 j35:03 ohms (2.48)
Z0 + jZL tan ( L)

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2.3. THE TERMINATED LOSSLESS TRANSMISSION LINE 27

(c)
RL = 20 log j Lj = 9:54 dB. (2.49)

ZL = 50 :

(a)

ZL Z0 50 50
L = = =0 (2.50)
ZL + Z0 50 + 50
1 + j Lj
SW R = =1

ld
1 j Lj

(b)
ZL + jZ0 tan ( L)
Zin = Z0 = 50 ohms (2.51)
Z0 + jZL tan ( L)

(c)

or
RL = 20 log j Lj = 1 dB. (2.52)

Exercise 2.1 (in-class):


W Z 0 ,v p ZL
Z in

z=-L z=0

If L = =2 and ZL = 0 (short circuit), nd (a) SW R, and (b) Zin .


TU

Exercise 2.2 (in-class):

1. The input to a television receiver presents an impedance of ZL = 60 + j75 ohms to a Z0 = 75 ohm


coaxial cable. The cable has length 0:2 at the frequency of operation. Determine

(a) SWR
(b) L
JN

(c) Zin

2. Assume an antenna supplies a signal modeled by an open-circuit voltage of 5 V with source resistance
300 ohms to the transmission line described in (1). Determine the power delivered to the television.

3. A 300 ohm transmission line is short-circuited at the load-end. Determine Zin is the transmission line
has length

(a) l = =4,
(b) l = =2;
(c) l = :

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28 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

Special cases of lossless terminated lines:

I. ZL = 0 (short circuit)
Zin = jZ0 tan L; (2.53)
which is pure imaginary for any length line L:

ld
2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
z

-2

or
-4

tan( L) vs. L

Zin = 0 at L = 0; =2; ; 3 =2; ::: (2.54)


W Zin = 1 at L = =4; 3 =4; 5 =4; :::

II. ZL = 1 (open circuit)


Zin = jZ0 cot L (2.55)
which is also pure imaginary for any length L:

4
TU

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
z

-2
JN

-4

cot( L) vs. L:

Zin = 0 at L = =4; 3 =4; 5 =4; ::: (2.56)


Zin = 1 at L = 0; =2; ; 3 =2; :::

III. L = =2,
Zin = ZL (2.57)
Transmission lines of length =2, or any integer multiple of =2, do not transform the load impedance
it is seen directly at the input.

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2.3. THE TERMINATED LOSSLESS TRANSMISSION LINE 29

IV. L = =4;
Z02
Zin = : (2.58)
ZL
This case is know as a quarter-wave transformer, and will be discusses in detail later.

Determining v0+ :

Although we often dont need to explicitly determine v0+ , it is sometimes useful. To determine v0+ ,
consider the transmission line shown below.

ld
Zg

Vg +
-
Z 0 ,v p ZL
Z in

or
z=-L z=0

We have

v (z) = v0+ e j z
1+ L ej2 z
;
v ( L) = v0+ ej L 1+ e j2 L
; (2.59)

but
W L

Zin
v ( L) = vin = Vg (2.60)
Zin + Zg
Equating (2.59) and (2.60) leads to
Zin 1
v0+ = Vg : (2.61)
Zin + Zg [ej L + Le
j L]
TU

Example 2.2 If Vg (t) = 2 cos 108 t + =4 , Zg = 1 ohm, Z0 = 50 ohms, L = 3 m, ZL = 75 ohms, and


vp = 2:8 108 m/s, determine v0+ .
Solution:
2 !
= = = 0:357; L = 1:07; (2.62)
vp
ZL Z0 75 50 1
L = = =
ZL + Z0 75 + 50 5
JN

ZL + jZ0 tan ( L)
Zin = Z0 (2.63)
Z0 + jZL tan ( L)
75 + j50 tan (1:07)
= 50
50 + j75 tan (1:07)
= 38:23 j13:42 ohms,
Zin 1
v0+ = Vg (2.64)
Zin + Zg [ej L + Le
j L]

with Vg = 2 ej 4 leads to
v0+ = 2:14 j0:23: (2.65)

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30 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

Example 2.3 You nd cable of unknown characteristic impedance having length 1:5 m. At a frequency at
which you assume the cable is less than a quarter wavelength, you measure the open- and short-circuit input
impedance to be
oc
Zin = j54:6 ohms,
sc
Zin = j103 ohms.
What is Z0 ?
Solution: Assume the cable is very low loss.
oc sc
Zin Zin ( jZ0 cot L) (jZ0 tan L) = Z02
= (2.66)

ld
=
( j54:6) (j103) = 5623:8
p
) Z0 = 5623:8 = 75 ohms.
Notice that you can also nd as
oc
Zin jZ0 cot L 2
sc = = (cot L) (2.67)
Zin jZ0 tan L

or
j54:6
= = 0:53
j103
) cot L = 0:728
) L = 0:941; = 0:628 1/m.

2.4 The Smith Chart


W
The Smith chart is a graphical tool that serves as an aid in performing transmission line calculations. Al-
though any such calculation can be easily performed on a computer, the Smith chart helps in developing
intuition, and serves as a useful background upon which to plot microwave engineering data (from measure-
ments or simulation)
The Smith chart is really the portion j j 1 of the complex plane, although the numbers on the Smith
chart are impedance values. The mapping between the Zplane and the plane is developed as follows.

Z
TU

= Z = r + jx (2.68)
Z0
1+ 1+( + j i)
r
= =
1 1 ( r + j i)
2 2
1 r i + 2j i
= 2) + 2 :
(1 r i

Equating real and imaginary components,


2 2
1 r + i 2j i
r= 2) + 2
; x= 2; (2.69)
JN

(1 (1 2) +
r i r i

which can be rearranged to yield


2
r 2 1
r + i = 2; (2.70)
1+r (1 + r)
2
2 1 1
( r 1) + i = : (2.71)
x x2
Recall that this is simply
1+
Z = Z0 (2.72)
1
separated into real and imaginary components. Both (2.70) and (2.71) are circles in the complex plane.

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2.4. THE SMITH CHART 31

i. The rst equation, (2.70), shows that the locus of constant resistance r in the r i plane is a family of
r 1
circles with centers on the r axis at r = 1+r ; i = 0 with radii 1+r .

r=0

ld
r=0.5

1 r=1

or
W
ii. The second equation, (2.71), shows that the locus of constant reactance x in the r i plane is a family
of circles with centers on the r axis at r = 1; i = x1 with radii x1 :
TU

i X=1

r=0

X=2

r=1

||<=1
. (1,0.5)

r
JN

. (1,-0.5)
X=-2

X=-1

Superimposing the previous two plots, and showing only the j j 1 portion, leads to

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32 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

r=0
X=2
X=0.7

||=1

ld
X=-0.7

X=-2

or
Continuing for the other values
0 r < 1; 1<x<1 (2.73)
generates the Smith chart shown below. Note that on the Smith chart the numbers denote r and x values
instead of r and i values. Reection coe cient values, along with other relevant information, is obtained
from the scales provided at the bottom of the chart.

iii. Since (z) = Le


j2 z
W
and L = Z L Z0
= ej , = constant, then
ZL +Z0

(z) = ej ej2 z ; (2.74)

such that moving along a uniform line toward the load end (i.e., increasing position z) is equivalent
to rotating on a constant j j = circle (constant SW R circle) with increasing angle = 2 z in the
counter-clockwise direction. Moving towards the source results in a clockwise rotation.
TU

. .
JN

Since 2 L + = 22 L + =4 L
+ , a full rotation about the Smith chart corresponds to a distance
of L = =2.

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2.4. THE SMITH CHART 33

ld
or
W
TU
JN

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34 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

iv. Since
1+j j 1+
SW R = = (2.75)
1 j j 1
then a circle of constant is also a circle of constant SW R.
v. Since
1+ 1 + ej(2 z+ )
Z= = ; (2.76)
1 1 ej(2 z+ )

then
ej(2 z+ )

ld
1 1
Y = = (2.77)
Z 1 + ej(2 z+ )

1+ ej(2 z+ + )
= :
1 ej(2 z+ + )

Therefore, for a given point Z on the Smith chart, the corresponding admittance Y is obtained by
rotating radians (one-half rotation) along a constant SW R circle. Thus,

or
impedance (admittance) and be converted to admittance (impedance) by reecting the impedance
point through the origin.

i
W Z
.

r
TU

Y .

Example 2.4 Assume L = 0:35 , ZL = 50 j200 ohms, Z0 = 50 ohms. Find L, Zin , in , and SW R.
Solution:
JN

1. Start on the Smith chart at Z = 1 j4.


2. From the SW R legend (or constant SW R circle intersection with the positive-real axis), SW R = 20
( SW R = 17:94 from the equation).
3. From the legend and Smith chart angle, j j = 0:9, 6 L = 27 ( = 0:896 26:57 from the
equation).
4. To nd Zin , rotate 0:35 toward the generator (clockwise) around a constant SW R circle ( 0:287 +
0:35 = 0:637 ). Zin = Z0 (0:13 + j1:17) = 6:5 + j58:5 ( Zin = 6:5206 + j57:67 from the equation).
5. in = 0:96 81:7 .

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2.4. THE SMITH CHART 35

Note: all possible values of Z (z) are found on the constant SW R circle. Thus, it is very easy to
visualize how Z varies along the line.

ld
or
W
TU

Example 2.5 A transmission line is terminated in ZL . Measurements show that the standing wave minima
are 102 cm. apart, and that the last minimum is 35 cm. from the load. The measured SW R is 2:4, Z0 = 250
ohms, and vp = c. Determine (a) frequency and (b) ZL .
JN

Solution:

(a)

= 102 ) = 204cm.,
2
vp 3 1010
f = = = 147:06MHz.
204

(b) vmin is l = 35 cm from the load. l= = 0:172. On Smith chart, draw SW R circle. Start at vmin and
rotate ccw 0:172 . Zin = Z0 (1:16 j0:96) = 290 j240 ohms.

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36 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

ld
or
W
TU

Example 2.6 A lossless 100 ohm transmission line is terminated in 200 + j200. The line is 0:375 long.
Determine (a) L , (b) SW R, (c) Zin , and (d) the shortest length of line for which the impedance is purely
resistive, and the value of the resistance.
Solution:

(a) Z L = 2 + j2. L = 0:626 30 = 0:62ej 6 .


JN

(b) SW R = 4:3
(c) Zin = Z0 (0:32 + j0:54) = 32 + j54
(d) l = 0:042 , R = Z0 4:3 = 430 ohms.

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2.4. THE SMITH CHART 37

ld
or
W
TU

Exercise 2.3 (in-class)


The input to a television receiver presents an impedance of ZL = 60 + j75 ohms to a Z0 = 75 ohm coaxial
cable. The cable has length 0:3 at the frequency of operation. Determine, using the Smith chart,

1. SWR
JN

2. L

3. Zin

Smith Chart with lumped elements:

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38 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

C B A

XL=30

Z0 Xc=-200 Z0 ZL
Z in

0.06 0.12

ld
1 1
Example 2.7 XL = 30 (Zind = j!L = jXL ), XC = 200 (Zcap = j!C = j !C = jXC ). Determine Zin .
Solution:

or
1. First obtain ZA in the usual wayenter Smith chart at Z L = 2 + j1:5. Rotate 0:12 toward the
generator. Z A = 1 j1:3.

2. Incorporate inductor L1 :
W
j30
(a) Option a: Z B = ZA + 50 =1 j0:7:

(b) Option b: Note that adding reactance just means moving along a constant resistance contour to
the desired point. The distance moved is j30
50 = j0:6.
TU

3. Convert Z B to Y B . Y B = 0:67 + j0:47.

4. Incorporate capacitor C1 :
JN

1
(a) Option a: Y C = Y B + j200 = 0:67 + j0:72.
50

(b) Option b: Note that adding susceptance just means moving along a constant conductance contour
1
to the desired point. The distance moved is j200 = j0:25.
50

5. Either rotate 0:06 toward generator to get Yin and convert to Zin , or convert to Z C rst then rotate
0:06 to get Zin . Zin = Z0 (0:44 j0:39) = 22:4 j18:97 ohms.

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2.5. THE QUARTER-WAVE TRANSFORMER 39

ld
or
W
TU

Exercise 2.4 (in-class)


Determine, by moving along contours on the Smith chart, the input impedance seen at the beginning of
the line.

50 ohms
JN

20+j10 ohms 200+j100 ohms

0.15

2.5 The Quarter-Wave Transformer


The =4 transformer is used to match two dierent real impedance values as shown below.

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40 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

Z0 Z1 RL
Z in

/4

ld
RL + jZ1 tan ( L)
Zin = Z1 (2.78)
Z1 + jRL tan ( L)
but L = =2,
Z12
Zin = : (2.79)
RL

or
Assume we want no reection at the input ( in = 0, Zin = Z0 ). Choose
p
Z1 = RL Z0 . (2.80)

To connect a real-valued load RL with a transmission linephaving Z0 6= RL , use a =4 length section


of transmission line having characteristic impedance Z1 = RL Z0 .
W
Standing waves do occur on the =4 section of line.

Example 2.8 Design a quarter-wave transformer to match a 200 ohm load to a 50 ohm line.

p
Z= (50) (200) = 100 ohms.

Quarter-wave transformers are very frequency sensitive. Why? Later we will study methods to broaden
TU

the usable frequency range by using cascaded sections of =4 lines.

The multiple Reection Viewpoint:


Read

2.6 Generator and Load Mismatches


In this section we consider the general case of a source-excited, loaded lossless line, and power delivered to
JN

the load.

Zg

Vg +
-
Z 0 ,v p ZL
Z in

z=-L z=0

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2.7. LOSSY TRANSMISSION LINES 41

1
PL = Re (vin iin ) , since the line is lossless. (2.81)
2
Zin Vg vin
vin = Vg ; iin = = ;
Zin + Zg Zin + Zg Zin
2
noting that ZZ = jZj we get
2
1 2 Zin 1
PL = jVg j Re (2.82)

ld
2 Zin + Zg Zin
1 2 Rin
= jVg j 2 2:
2 (Rin + Rg ) + (Xin + Xg )

1. Special case: load matched to line:


ZL = Z0 , L = 0, SW R = 1, Zin = Z0 :

or
1 2 Z0
PL = jVg j 2 : (2.83)
2 (Z0 + Rg ) + Xg2

Further, if Zg = Z0 ,
1 2 1
PL = jVg j : (2.84)
8 Z0
W
2. Special case: generator matched to a loaded line:
Zin = Zg , in = 0.
1 2 Rg
PL = jVg j : (2.85)
2 4 Rg2 + Xg2

Depending on conditions, either case may provide the larger power delivered to the load. What determines
maximum power transfer from generator to load? As in circuit theory, conjugate matching.

Zin = Zg (2.86)
TU

This will result in maximum power transfer to the load for a xed Zg . The resulting power delivered to the
load is
1 2 1
PL = jVg j : (2.87)
2 4Rg
Note that PL is made large by making Rg small.

2.7 Lossy Transmission Lines


JN

Before considering lossless transmission lines we obtained (2.8)

v(z) = v0+ e z + v0 e+ z ; (2.88)


1
i(z) = v + e z v0 e+ z
;
Z0 0

p
= + j = (R + j!L) (G + j!C); (2.89)
s
R + j!L
Z0 :
G + j!C

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42 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

For lossy lines


z
e = e| {z z} e j z
: (2.90)
attenuation

In this case, movements along the line no longer are represented by rotation along a constant SW R circle
(for lossy lines j j = 6= constant). For the low-loss case we have

1 R
' + GZ0 ; (2.91)
2 Z0
r
p L
' ! LC; Z0 ' .

ld
C

The distortionless line:

The exact equation for of a lossy transmission line,


p

or
= (R + j!L) (G + j!C); (2.92)

indicates that is a complicated function of frequency. If doesnt have a linear relationship with frequency,
then the phase velocity vp = != will be dierent at each frequency (vp = vp (!)). Dierent frequency
components of a signal (as in a Fourier decomposition) will travel at dierent velocities, reaching the load
at dierent times, resulting in dispersion of the signal (a form of distortion). This will be discussed later.
One special case, mostly of academic interest, exists for a lossy line to be dispersion-free. If
W R
L
=
G
C
(2.93)

then r
p C
= ! LC; =R . (2.94)
L
The resulting line will not distort the signal, although attenuation will still occur.
For a general lossy line power relations are
TU

v0+ n o
2
2
Pin = 1 j in j e2 L
; (2.95)
2Z0
v0+ n o
2
2
PL = 1 j Lj ;
2Z0
PLoss = Pin PL ;

where
Zin 1
v0+ = Vg L L]
(2.96)
Zin + Zg [e + Le
JN

(compare with (2.61)).

2.8 Transient Transmission Lines


(not in text)
The time-domain transmission line (telegrapher) equations, (2.3), are

@v(z; t) @i(z; t)
= R i(z; t) L ; (2.97)
@z @t
@i(z; t) @v(z; t)
= G v(z; t) C ; (2.98)
@z @t

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2.8. TRANSIENT TRANSMISSION LINES 43

where we have set the distributed sources vs ; is = 0. These rst-order, coupled partial dierential equations
are decoupled by applying @=@z to the rst equation (2.97) and substituting into the second equation (2.98)
to yield a second-order partial dierential equation for v. A similar equation is obtained by applying @=@z
to (2.98) and substituting into (2.97), resulting in

@2 @2 @ v (z; t)
LC (RC + GL) RG = 0: (2.99)
@z 2 @t2 @t i (z; t)

For simplicity we will assume a lossless line (R = G = 0), resulting in

@2 @2 v (z; t)

ld
LC = 0: (2.100)
@z 2 @t2 i (z; t)

We will solve for v (z; t) and use (2.97) to obtain i (z; t).
In order to solve
@2 @2
LC v (z; t) = 0 (2.101)
@z 2 @t2

or
we use Laplace transforms. Recall

L fv (z; t)g = V (z; s) ; (2.102)


@
L v (z; t) = sV (z; s) v z; t = 0+ ;
@t
@2 @
L v (z; t) = s2 V (z; s) sv z; t = 0+ v (z; t) ;
@t2 @t
W t=0+

where V (z; s) is the Laplace transform of v (z; t). Initial conditions are

1. v (z; t) across C cannot change instantaneously. Assume v (z; t < 0) = 0. Then, v (z; t = 0+ ) = 0.

2. i (z; t) owing in L cannot change instantaneously. Then,

@ 1 @
v (z; t) = i (z; t) = 0: (2.103)
@t C @z
TU

t=0+ t=0+

Taking the Laplace transform of the wave equation (2.101) results in

@2 2
V (z; s) = 0 (2.104)
@z 2
p
where = s LC. The solution of (2.104) is

V (z; s) = V + (s) e z
+V (s) e+ z
(2.105)
p p
JN

+ s LCz +s LCz
= V (s) e +V (s) e

where V (s) are constants of integration with respect to z. The solution v (z; t) is obtained via inverse
Laplace transform, n o
p p
v (z; t) = L 1 V + (s) e s LCz + V (s) e+s LCz ; (2.106)

and, using the time-shifting theorem


st0
L ff (t t0 )g = F (s) e (2.107)

we obtain p p
v (z; t) = v + t LCz + v t+ LCz : (2.108)

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44 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY


p
We can interpret the term LCz by noting that the propagation velocity (the velocity with which an
imaginary observer must move to follow a point of constant amplitude on the wavefront) is obtained from
p
v t LCz =constant, (2.109)
p
) t LCz = constant,
d p
) t LCz = 0;
dt

p dz

ld
1 LC = 0; (2.110)
dt
dz 1
= p
= vp ;
dt LC
1
) vp = p .
LC

or
Therefore,
v (z; t) = v + (t z=vp ) + v (t + z=vp ) : (2.111)
| {z } | {z }
forward travelling wave backward travelling wave

The associated current can be obtained as


1
i (z; t) = v + (t z=vp ) v (t + z=vp ) (2.112)
Z0
as shown in the appendix.
W
In summary, we have

v (z; t) = v + (t z=vp ) + v (t + z=vp ) ; (2.113)


1
i (z; t) = v + (t z=vp ) v (t + z=vp ) ;
Z0
valid for an innite line. To analyze a nite length, source-excited and loaded line we need to consider
conditions at the source-end and load-end of the line.
TU

Terminated transient line:

i(z,t) i(L,t)

+ +

v(z,t) Z 0 ,v p v(L,t) RL
JN

- -

With

v (L; t) = v + (L; t) + v (L; t) (2.114)


+
= vL (t) + vL (t) = vL (t)
+
i (L; t) = i (L; t) + i (L; t)
= i+
L (t) + iL (t) = iL (t)

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2.8. TRANSIENT TRANSMISSION LINES 45

and Ohms law applied at the load,


vL (t) = iL (t) RL ; (2.115)
we obtain
+
vL (t) + vL (t) = i+
L (t) + iL (t) RL (2.116)
1
= v + (t) vL (t) RL
Z0 L

leading to
RL Z0 +

ld
+
vL = v = L vL (2.117)
RL + Z0 L
(compare with (2.26) for the phasor case).

Launching waves on an innite line:

or
Rg i(0,t) i(z,t)

Vg + v(0,t) Z 0 ,v p v(z,t)
-
W -

Ohms law at z = 0 results in

v (0; t) = vS (t) = Vg (t) Rg i (0; t) (2.118)


| {z } | {z }
TU

vs (t) is (t)

for all t. In particular,

vs 0; t = 0+ = Vg t = 0+ Rg is t = 0+ (2.119)
+
vs (t = 0 )
= Vg t = 0+ Rg ;
Z0

leading to
Z0
vs 0+ = Vg 0+ = v + 0; 0+ (2.120)
JN

Z0 + Rg
which gives the initial amplitude of the wave launched on the line. For z; t 6= 0 we obtain

Z0
v (z; t) = Vg (t z=vp ) = v + (t z=vp ) ; (2.121)
Z0 + Rg
v (z; t)
i (z; t) = = i+ (t z=vp ) :
Z0

Complete transient response of a terminated, source-driven transmission line: bounce diagrams:

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46 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

Rg

Vg + Z 0 ,v p RL
-

z=0 z=L

z z
0,0 z=L

ld
0,0 z=L
v+ i +

T
L v+ T - i+
L

t t
2T L g v+ 2T L g i +

or
3T 2 3T
L g v+
2
- i+
L g

4T 4T

v(z,t) i(z,t)

L
T =
W vp
= one-way transit time for wave transverse line.

Z0
v (z; t) = fVg (t z=vp ) + L Vg (t 2T + z=vp ) + L g Vg (t 2T z=vp )
Z0 + Rg
2 2 2
+ L g Vg (t 4T + z=vp ) + L g Vg (t 4T z=vp ) + ::: ; (2.122)
1
i (z; t) = fVg (t z=vp ) L Vg (t 2T + z=vp ) + L g Vg (t 2T z=vp )
Z0 + Rg
2 2 2
TU

L g Vg (t 4T + z=vp ) + L g Vg (t 4T z=vp ) + ::: (2.123)


Example 2.9 Consider a matched line (RL = Z0 ) excited by an ideal (Rg = 0) source. Determine v (z; t).
Solution:

Vg +
-
Z 0 ,v p RL
JN

z=0 z=L

Rg Z0
L = 0; g = = 1 (2.124)
Rg + Z0
( g is not needed since line is matched no reection comes back towards the source).
Z0
v (z; t) = Vg (t z=vp ) = Vg (t z=vp ) ; :
Z0 + 0
i (z; t) = Vg (t z=vp ) =Z0

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2.8. TRANSIENT TRANSMISSION LINES 47

Vg(t)/Vo

t
To

ld
V(L,t)/Vo

leading edge
1
trailing edge

or
t
T+To
T=L/Vp

Example 2.10 Assume that a step voltage is applied to a line mismatched at both ends. If RL = 3Z0 ,
Rg = 3Z0 , determine v (0; t) and v (L; t).
Solution:
W Rg

Vg + Z 0 ,v p RL
-

z=0 z=L
TU

Vg (t) = V0 u (t) ;
RL Z0 3Z0 Z0 1
L = = = = s;
RL + Z0 3Z0 + Z0 2
Z0 V 0
v+ = Vg t = 0+ = :
Z0 + Rs 4
Then,
JN

V0 1 1
v (z; t) = u (t z=vp ) + u (t 2T + z=vp ) + u (t 2T z=vp )
4 2 4
1 1
+ u (t 4T + z=vp ) + u (t 4T z=vp ) + ::: ; (2.125)
8 16

V0 1 1
v (0; t) = u (t) + u (t 2T ) + u (t 2T )
4 2 4
1 1
+ u (t 4T ) + u (t 4T ) + ::: (2.126)
8 16
V0 3 3
= u (t) + u (t 2T ) + u (t 4T ) + ::: (2.127)
4 4 16

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48 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

V0 1 1
v (L; t) = u (t T ) + u (t 2T + T ) + u (t 2T T)
4 2 4
1 1
+ u (t 4T + T ) + u (t 4T T ) + ::: (2.128)
8 16
V0 3 3
= u (t T ) + u (t 3T ) + ::: (2.129)
4 2 8

V(0,t)/(Vo/4)

ld
3/16
3/4

t/T

or
1 2 3 4 5 6

V(L,t)/(Vo/4)

3/8
W
1 3/2

t/T
1 2 3 4 5 6

As a check, d.c. analysis yields


3Z0 V0
v (t) = V0 = (2.130)
TU

3Z0 + 3Z0 2
and ( )
1 2 3
V0 1 1 1 V0
v (L; t = 1) = 1+ + + + ::: = (2.131)
4 2 2 2 2
which agrees with the plot.

Example 2.11 Consider a pulse-excited line mismatched at the load. If RL = 2Z0 , Rg = Z0 , determine the
JN

voltage at the middle of the line.


Solution:

Rg

Vg + Z 0 ,v p RL
-

z=0 z=L

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2.8. TRANSIENT TRANSMISSION LINES 49

Vg(t)/Vo

t
To

ld
2Z0 Z0 1
L = = ; (2.132)
2Z0 + Z0 3
g = 0

or
Z0
v (z; t) = fVg (t z=vp ) + L Vg (t 2T + z=vp )g (2.133)
Z0 + Z0
1 1
= Vg (t z=vp ) + Vg (t 2T + z=vp ) (2.134)
2 3

v (L=2; t)
W =
1
Vg t
T 1
+ Vg (t 2T + T =2) (2.135)
2 2 3
1 T 1 3T
= Vg t + Vg t : (2.136)
2 2 3 2

V(L/2,t)/(1/2)
TU

To<T/2

1/3
t/(T/2)
1 2 3 4 5 6

I. T0 < T =2 (T/2) (T) (3T/2)


JN

V(L/2,t)/(1/2)

To=T/2

1/3
t/(T/2)
1 2 3 4 5 6

II. T0 = T =2 (T/2) (T) (3T/2)

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50 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

V(L/2,t)/(1/2)

To=T

1/3
t/(T/2)
1 2 3 4 5 6
(T/2) (T) (3T/2)

III. T0 = T

ld
V(L/2,t)/(1/2)

To=2T

1/3
t/(T/2)

or
1 2 3 4 5 6
(T/2) (T) (3T/2)

IV. T0 = 2T

Exercise 2.5 (in-class)


Two IC chips are mounted a printed circuit board. Pin 3 on one chip is connected to pin 5 of the other
chip by a printed conducting trace, forming a 20 ohm transmission line. The transmission line has length
W
l = 1 cm, and the velocity of signal propagation on the line is vp = 2:6 108 m/s. Pin 3 can be modeled
as a voltage source which provides a 1:5 volt pulse starting at t = 0 and lasting for 1 ns, and having source
resistance Rg = 10 ohms. Pin 5 can be modeled as providing a constant 30 ohm resistance. Plot the voltage
waveform at pin 5 versus time.
Example 2.12 Consider the charged-line pulse generator shown below. If Rg = Z0 , RL Z0 determine
the voltage at z = 0.
Solution:
t=0 i(L,t) RL
TU

i(0,t) >> Z0

+ +

v(0,t) v(L,t) +
Rg Z 0 ,v p V0
-
= Z0 -
-

z=0 z=L

Operation: resistor Rg is switched to close the circuit and interrupt the d.c. state. Output voltage v (0; t) is
JN

a pulse of width 2T These types of pulse generators are used to generate very high power, fast pulses.
Initial state (t < 0): v (z; t) = V0 , i (z; t) = 0. For t > 0
Rg Z0
g = = 0; (2.137)
Rg + Z0
RL Z0
L = ' 1:
RL + Z0

v 0; t = 0+ = V0 + v + = Rg i 0; t = 0+ (2.138)
+
v
= ' v+ .
Rg
Z0
) 2v + = V0 (initial pulse amplitude).

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2.8. TRANSIENT TRANSMISSION LINES 51

v (z; t) = V0 + v + (t z=vp ) + v (t 2T + z=vp ) (2.139)


|{z} | {z } | {z }
d.c. voltage forw ard w ave (reected on ce at RL ) backw ard w ave

V0 V0
v (z; t) = V0 u (t z=vp ) u (t 2T + z=vp ) (2.140)
2 2
1 1
v (0; t) = V0 1 u (t) u (t 2T )
2 2
V0
= fu (t) u (t 2T )g :
2

ld
v(0,t)/(Vo/2)

or
t
2T

2.8.1 Waveforms and Spectral Analysis


The text (Pozar) deals with time-harmonic signals and associated analysis. However, a time-harmonic
W
waveform can not be used to transmit information. In the analog domain, modulation is commonly used
to impart information on a high-frequency carrier, which spreads the frequency content out from the single
spectral component of the carrier. Time-harmonic analysis will be valid if the bandwidth of the modulated
signal is su ciently small. In the digital domain, one must consider pulses and pulse trains. In this section
we consider the frequency-domain aspects of some digital signals, and the relation to time-harmonic analysis.

Periodic Signals
Periodic waveforms can be represented Fourier series. Let g (t) be periodic with period T , i.e., g (t) =
TU

g (t + T ). Then,
1
a0 X n2 t n2 t
g (t) = + an cos + bn sin
2 n=1
T T
where
Z T =2
2 n2 t
an = g (t) cos dt;
T T =2 T
Z T =2
2 n2 t
bn = g (t) sin dt;
JN

T T =2 T

for n = 0; 1; 2; :::, or in exponential form


1
X n2 t
g (t) = cn ej T

n= 1

where Z T =2
1 j n2T t
cn = g (t) e dt;
T T =2

n = 0; 1; 2; ::: (the equality is in the sense of the Fourier series). For example, for a pulse train consisting
of rectangular pulses having amplitude A, pulse width t0 , and period T , as shown below,

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52 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

g(t)
t0

A
...
t

we have

ld
1
X n2 t
g (t) = cn ej T ;
n= 1
Z T =2
1 j n2T t
cn = g (t) e dt
T T =2
Z t0
1 j n2T t
= Ae dt

or
T 0
t0 jn
t0 sin n Tt0
= A e T
n t0
T T

(for this to be valid t0 < T =2, otherwise the limits of integration need to be adjusted). The quantity f0 = 1=T
is called the fundamental frequency (or pulse repetition rate), in which case
(sin n t0 f0 )
W cn = At0 f0 e jn t0 f0
n t0 f0
:

A plot of jcn j vs. n=T looks like the following.


Cn

c0
TU

1 3 n/T
1 2
T T
t0 t0

Although the spectrum is discrete, the envelope is drawn for convenience. Note that
as T decreases (f0 increases), the density of spectral lines decreases, and the amplitude of the spectral
lines increases,
the shape of the envelope is determined by t0 , the width of a single pulse.
JN

Therefore, the spectral envelope of the pulse train, especially how far out in frequency it extends, is
governed by the pulse width, t0 .

Non-Periodic Signals
If we consider a single pulse, we need to use Fourier transforms,
Z 1
1
g (t) = G (!) ej!t d!;
2 1

! = 2 f , where Z 1
j!t
G (!) = g (t) e dt:
1

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2.8. TRANSIENT TRANSMISSION LINES 53

For a single rectangular pulse,


sin ( t0 f )
G (f ) = At0 ;
t0 f
which has zeros at
m
f= ;
t0
m = 1; 2; 3; :::.These are exactly the locations of the zeros of the envelope of cn for a pulse train of period T .
Comparing the spectrum of the pulse train and of the single pulse,

sin ( t0 f )

ld
jG (f )j = At0 ;
t0 f
(sin n t0 f0 )
jcn j = At0 f0 ;
n t0 f0

one sees that the pulse width t0 eects the amplitude of each spectrum in the same way.

or
For a pulse train (such as a clock signal), the period T is not too important from a spectral analysis
standpoint. It does aect the density of the discrete spectral components, but not how fast the spectrum
decreases with increasing frequency.

From a spectral analysis standpoint, the pulse width is of paramount importance, for both the pulse
and the pulse train.

For a pulse train, the main importance of the period is logic timing.
W
For a modulated analog signal, the important spectral region is near the carroer frequency, whereas
for a digital pulse, the important spectral content is near the origin in the frequency domain.

2.8.2 Integrated Circuits and Ground Bounce


TU

Consider a typical integrated circuit (IC) logic device as shown below.

Vcc

A VA

Q1

Vout
JN

Q2
B
VB

Gnd

When Q1 is on and Q2 is o the output voltage is high (Vout = VA = Vcc ), and when Q1 is o and
Q2 is on the output voltage is low (Vout = VB = 0). However, VA is not actually Vcc volts, and VB is not
actually 0 volts, due to parasitic inductance. Both leads A and B are wires, and, like all wires, they have
inductance. The inductance of a very short (electrically short) straight wire is very small, although perhaps
not negligible depending on the application, leading to the model shown below.

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54 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

Vcc

Lwire

Q1

Vout

ld
Q2

Lwire

Gnd

Since

or
W
diind (t)
vind = Lind ; (2.141)
dt
TU

then if iind is large enough and/or dt is small enough, vind will be large and Vout (t) = Vcc vind (t) or
Vout (t) = 0 + vind (t). This phenomena is called ground bounce (and Vcc bounce). If the noise margins of
the circuit downstream are too tight, or the timing is too fast (all voltages approach their idealized values
when the currents stop changing) a logic error may follow. To remedy this situation we may 1) slow down
the circuit (not a viable choice), reduce the margins (often not a viable choice), or minimize Lind , which is
usually the preferred method, if possible.
JN

The above described ground bounce occurs internal to a chip. Integrated circuits (ICs) have been tra-
ditionally formed on a silicon die, which is glued to a mechanical base (this is referred to as packaging
the circuit). Small wires, called wirebonds, connect the die to the packages external leads. Even through
these wirebonds are typically electrically short, they have, like all wires, inductance (on the order of 2 nH
for a typically wirebond). Therefore, any IC that has large transient currents can induce large, undesirable
voltage transients on the wirebonds. Wirebonds connecting to ground often have large current transients,
resulting in ground bounce as well. For example, if an IC chip has several hundred thousand gates, many of
which are switching at the same time, and all connected to ground through the same wirebond, the switching
current can become quite large, resulting in ground bounce of several volts. To make matters worse, the
inductance of the ground and power planes is added to the inductance of the wirebonds, enhancing this
deleterious eect. Flip-chip technologies (which spread the ground connections over many solder bumps) are
eective at mitigating this eect.

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2.8. TRANSIENT TRANSMISSION LINES 55

Vcc

Lwire+Lpower- plane

Q1

Vout

ld
Q2

Lwire+Lground- plane

or
Gnd

Although ground bounce is not a transmission line eect, it is particular to high frequencies, and
relates to the electromagnetic properties of the circuit. Bypass capacitors are often used to remove the
ground and power plane transients from the IC circuits. Since current can change instantaneouslythrough
a capacitor, the transient currents on the IC device dont have to ow through the ground and power planes,
they ow through the capacitor. Wide traces are used if possible (wide traces have lower inductance and
larger capacitance).
W
TU
JN

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56 CHAPTER 2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

ld
or
W
TU
JN

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Chapter 3

ld
Transmission Lines and Waveguides

In the previous chapter we studied transmission lines in an abstract sense, usually without referring to a
particular physical structure. In this chapter we will study several types of transmission lines and waveguides

or
commonly used in practice. As is evident from their physical structure, each transmission line and waveguide
has particular advantages and disadvantages depending on the application of interest. Any waveguide or
transmission line that is capable of supporting a TEM mode of propagation can be analyzed using the
transmission line theory discussed in the previous chapter (for that mode). Waveguides and transmission
lines that do not support a TEM mode can be approximately analyzed using the previously developed
analysis methods.
In general, the term waveguide is applied to structures consisting of a single conductor. In this case,
W
the structure cannot support a TEM mode. Two-conductor structures are usually termed transmission
lines, and can support a TEM mode (and higher-order modes).

3.1 General Solutions for TEM, TE, and TM Modes


In this section we will study general solutions for propagation modes along structures invariant along the
z axis (and therefore innitely long). The conductors will be initially assumed to be perfectly conducting;
later brief mention will be made of attenuation calculations.
TU

It can be show from the theory of Fourier transforms


Z 1
f (x; y; ) = F ff (x; y; z)g = f (x; y; z)e j z dz; (3.1)
1
Z 1
1 1
f (x; y; z) = F ff (x; y; )g = f (x; y; )ej z d : (3.2)
2 1

that elds on a z invariant structure can be written as


JN

j z
E (x; y; z) = [e (x; y; ) + z ez (x; y; )] e (3.3)
j z
H (x; y; z) = [h (x; y; ) + z hz (x; y; )] e

where fe; hg represent the (as yet unknown) transverse elds, fez ; hz g represent the (as yet unknown)
longitudinal elds, and is the (as yet unknown) propagation constant. The analysis in the text shows how
to obtain these unknown quantities for a given physical structure. Here we will mostly be concerned with
obtaining .
Starting with the source-free curl equations

r E = j! H; (3.4)
r H = j!"E

57

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58 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

and assuming the form (3.3) leads to

@Ez
+ j Ey = j! Hx ; (3.5)
@y
@Ez
j Ex = j! Hy ; (3.6)
@x
@Ey @Ex
= j! Hz ; (3.7)
@x @y
and

ld
@Hz
+ j Hy = j!"Ex ; (3.8)
@y
@Hz
j Hx = j!"Ey ; (3.9)
@x
@Hy @Hx
= j!"Ez : (3.10)
@x @y

or
The above equations may be solved for the transverse components Hx ; Hy ; Ex ; Ey in terms of the longi-
tudinal components Ez ; Hz as

j @Ez @Hz
Hx = !" ; (3.11)
kc2 @y @x
j @Ez @Hz
Hy = !" + ; (3.12)
kc2 @x @y
W Ex =
j @Ez
+!
@Hz
; (3.13)
kc2 @x @y
j @Ez @Hz
Ey = +! ; (3.14)
kc2 @y @x

where
2
kc2 = k2 (3.15)
TU

2
= !2 "
2
2 2
= :

Often we write the above as p


= k2 kc2 ; (3.16)
and once kc is found then is determined (since k is known).
We will study three types of waves that commonly occur on transmission line and waveguiding structures.
JN

1. TEM waves
A transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave has no longitudinal components, i.e., Ez = Hz = 0. From
(3.11)(3.14) this would result in E = H = 0, and so no eld would be present. However, a TEM wave
can exist. The solution of this paradox is that for a TEM wave it must be true that

kc = 0; (3.17)
p 2
) = k= ! "=
p
such that TEM waves act like the waves we have studied previously (in Chapter 2 we had = ! LC =
2
). In the text it is shown that TEM elds are the same as the static elds (zero frequency) that
exist on the transmission line, and satisfy Laplaces equation.

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3.2. PARALLEL PLATE WAVEGUIDE 59

2. TE waves
It turns out that a transmission line must have two or more conductors for a TEM waves to exist.
However, this is a necessary but not su cient condition. The existence of two or more conductors does
not guarantee that a TEM wave will exist; microstrip is an example of a two-conductor line that does
not support a TEM wave.
Another wave type is a TE (transverse electric) wave, with Ez = 0, Hz 6= 0. In this case all transverse
elds may be found from (3.11)(3.14) using the eld component Hz , which satises

@2 @2 @2
2
+ 2 + 2 + k 2 Hz = 0, or (3.18)
@x @y @z

ld
2 2
@ @ 2
+ 2 + k 2 Hz = 0;
@x2 @y
@2 @2
) 2
+ 2 + kc2 Hz = 0;
@x @y

which is solved subject to the appropriate boundary conditions for a given physical structure, although

or
will skip this computation. The result of that analysis, through, leads to the determination of kc , and
using p
= k 2 kc2 ; (3.19)
to the determination of .

3. TM waves
TM waves have Ez = 6 0, Hz = 0, and the transverse eld components are found from Ez using (3.11)
W
(3.14), where Ez is a solution of
@2 @2
+ + kc2 Ez = 0: (3.20)
@x2 @y 2
As with TE waves, kc is determined in the course of solving (3.20). leading to .

In summary, we have

TEM waves Ez = 0 Hz = 0 = k
TU

p
TE waves Ez = 0 Hz 6= 0 = pk 2 kc2 .
TM waves Ez 6= 0 Hz = 0 = k 2 kc2

3.2 Parallel Plate Waveguide


A parallel plate waveguide consists of two conducting plates having width w, separated by spacing d, and
lled with material characterized by "; , as shown below.
y
JN

,
x

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60 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

1. TEM waves
The parallel plate structure supports a TEM mode, which is the dominant mode (i.e., the mode that
exists at the lowest frequencies of operation). The TEM mode is the most important mode from a
practical standpoint. The analysis in the text shows that for the TEM mode,
V0 j z
E (x; y; z) = y e ; ( = k) ; (3.21)
d r
V0 j z
H (x; y; z) = x e ; ZT EM = = ;
ZT EM d "

ld
and that r
d
Z0 = ; = (3.22)
w "
independent of frequency.

or
1
W k

2. TM modes
Parallel plate waveguides also support TE and TM modes. For TM modes,

Ex = Hy = Hz = 0; (3.23)
j n
Ey = An cos y e j nz ;
kc d
TU

n
Ez = An sin y e j nz ;
d
j!" n
Hx = An cos y e j nz ;
kc d
where r
n 2 n
n = k2; n = 0; 1; 2; :::; kc = . (3.24)
d d
For n = 0 the TM0 mode is really the TEM mode. For n > 0 two situations occur:
JN

n j nz
(a) If k > d then n is real-valued and, therefore, e is a purely propagating mode.
n j nz j( j n )z nz
(b) If k < then n = j n is imaginary-valued and, therefore, e
d =e =e is a
purely attenuating mode.
n n
Thus, two regimes exist: k > kc = d (propagation), and k < kc = d (attenuation).
Note that this is fundamentally dierent that a wave propagating through a lossy medium, where we
obtain
e j ze z; (3.25)
i.e., propagation and attenuation occurring at the same time. For the TMn mode considered here, the
p
wave either propagates (at higher frequencies, where k = ! " > nd ) or does not (at lower frequencies,
p
where k = ! " < nd ). If the wave is purely attenuating, it is called evanescent, or cuto .

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3.2. PARALLEL PLATE WAVEGUIDE 61

The frequency at which a cuto (non-propagating) mode begins to propagate is called the cuto
frequency, and is determined by
n n
kc = ) fc = p . (3.26)
d 2d "

ld
Real

Imag.

or

W TEM

TM1 TM2

k1 k2 k
TU

As frequency increases, more modes begin to propagate. This is usually undesirable. Why?
Note that
!
vp = (3.27)

but that the speed of light is


!
c= : (3.28)
k
Therefore, since k, vp c!
JN

What does vp c imply?

Consider the TM1 mode.


r
2
1 = k2 ; (3.29)
d
Ez = A1 sin y e j 1z

8 d 9
1 < j( y=d 1 z) j( y=d+ 1 z)
=
= A e e| } ;:
2j : | {z } {z
plane wave in -y,+z plane wave in +y,+z

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62 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

d
+y,+z wave

-y,+z wave
z

With

ld
ky = = k sin ; (3.30)
d
kz = 1 = k cos
2 2
( 1 + ( =d) = k 2 ) the phase velocity of each plane wave is
!
vpP W = = c: (3.31)
k

or
The phase velocity of each plane wave in the z direction is
! ! c
vp = = = : (3.32)
1 k cos cos
Since jcos j 1, then vp c. The phase velocity being larger than c is simply due to observing the
wave along one direction (the z direction) when the wave is propagating along another direction (the
direction).
W
constant phase wavefronts


TU

With L cos = d, and observer at d sees the wave arrive in T seconds. The observer calculates the wave
velocity to as vp = d=T , but the wave actually travelled a distance L in time T , such that c = L=T .
Since d > L, vp > c. An example of this is a water wave hitting a shoreline at an oblique angle. The
wave break travels up the coast faster than the wave is moving. Well see later that the energy
JN

velocity is always c.
3. TE waves
For TEn modes,

Ey = Hx = 0; (3.33)
j! n
Ex = An sin y e j nz ;
kc d
j n
Hy = An sin y e j nz ;
kc d
n
Hz = An cos y e j nz ;
d

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3.2. PARALLEL PLATE WAVEGUIDE 63

where
r
n 2 n
n = k2 ; n = 1; 2; 3; :::; kc = . (3.34)
d d

For n 1 two situations occur, as before:

n j nz
(a) If k > d then n is real-valued and, therefore, e is a purely propagating mode.

(b) If k < nd then n = j n is imaginary-valued and, therefore, e j nz =e j( j n )z


=e nz
is a
purely attenuating mode.

ld
n n
Thus, two regimes exist: k > kc = d (propagation), and k < kc = d (attenuation).
Note that for both the TMn and TEn modes,
r
n 2

or
n = k2 ; (3.35)
d
n
fc = p :
2d "

In summary, for the parallel plate waveguide, TEM, TMn , and TEn modes exist.

p
For the TEM mode,
frequency).
W =k =! ", and no cuto exists (the TEM mode propagates down to zero

q
n 2
For the TMn and TEn modes, n = k 2 d (n = 0; 1; 2; ::: for TM modes, and n = 1; 2; 3; ::: for
TE modes). Two regimes exist, below cuto (k < nd , pure imaginary), and above cuto (k > nd ,
pure real). The dividing point is k = kc = nd , leading to fc = 2dp n
".

An innite number of modes exist, although at any nite frequency a nite number of modes are
TU

propagating.

Are parallel plate waveguides used in practice? Sometimes, but more often an unintentional parallel
plate waveguide is formed by a circuit designers attempt to shield a circuit from interference, or to eliminate
undesired radiation (emissions) from a circuit. In this case, on must be aware of the modes of the waveguide,
and especially the cuto frequencies of the allowed modes of propagation.
JN

interference signal undesired emission

IC chips
coupling via surface wave

initial circuit layout

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64 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

undesired emission

IC chips
coupling via surface wave

ld
shielded circuit layout

Or, perhaps, adding a top cover didnt cause problems at an operating frequency f0 < fc;n . Later,

or
operating frequency is increased and the circuit doesnt function properly because f0 > fc;n .(for some n)
and waveguide modes begin to propagate. One solution is to decrease d (to increase fc;n ), or to put in some
lossy dielectric material to absorb the emissions (however, energy loss from the circuit still occurs, perhaps
leading to circuit malfunction).
W
3.3 Rectangular Waveguide

A rectangular waveguide is a hollow (or dielectric lled) metal pipe with rectangular cross-section. It can
propagate TE and TM modes, but not TEM modes.
TU

b
JN

,
x
a

The table below provides a summary of results for rectangular waveguide.

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3.4. CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE 65

TEmn mode TMmn mode


p p
k q ! " q ! "
2 2 2 2
kc;mn (m =a) + (n =b) (m =a) + (n =b)
q q
mn k 2 kc;mn
2 k 2 kc;mn
2

c;mn 2 =kc;mn 2 =kc;mn


g;mn 2 = mn 2 = mn
vp;mn != mn != mn
Ez 0 Bmn sin (m x=a) sin (n y=b) e j mn z
Hz Amn cos (m x=a) cos (n y=b) e j mn z 0

ld
j! n j mn z j m j mn z
Ex k2 b Amn cos (m x=a) sin (n y=b) e 2
kc;mn a Bmn cos (m x=a) sin (n y=b) e
c;mn
j! m j mn z
j n j mn z
Ey 2
kc;mn a Amn sin (m x=a) cos (n y=b) e 2
kc;mn b Bmn sin (m x=a) cos (n y=b) e
j m j mn z
j!"n j mn z
Hx 2
kc;mn a Amn sin (m x=a) cos (n y=b) e 2
kc;mn b Bmn sin (m x=a) cos (n y=b) e
j n j mn z
j!"m j mn z
Hy k2 b Amn cos (mx=a) sin (n y=b) e k2 a Bmn cos (m x=a) sin (n y=b) e
c;mn c;mn
Z ZT E = k = mn ZT M = mn =k

or
TE modes:
r
m 2 n 2
mn = k2 ; m; n = 0; 1; 2; :::; (3.36)
a b
r
1 m 2 n 2
fc;mn = p + :
2 " a b
W
The rst (dominant) mode is the TE10 mode, assuming a b.
TM modes:
r
m 2 n 2
mn = k2 ; m; n = 1; 2; 3; :::; (3.37)
a b
r
1 m 2 n 2
fc;mn = p + :
2 " a b

The rst mode to propagate is the TM11 mode.


TU
JN

3.4 Circular Waveguide


Omit

3.5 Coaxial Line


TEM modes:

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66 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

V=V0

ld
V=0
b

b
Z0 = ln . (3.38)
2 a

or
V0
E = e j z; = k; (3.39)
ln (b=a)
r
" V0 j z
H = e :
ln (b=a)

The common value of 50 ohm for the characteristic impedance of many transmission lines comes from
some attributes of coaxial lines.
W
Power handling capacity: The maximum power capacity of a coaxial line is limited by voltage
breakdown, and is given by
a2 Ed2
Pmax = ln (b=a) (3.40)

where Ed is the eld strength at breakdown. Solving for the value of b=a that maximizes Pmax
leads to a characteristic impedance of 30 ohms, as follows: Holding b xed,

d 1 b
TU

Pmax = a2 + 2a ln =0 (3.41)
da a a

where = Ed2 = . This results in ln (b=a) = 1=2. Then,


r
1 b 1
Z0 = ln ' 60 = 30 ohms (3.42)
2 " a 2

assuming an air-lled line (long ago most coax was air-lled, since the available dielectric had too
much loss).
JN

Attenuation: The attenuation of a coaxial cable due to nite conductivity of the conductors is

Rs 1 1
c = b
. (3.43)
2 ln a
a b

The equation obtained by minimizing c is

b b b
ln =1+ (3.44)
a a a

which has solution


b
= 3:591: (3.45)
a

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3.6. SURFACE WAVES ON A GROUNDED DIELECTRIC SLAB 67

The corresponding characteristic impedance is


r
1 b
Z0 = ln ' 60 ln (3:591) = 76:71 ohms. (3.46)
2 " a
Therefore, 50 ohms represents a compromise between maximum power handling capability (30
ohms) and minimum attenuation (77 ohms), (30 + 76:71) =2 = 53:35. 50 ohms is also typically
realized using reasonable material dimensions.

Coaxial lines also support higher-order modes (TE and TM modes) (the cuto frequency for the rst
higher-order modes can be obtained approximately as

ld
c
fco ' p (3.47)
"r (a + b)
We will not consider them here, but it is important to note that above some frequency these modes will
begin to propagate. Multi-mode propagation is usually to be avoided, since more than one mode carries
power, potentially leading to increased dispersion (as will as inputoutput coupling e ciency decreases).

or
3.6 Surface Waves on a Grounded Dielectric Slab
A grounded dielectric slab is a dielectric sheet on a ground plane, and forms the backbone of printed circuit
technology.

x
W
surface wave
0
d r
z

This waveguide can support TE and TM surface waves, that are bound to the vicinity of the surface (they
TU

decay exponentially vertically). These waveguide can be used to carry signals in the horizontal direction,
and are, indeed, used for this purpose at very high frequencies (typically optical frequencies). At lower
microwave frequencies, and considering typical slab thickness values used in printed circuit technology, the
surface waves are not strongly bound to the surface, and so are not typically used as intentional waveguides.
However, circuits printed on a ground slab will excite surface waves that may interfere with other circuits
printed on the same substrate.
JN

circuit 1 circuit 2
coupling via surface wave

1. TM modes:
The TM modes have eld components Ez ; Ex ; and Hy . The propagation constant is determined by
the solution of q q q
2 2 2
er k02 tan er k02 d = "r k02 (3.48)

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68 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

and the cuto frequencies from


nc
fc = p ; n = 0; 1; 2; ::: (3.49)
2d "r 1

The n = 0 mode (TM0 ) propagates down to zero frequency (although exactly at ! = 0 the elds
vanish). Thus, this mode is always present, and often leads to undesirable coupling. In general, the
higher the frequency the more energy carried by surface waves, resulting in higher coupling.

2. TE modes:

ld
The TM modes have eld components Hz ; Hx ; and Ey . The propagation constant is determined by
the solution of q q q
2 2 2
er k02 cot er k02 d = k02 (3.50)

and the cuto frequencies from

(2n 1) c

or
fc = p ; n = 1; 2; 3; ::: (3.51)
4d "r 1

All TE modes have a low-frequency cuto.


W
TU

As discussed previously, surface waves can lead to signicant coupling between circuit elements. For
example, consider a grounded slab of thickness d and permittivity "r "0 , and an innite line source carrying
current
I = I0 cos (!t) ; (3.52)
as shown in the gure below.
x
JN

0
d r
z

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3.6. SURFACE WAVES ON A GROUNDED DIELECTRIC SLAB 69

This source produces only TE electromagnetic elds. For both the source and the observation point P (x; z)
placed on the dielectric interface, the total eld is given by
Z 1 p2 2
1 k0 x j z
Ey = F ( )e e d (3.53)
2 1

where p
p2 2 p2 2
k1 coth 2 k02
k d
2 k2 +
1+ p
p2 2 p 2 12
I0 0 k 1 coth k 1d
F( )= p (3.54)
j!"0 2 2 k2
p
with k1 = "r k0 . It can be shown that the eld can be decomposed into three parts:

ld
(1)
1. Ey due to the direct radiation from the source (in the absence of the grounded slab),
(2)
2. Ey due to interaction of the source and the grounded slab (e.g., multiple partial reections), and
(3
3. Ey due to surface waves excited in the slab.
The origins of these eld components are shown in the gure below.

or
x
P
(1)
E

(2)
E
W 0
d r E
(3)
z

The three eld components are, for x = 0; kz 1,


e jkjzj e jkjzj
Ey(1) ' E1 p Ey(2) ' E2 q Ey(3) ' E3 e j jzj
TU

; ; (3.55)
jkzj jkzj
3

where E1;2;3 are constants. Therefore, the surface wave is the dominant contribution to the eld, and does
not decay with distance from the source (for an innite source).
For "r = 2:25 and d = 1 cm, the TE surface waves are given as shown below.

1.5
JN

1.4
TE1

TE3
1.3
/ k0

TE5
1.2

1.1

1.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

f (GHz)

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70 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

At approximately 6:7 GHz, 20:12 GHz, and 33:5 GHz, the rst three TE surface waves begin to propagate,
respectively. After those frequencies, a plot of jEy j vs. frequency shows spikes corresponding to surface wave
excitation.

ld
3
E y (a.u.)

or
0
0 10 20 30 40
f (GHz)

3.7 Stripline
W
Stripline is formed by two ground planes with a conducting strip between the planes.

ground planes

, b
TU

conducting strip

Stripline supports a TEM mode. The analysis of the TEM (and the higher-order TE and TM modes) is
di cult; some results for the TEM modes are provided below.
p
=k=! " since TEM (3.56)
JN

30 b
Z0 ' p ; (3.57)
"r we + 0:441b
w
we w 0; b > 0:35;
= w 2 w :
b b 0:35 b ; b < 0:35

To obtain strip width w for a given Z0 ,


p
w x; e Z < 120;
= p pr 0 ; (3.58)
b 0:85 0:6 x; er Z0 > 120
30
x = p 0:441:
"r Z0

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3.8. MICROSTRIP 71

3.8 Microstrip
Microstrip transmission line is one of the most common types of transmission line extensively used in printed-
circuit technology (printed using photolithographic techniques). It consists of a conductor of width w printed
on a grounded dielectric slab.

w
conducting strip
ground plane

ld
, b

or
Microstrip does not support a TEM mode. In fact, microstrip doesnt support TE or TM modes either,
only hybrid modes (those with all six eld components). However, the dominant mode is like, at su ciently
low frequencies, a TEM mode, prompting a quasi-TEM analysis. The details are included in the text, with
some results summarized below.
p p
= k0 "e = ! 0 "0 "e ; (3.59)
! c
vp = =p ;
"e
W 0
g = p ;
"e

where
" r + 1 "r 1 1
"e = + q ; 1 < "e < "r : (3.60)
2 2 1+ 12b
w

If given line dimensions we obtain Z0 as


TU

( 60 8bw w
p
"e ln w +
4b ; b 1
Z0 = 120
; w
1 ; (3.61)
p b
"e [ w
d +1:393+0:667 ln( d +1:444)]
w

and for a given characteristic impedance and dielectric constant, the required w=b ratio is
( 8eA w
w
= h 2;
e2A i b < 2;
(3.62)
2 "r 1 0:61 w
b B 1 ln (2B 1) + 2"r ln (B 1) + 0:39 "r ; b > 2;
JN

where
r
Z0 "r + 1 "r 1 0:11
A = + 0:23 + ; (3.63)
60 2 "r + 1 "r
377
B = p :
2Z0 "r

Example 3.1 Design a microstrip line on a "r = 2:25 substrate of thickness b = 0:2 cm to have a charac-
teristic impedance of 50 ohms.
Solution: From the above equations, w=b = 3:037, so w = 0:6074 cm.

Dispersion:

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72 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

The previous formulas for Z0 and "e are valid for low frequencies. The eects of frequency can be
approximately accounted for using
p
p 2
"r "e p
"ef f (f ) = + " e ; (3.64)
1 + 4F 3=2
r
"ef f (f ) 1 "e
Z0 (f ) = Z0 ;
"e 1 "ef f (f )

where p
4bf "r 1 1 h w i2
F = + 1 + 2 log10 1 + (3.65)

ld
c 2 b

or
W
Plot of "ef f (f ) vs. f . "ef f (0) = "e .

Losses:

Losses on microstrip consist of three components: conductor loss, dielectric loss, and radiation loss. Usu-
ally conductor loss dominants over dielectric loss (at least for high-quality microwave substrates). Radiation
loss include energy converted into surface waves, and energy radiated into space. Both eects are most
signicant at circuit discontinuities, and are minimized when b= 0 0:01 (e.g., at 2:4 GHz, 0 = 12:5 cm,
TU

and most practical substrates are electrically very thin).


Approximate conductor and dielectric loss formulas as
Rs
c ' Np/m, (3.66)
wZ0
p
where Rs = ! 0 =2 is the surface resistivity of the conductor, and

k0 "r ("e 1) tan


d = p Np/m, (3.67)
2 "e ("r 1)
JN

where tan = Im f"g = Re f"g.


In summary, we have considered several types of transmission lines and waveguiding structures. Some,
like stripline, coaxial line, and parallel plate waveguides, support REM modes, as well as TE and TM modes.
Others, like rectangular waveguide and grounded slab waveguides, only support TE and TM modes. Still
others, like microstrip, only support hybrid modes.
If a structure supports a TEM mode and is lossless, then that mode (there may be others too) can be
modeled using the transmission line theory developed in Chapter 2. For these modes
p p
= ! " = ! LC; (3.68)
p
and Z0 = L=C follows from the eld analysis in Section 2:2.

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3.9. THE TRANSVERSE RESONANCE TECHNIQUE 73

If a structure does not support a TEM mode, then no unique denition of Z0 exists, although often only
the ratio of impedance values is necessary.
To examine actual high-frequency eects on microstrip transmission lines, consider a line 10 cm long,
1:73 cm wide, on a d = 0:5 cm grounded dielectric slab having "r = 2:2, such that Z0 ' 50 ohms (by
approximate analysis) at 5 GHz. The transmission parameter S21 in dB, as computed by Ansoft Designer
SV, is approximately 0 dB for 1 f 10 GHz (it decreases from 0 dB at 1 GHz to 0:2 dB at 10 GHz.
To compare with a more accurate analysis, the same structure was analyzed by Ansoft Ensemble SV, which
performs an accurate (and time consuming) electromagnetic analysis. The line is fed and terminated by 50
ohm probes. The results is shown below.

ld
10 cm microstrip line, probe fed and terminated.
Full-wave electromagnetic analysis.
w=1.7262 cm, d=0.5 cm, r=2.2
0

-10

or
S 21 (dB)

-20

-30
W
-40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
f (GHz)

In large part, the decrease in S21 at high frequency is due to the probes, which cant be analyzed by the
simple circuit-based analysis. For comparison, the simulation in Designer was virtually instantaneous, while
TU

the more accurate Ensemble simulation took about 20 minutes.

3.9 The Transverse Resonance Technique


Skip

3.10 Wave Velocities and Dispersion


p
JN

For sinusoidal steady-state situations we have c = 1= ", the speed of light in the material characterized
by ; ", and vp = != . For a TEM wave vp = c, whereas for TE and TM modes these velocities dier (and
generally vp c). In this case there is another velocity that is useful (and physically signicant) to describe
the propagation of signals.

Group Velocity:

The group velocity, vg , is the velocity at which a narrow-band signal propagates. Considering a signal to
be made up of many Fourier components at dierent frequencies, one can dene a phase velocity for each
wave component. If is not a linear function of !, then vp = != is dierent for each Fourier component.
As a result, the wave breaks up as it propagates down the line, resulting in dispersion. No single phase
velocity describes the wave. The concept of group velocity overcomes this problem for narrow-band signals.

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74 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

Let

f (t) : time-domain signal,


F (!) : frequency domain (Fourier transform) signal

f (t) $ F (!)

where the Fourier transform pair is


Z 1

ld
j!t
F (!) = f (t) e dt; (3.69)
1
Z 1
1
f (t) = F (!) ej!t d!:
2 1

Modeling the system (in this case, the transmission line) as having transfer function Z (!), then

or
Fin () Fo ()
Z ()

transfer function of transmission line


W
Fo (!) = Z (!) Fin (!) : (3.70)

Question: What is the transfer function Z (!)? Consider a lossless, matched line,
TU

Z 0 ,v p ZL
Z in

z=-L z=0

where ZL = Z0 . In this case v (z) = v0+ e j z


, such that
JN

v ( L) = v0+ ej L
; (3.71)
v (0) = v0+ ;

and so
vout j (!)L
= Z (!) = e : (3.72)
vin

Therefore, the transfer function of a lossless, matched line of length L is e j (!)L .


Question: What is Fin (!)? Fin (!) is the Fourier components of the signal fin (t).

Example 3.2 If fin (t) is a rectangular pulse of width 2T0 ,

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3.10. WAVE VELOCITIES AND DISPERSION 75

f(t)

ld
t
2To

Z 1
j!t
Fin (!) = fin (t) e dt (3.73)

or
1
Z 2T0
j!t j!T0 sin (!T0 )
= e dt = 2T0 e :
0 (!T0 )

0.8
W 0.6

0.4

0.2

-10 -5 0 5 10
x
-0.2
TU

Plot of sin( x) = ( x) vs. x.


Therefore, the time-domain output is
Z 1
1
fo (t) = Fo (!) ej!t d! (3.74)
2 1
Z 1
1
= Z (!) Fin (!) ej!t d!
2 1
Z 1
1
JN

j (!)L
= e Fin (!) ej!t d!
2 1
Z 1
1
= Fin (!) ej(!t (!)L)
d!:
2 1
p
If (!) = ! (linear in !; = " for TEM waves), then
Z 1
1
fo (t) = Fin (!) ej!(t L)
d! (3.75)
2 1
= fin (t L) ,
which is an exact replica of fin (t) shifter by L to account for time delay in passing through the network.
p p
For example, if = ", then L = "L = L=c = T , the one-way transit time.

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76 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

Therefore, lossless TEM lines are dispersionless.

If (!) is not linear in !, (as for TE and TM waves), then


Z 1
1
fo (t) = Fin (!) ej(!t (!)L)
d! =? (3.76)
2 1

and fo (t) is not, in general, simply a replica of fin (t).


If (!) is not linear in !, the dispersion will occur.

ld
To consider group velocity, consider a narrow-band signal
s (t) = f (t) cos (! 0 t) = Re f (t) ej!0 t (3.77)
as in an amplitude modulated waveform with carrier frequency ! 0 . the signal f (t) represents some informa-
tion that is modulated with a high frequency carrier for transmission. Assume that the highest frequency
component of f (t) is ! m , and that ! m ! 0 . The various Fourier transforms are

or
Z 1
F (!) = f (t) e j!t dt; (3.78)
1
Z 1 Z 1
S (!) = s (t) e j!t dt = f (t) ej!0 t e j!t dt
1 1
Z 1
j(! 0 !)t
= f (t) e dt
1
W = F (! !0 ) :
F ( )


TU

S ( )


0 0
JN

Now, consider the modulated signal to be the input to a transmission line or waveguide having transfer
function Z (!) = e j z .
Sin (!) = F (! ! 0 ) ; (3.79)
So (!) = F (! ! 0 ) e j z ;
Z 1
1
so (t) = Re So (!) ej!t d!
2 1
Z 1
1
= Re F (! ! 0 ) e j z ej!t d!
2 1
Z !0 +!m
1
= Re F (! ! 0 ) ej(!t z) d!:
2 !0 !m

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3.10. WAVE VELOCITIES AND DISPERSION 77

If ! m ! 0 , expand (!) about ! 0 ,

d 1 d2 2
(!) = (! 0 ) + (! !0 ) + (! ! 0 ) + ::: (3.80)
d! !=! 0 2 d! 2 !=! 0
0
' 0 + 0 (! !0 ) :

Then,
Z ! 0 +! m
1
so (t) = Re F (! ! 0 ) ej(!t z)
d! (3.81)
2 !0 !m

ld
Z !0 +!m
1 0
= Re F (! ! 0 ) ej (!t 0 z 0 (! !0 )z) d!
2 ! !
Z !0 m m
1 0
= Re F (y) ej ((y+!0 )t 0 z 0 yz) dy (c.o.v. y = ! !0 )
2 !m
Z !m
1 0
= Re ej(!0 t 0 z) F (y) ej (t 0 z)y dy
2

or
!m

which is
n o
0
so (t) = Re ej(!0 t 0 z) f t 0z (3.82)
0
= f t 0z cos (! 0 t 0 z)

which is a time-shifted replica of the input fin (t).


W
The velocity of the envelope f t 0
0 z is the group velocity,

0
t 0z = constant, (3.83)
d 0
t 0z = 0;
dz
1
1 0 1 d
= 0; ) vg = 0 = :
vg 0 d!
!=! 0
TU

Waveguide velocities:

r
p ! 2
= k2 kc2 = kc2 ; (3.84)
c
d ! c2 c
= ; v g = = :
d! c2 ! k0
JN

! k0 c
vp = = ;
k0 c c
vg < c < vp ; vp vg = = c2 :
k0

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78 CHAPTER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

ld
or
W
TU
JN

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Chapter 4

Microwave Network Analysis

ld
4.1 Impedance and Equivalent Voltage and Currents

or
Voltage and current can be uniquely dened for TEM transmission lines

H
W + E

-
TU

Z ( )
v= E dl (4.1)
(+)

independent of path l from one conductor to another, and


I
I= H dl; (4.2)
JN

C+

where C + is any closed path enclosing the (+) conductor. With

v
Z0 = (4.3)
I
we see that Z0 is uniquely dened.

Voltage and current cannot be uniquely dened for a non-TEM line.

As an example, consider a rectangular waveguide.

79

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80 CHAPTER 4. MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS

ld
0 a x

or
x Ey1;0
Ey1;0 = A sin e j z
; Hx1;0 = ; (4.4)
a ZT1;0
E

where ZT1;0
E =k = 1;0 . Then, for the T E10 at z = 0,
Z ( ) Z b
x x
v= E dl = A sin dy = Ab sin (4.5)
W (+) 0 a a

and we see that voltage depends on position x. At x = 0 we obtain v = 0, and at x = a=2 we obtain v = Ab.
Therefore, voltage associated with the T E10 mode is not unique.
What can be done for non-TEM lines? Useful results are often obtained from the following considerations:

1. Dene voltage and current for a particular mode such that voltage is proportional to the transverse
electric eld and current is proportional to the transverse magnetic eld.
TU

2. Voltages and currents should be dened so that their product gives the power ow (which is uniquely
dened) of the mode.

3. The ratio of voltage to current for a single travelling wave should be chosen equal to the characteristic
impedance of the line. Not that this value is itself arbitrary.

Proceeding with the rectangular waveguide example, let vc be the voltage evaluated along the center of
the guide (at x = a=2); vc = Ab. Let
Z a Z a
A x a A
JN

Iz = Hx dx = 1;0 sin dx = 2 : (4.6)


0 ZT E 0 a ZT1;0
E

vc Ab b 1;0
Z0 = = a A = Z : (4.7)
Iz 2 Z 1;0 2 a TE
TE

This is known as the voltage-current denition of Z0 . Other denitions:

P
Z0 = ; power-current, (4.8)
Iz2
v2
Z0 = c ; power-voltage.
P

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4.1. IMPEDANCE AND EQUIVALENT VOLTAGE AND CURRENTS 81

Since
Z
1
P = Re fE H g dS (4.9)
2 S
2
ab jAj
= ;
4 ZT1;0
E

the power-current denition yields


2
ab jAj
4 Z 1;0 1b 2

ld
Z0 = TE
2 = ZT1;0
E (4.10)
a A 4a 2
2 1;0
ZT E

and the power voltage yields


2
(Ab) b
Z0 = = 4 ZT1;0 : (4.11)
ab jAj
2
a E
4 Z 1;0

or
TE

Note that each of the three denitions results in a dierent value for Z0 , but that all denitions result in the
form
b 1;0
Z0 = Z ; (4.12)
a TE
where is a constant. Thus, methods that only depend on the ratios of impedances will work (and give the
same answer) regardless of how Z0 is dened.
W
If one needs to match a waveguide (or other non-TEM line) to a structure that has a unique impedance
(i.e., a TEM line), then the usual approach is to use the denition that gives the best agreement between
experiment and theory.
Often, for non-TEM lines, and for TEM lines as well, one needs to consider the electromagnetic eld
analysis of the structure (at least to some extent). Consider example 4.2 in the text, which shows the side
view of a waveguide junction.

y =b
0 r 0
TU

TE10

y =0 z
z=0

a = 3:485 cm, b = 1:580 cm,


JN

"r = 2:56; f = 4:5 GHz,

such that r
2
1
a = k02 = 27:5 m
a
for the air-lled guide, TE10 mode, and
r
2
1
d = "r k02 = 120:89 m
a
for the dielectric lled guide. Only the TE10 mode propagates in either region.

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82 CHAPTER 4. MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS

Z0a Z0b

z=0

ld
k0 0
Z0a = = 1292:1 ohms,
a

or
k
Z0d = = 293:9 ohms,
d
Z0d Z0a
= = 0:629;
Z0d + Z0a

the same result for


W
would be obtained for any of the three denitions of Z0 . So, this is enough analysis.

However, consider the juncture of two waveguides having dierent cross-sections but where b=a remains
constant. Assuming the T E10 mode propagates in both sections, Z0 is the same in each section! This would
imply = 0 which doesnt make sense. So, a one-mode transmission line analysis is not enough here.

Physically, the geometrical change at z = 0 excites an innite number of higher-order modes. Those that
propagate (i.e., those that are above cuto) will travel away from the discontinuity. Below cuto modes will
decay away from the z = 0, but will store energy in the vicinity of z = 0. This stored energy can be a very
TU

important part of the analysis. In the end, usually a transmission line mode can be obtained, with lumped
reactances modeling the stored energy eects (see text Section 4.6).
JN

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4.1. IMPEDANCE AND EQUIVALENT VOLTAGE AND CURRENTS 83

ld
or
W
TU
JN

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84 CHAPTER 4. MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS

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or
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JN

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Chapter 5

Impedance Matching and Tuning

ld
The purpose of a matching network is to provide a good match between a given transmission line and a
given load. In this chapter we will consider ways to design matching networks with consideration to matching

or
network bandwidth, physical implementation of the network, and the ability to adjust the network. Several
types

Zg

matching
Vg +
-
Z 0 ,v p network ZL
W Z in

Transformer Matching
(not in text book)
A transformer can be used to match a real-valued load RL to a line having characteristic impedance Z0
TU

by appropriate choice of the turns ratio.

Zg n1:n2
i1 i2
+ +

+ V1 V2
Vg - ZL
Z1 Z2
JN

- -

Assume Zg = Z0 and ZL = RL . Assuming an ideal transformer,


V2 n2 i2 n1
= ; = : (5.1)
V1 n1 i1 n2
We want Z1 = Z0 and Z2 = RL , where Z1 = V1 =i1 , Z2 = V2 =i2 . Then
n1 2 2
V1 n2 V 2 n1 V2 n1
Z1 = = n2 = = Z2 : (5.2)
i1 n1 i2 n2 i2 n2

85

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86 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

Recalling that we want Z1 = Z0 and Z2 = RL we obtain


2 2
n1 n1
Z1 = Z0 = Z2 = RL ; (5.3)
n2 n2

and so
2
n1
Z0 = RL : (5.4)
n2
So, given Z0 and RL , a transformer with turns ratio

ld
r
n1 Z0
= (5.5)
n2 RL

provides a perfect impedance match.

Example 5.1 Match a 300 ohm line to a 75 ohm load.

or
Solution: Choose r r
n1 Z0 300
= = = 2: (5.6)
n2 RL 75

This technique works very well at low frequencies, where a transformer can be constructed to operate in
a somewhat ideal fashion. The common 300 ohmto75 ohm adapter used in many television systems
utilizes this technique.
W
The match is frequency independent over the band of frequencies for which the transformer exhibits
nearly ideal behavior.

5.1 Matching with Lumped Elements (L Networks)

jX
TU

(a) Z 0 jB Z L

jX

(b) jB Z L
JN

By correct choice of X and B, a perfect match from Z0 to complex-valued ZL can be achieved (at one
frequency).

If ZL =Z0 is inside the unity circle on the Smith chart, choose design (a), else choose design (b).

As in all matching network designs, the goal is to reach the center of the Smith chart.

The procedure is best explained with an example.

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5.1. MATCHING WITH LUMPED ELEMENTS (L NETWORKS) 87

Example 5.2 Match a 50 ohm line to a 100 + j100 ohm load using an L network.
Solution: ZL =Z0 = (100 + j100) =50 = 2 + j2; choose design (a).
From the Smith chart,

B = 0:19 ) inductor, (5.7)


1 0:19
Binductor = =
!L 50
) !L = 263:16;

X = 1:7 ) capacitor, (5.8)

ld
1
Xcap = = 1:7 (50)
!C
) !C = 0:0118:

or
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TU
JN

Equations are presented in the text to solve this problem as well. For design (a), with ZL = RL + jXL ,
p p
XL RL =Z0 RL 2 + X2 Z0 RL
L
B = 2 2 ; (5.9)
RL + X L
1 XL Z0 Z0
X = + :
B RL BRL

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88 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

For the previous example, (5.9) yields

B = 0:0038 ) !L = 263:159;
X = 86:6 ) !C = 0:0115:

Example 5.3 Using the calculated values of !L and !C, pick L and C for a perfect match at f = 30 GHz,
and plot the reection coe cient vs. frequency.

ld
1.0

0.8

0.6

or
0.4

0.2

0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
f (GHz)
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5.1.1 Lumped Elements
Lumped (R; L, and C) elements can be realized at high frequencies if the size of the element is small compared
to . Unfortunately, their performance is usually quite non-ideal. For instance, elements may (and often do)
exhibit stray/parasitic capacitance, inductance, and resistance eects. Elements often have a non-negligible
fringing eld, and may resonant at certain frequencies (depending on the physical structure of the element).
TU
JN

5.2 Single-Stub Tuning


(single lumped element also)

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5.2. SINGLE-STUB TUNING 89

jX

Z 0 Z 1 Z L

Given Z0 and (complex) ZL , the goal is to choose X and (Z1 ; L) such that a perfect match is obtained at

ld
a given frequency. Often Z1 is chosen as Z0 for convenience. The procedure will be illustrated by example.

Example 5.4 Series matching:

jX

or
Z 0 Z 1 Z L

Z in Z A L

Assume Z0 = Z1 = 50 ohms, ZL = 25 + j30 ohms. Then, Z L = ZL =Z0 = 0:5 + j0:6. We want Zin = 50
ohms.
W
1. Choose L such that Re Z A = 1.

2. Choose X such that Im fZin = ZA + jXg = 0 (at which point we are at the center of the Smith chart.

Proceeding as above,

1. Start at Z L on Smith chart and rotate to either


TU

(a) Point E, Z A = 1 + j1:1 and L = 0:065 , or


(b) Point F, Z A = 1 j1:1 and L = 0:235 .

(a) From Point E, add a series capacitor such that

1 1
X Cap = 1:1 ) = 1:1 ) !Ccap = 0:01818;
!Ccap 50
or,
JN

(b) From Point F, add a series inductor such that

1
X ind = 1:1 ) !Lind = 1:1 ) !Lind = 55:
50
Therefore, two possible designs are

!Ccap = 0:01818; L = 0:065

and
!Lind = 55; L = 0:235 :
The rst design is better, since L is shorter. Note that 1(a) ! 2(a), and 1(b) ! 2(b).

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90 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

If, for example, f = 2 GHz ( = 15 cm),

!Ccap = 0:01818 ) Ccap = 1:45 pF, L = 0:975 cm,


!Lind = 55 ) Lind = 4:38 nH, L = 3:53 cm.

1.0

0.8 Inductor

ld
0.6
Capacitor

0.4

0.2

or
0.0
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

W f (GHz)
TU
JN

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5.2. SINGLE-STUB TUNING 91

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92 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

Design using non-lumped elements: short-circuited or open-circuited stubs:

Usually short-circuited stubs are preferable to open-circuited stubs, since they dont radiate. If using a
stub rather than a lumped element, the design proceeds as described above as far as the determination of X
and L. To generate a certain X, one chooses a stub having the appropriate length Ls using the Smith chart.
For example, to generate X = 1:1 (assuming Z0;stub = Z0 = 50 ohms) for a short-circuited stub, start
at Z = 0 on the Smith chart (corresponding to a short circuit) and rotate toward the generator to X = 1:1
(Point 1). The corresponding length is Ls = 0:368 (Ls = 5:52 cm at 2 GHz).
To generate X = 1:1 (assuming Z0;stub = Z0 = 50 ohms) for a short-circuited stub, start at Z = 0 on the
Smith chart and rotate toward the generator to X = 1:1 (Point 2). The corresponding length is Ls = 0:132

ld
(Ls = 1:98 cm at 2 GHz).

or
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5.2. SINGLE-STUB TUNING 93

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There are four possible combinations if we assume Z0;stub = Z0 and if open-circuited stubs are acceptable.
The design resulting in the shortest stub length should generally be chosen, everything else being equal.

Stubs with Z0;stub 6= Z0 :

If we choose stubs having characteristic impedances dierent than Z0 of the line, we can often obtain
shorter stubs. For example, if the stub needs to provide X = 1:1, and Z0;stub = 100 ohms, then for a
short-circuited stub
1:1 (50)
JN

= 0:55 ) Ls = 0:08 ( = 1:2 cm at 2 GHz).


100
High characteristic impedance short-circuited stubs are good for implementing inductive reactance.

Try to implement X = 1:1 with Z0;stub = 10 ohms and a shorted line:

1:1 (50)
= 5:5 ) Ls = 0:279 ( = 4:128 cm at 2 GHz).
10
Low characteristic impedance short-circuited stubs are good for implementing capacitive reactance.

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94 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

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All of the previous steps were for series stubs. Another approach is to use parallel (shunt) stubs, or shunt
lumped elements.

Z 0 jB Z 1 Z L
JN

Y in YA L

The procedure is similar to that for series stubs, except you begin at Y L rather than Z L .
Note: The procedure using lumped elements and stubs is identical through identifying the required value
of X (or B). After that point, we either determine !Lind or !Ccap , or for a stub design we determine the
required stub length. For all of the designs, it is convenient to use the Smith chart. The Smith chart also
leads to better insight into the problem, compared to using design equations.

Example 5.5 A lossless 200 ohm line is connected to a 100 j150 ohm load. Design

1. a single short-circuited shunt stub matching network (Z0;stub = 200 ohms),

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5.2. SINGLE-STUB TUNING 95

2. a single open-circuited shunt stub matching network (Z0;stub = 200 ohms), and
3. a lumped element shunt matching network.

For the stub designs, use the shortest stub lengths possible.
Solution:

Ls

Z 0

ld
Z 0
Z 0 Z L

Y in
L
1.

or
100 j150
ZL = = 0:5 j0:75;
200
YL = 0:62 + j0:92:

Enter the Smith chart at Y L and rotate along the constant SW R circle towards the generator until you
W
intersect the G = 1 circle.
Y A = 1 + j1:3 Y B = 1 j1:3
) LA = 0:036 ) LB = 0:194
stub needs to provide j1:3 stub needs to provide +j1:3
) LA s = 0:105 ) LB s = 0:396
Choose Design A,
LA = 0:036 ; LA
s = 0:105 .
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JN

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96 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

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2. Same as (1) up through


Y A = 1 + j1:3 Y B = 1 j1:3
) LA = 0:036 ) LB = 0:194
stub needs to provide j1:3 stub needs to provide +j1:3
For an open-circuited stub, LA B
s = 0:354 and Ls = 0:146 .
Choose Design B,
LB = 0:194 ; LB
s = 0:146 .
JN

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5.2. SINGLE-STUB TUNING 97

Ls

Z 0

Z 0
Z 0 Z L

Y in
L

ld
ZL = 100 j150 ohms, Z0 = 200 ohms.

or
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TU
JN

3. Same as (1) up through


Y A = 1 + j1:3 Y B = 1 j1:3
) LA = 0:036 ) LB = 0:194
In this case the lumped element must be chosen to supply
B A = j1:3 B B = +j1:3
j 1:3 1:3
)choose inductor, !Lind = 200 ; )choose capacitor, !Ccap = 200 ;
!Lind = 153:85 !Ccap = 0:0065:

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98 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

To compare designs, assume f0 = 900 MHz ( = 33:33 cm). Then,

1. short-circuited stubs:

LA = 0:036 = 1:20 cm LB = 0:194 = 6:466 cm


LA
s = 0:105 = 3:50 cm LB
s = 0:396 = 13:20 cm

2. open-circuit stubs:

ld
LA = 0:036 = 1:20 cm LB = 0:194 = 6:466 cm
LA
s = 0:354 = 11:80 cm LB
s = 0:146 = 4:867 cm

3. lumped elements

or
LA = 0:036 = 1:20 cm LB = 0:194 = 6:466 cm
Lind = 2 153:85
900 106 = 27:21 nH Ccap = 2 0:0065
900 106 = 1:15 pF

Short-Circuit Stub
1.0
W0.8

0.6
B

0.4

A
0.2
TU

0.0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

f (GHz)

Open-Circuit Stub
1.0
JN

0.8
B
0.6
A

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

f (GHz)

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5.3. DOUBLE-STUB TUNING 99

Lumped Elements
1.0

0.8

0.6


0.4 B

ld
0.2 A

0.0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

f (GHz)

or
5.3 Double-Stub Tuning
(double lumped element also)
Single-stub matching can match any load impedance, but (L; Ls ) must be chosen correctly. Since it is
often hard to have a stub that can be moved along a transmission line (if, say, ZL or operating frequency
W
changed), it would be useful to x the distance from the load to the stub(s), and simply choose the correct
stub length. The double-stub tuner allows this to be done, and changes in ZL or operating frequency can be
accommodated by changing Ls1 and Ls2 , with L1;2 xed. Note: the text book places the rst stub over the
load impedance. The method shown here is more exible, since sometimes the load terminals are not easily
accessible.

L s2 L s1
TU

Z 0
Z 0 Z L

A B

Y in
L2 L1

Procedure:
JN

1. Mark Y L on the Smith chart and draw constant SW R circle.


2. Draw G = 1 circle rotated by L2 (Smith chart on the next page shows L2 = =8).
3. Move from Y L a distance L1 on the constant SW R circle (toward generator) to get to Y B + .
4. Add susceptance (moving on constant G circle) to get to intersection with rotated G = 1 circle, Point
Y B . The added susceptance comes form choosing Ls1 correctly.
5. Draw a new constant SW R circle using Point Y B . Rotate on new SW R circle a distance L2 (you
will intersect the non-rotated G = 1 circle at Point Y A+ ).
6. Add susceptance (moving along G = 1 circle to get to the center of the Smith chart, Y A .

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100 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

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or
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TU

Example 5.6 For the double stub tuner shown below, nd the shortest lengths of Ls1 and Ls2 for a match
if ZL = 400 + j200 ohms and Z0 = 200 ohms. Assume L1 = 3 =16 and L2 = =8.
Solution:

L s2 L s1

Z
JN

Z 0 0 Z L

A B

Y in
L2 L1

400 + j200
ZL = = 2 + j1;
200
1
YL = = 0:4 j0:2:
ZL
1. Enter Smith chart at Y L .

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5.3. DOUBLE-STUB TUNING 101

2. Rotate on constant SW R circle 3 =16.

3. Add susceptance Y = j0:925 ti intersect the rotated G = 1 circle.

4. Rotate on new SW R circle to intersect non-rotated G = 1 circle (this is the same as de-rotating the
point on the rotated G = 1 circle).

5. Add susceptance Y = j0:17 to get to the center of the Smith chart.

ld
Now we know we need to add Y = j0:925 at Point B, and Y = j0:17 at Point A. We obtain these
values by choosing Ls1 and Ls2 correctly.

6. Rotate from Y = 1 Z = 0 to obtain Y = j0:925: ) Ls1 = 0:131 :

7. Rotate from Y = 1 Z = 0 to obtain Y = j0:17: ) Ls2 = 0:223 :

or
Note: We could have used lumped inductors to provide the Y values. Also, at Point 2 on the Smith chart
we could have added susceptance to intersect the rotated G = 1 circle at a di erent point.
W
TU
JN

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102 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

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1.0

0.8

0.6
JN

0.4

0.2

0.0
20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

f (GHz)

Example 5.7 A 100 + j100 ohm load is to be matched to a 50 ohm line using a double stub tuner as shown
below. Determine the stub lengths to provide a patch, and nd the forbidden zone of impedance/admittance
values. L1 = 0:4 , L2 = 3 =8.

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5.3. DOUBLE-STUB TUNING 103

Solution:

L s2 L s1

Z 0
Z 0 Z L

A B

ld
Y in
L2 L1

100 + j100
ZL = = 2 + j2;
50
YL = 0:25 j0:25:
The stub having length Ls1 needs to provide Y = j1:3 1:4 + B = :1 ) B = 1:3 . The stub having length

or
Ls2 needs to provide Y = j0:6. From the Smith chart,
Ls1 = 0:1459 ;
W Ls2 = 0:086 :
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JN

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104 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

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1.0
JN

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

f (GHz)

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5.4. THE QUARTER-WAVE TRANSFORMER 105

5.4 The Quarter-Wave Transformer


In this section we will consider the bandwidth performance of a single quarter-wave transformer. In subse-
quent sections we will determine how to design multi-section quarter-wave transforms that can be used to
achieve a broadband match.

ld
Z0 Z1 RL
Z in

/4
p
We know that if Z1 = Z0 RL the above quarter-wave transformer provides a perfect match at the

or
frequency where L = =4. To determine the behavior of the transformer at other frequencies, consider the
expression
RL + jZ1 tan L
Zin = Z1 :
Z1 + jRL tan L
Let = L = electrical length, such that
2 0
L= (5.10)
4
such that
W L=
2 0
= (5.11)
0 4 2
at the design frequency f0 (c = 0 f0 ). Then,
Zin Z0 RL Z0
in = = p (5.12)
Zin + Z0 RL + Z0 + j2 tan Z0 RL
p
(using Z1 = Z0 RL ). By further manipulations, it is shown that
TU

1
j in j =h i1=2 : (5.13)
2
1 + 4Z0 RL = (RL Z0 ) sec2

If we assume f ' f0 , then ' =2 and sec2 1, resulting in


jRL Z0 j
j in j = p jcos j = jcos j (5.14)
2 Z0 RL
where is a constant. If RL does not vary with frequency,
JN

||

= L

m /2 m

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106 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

where
2 0 0 f
= L= = = : (5.15)
4 2 2 f0
| {z }
assum ing TEM m o de

If we have a value m for the maximum reection coe cient that can be tolerated, then we obtain a usable
bandwidth of
m : =2 (5.16)
2
The approximation f ' f0 was made to see where the characteristic veeshape in the above plot comes
from. We can determine a more useful expression for bandwidth by equating m with the exact expression

ld
for j in j,
1
j mj = h i1=2 ; (5.17)
2
1 + 4Z0 RL = (RL Z0 ) sec2 m

1 4Z0 RL 2
2 = 1+ 2 sec m
j mj (RL Z0 )

or
p 2
2 Z0 RL 1
= 1+ :
(RL Z0 ) cos m

Solving for cos m,


p
m 2 RL Z0
cos m = p ; (5.18)
1 2 jRL Z0 j
m
W 1 m
p
2 RL Z0
!
m = cos p :
1 2 jRL Z0 j
m

Since m = ( =2) (fm =f0 ), the frequency at the lower band edge is
2 m
fm = f0 : (5.19)

If we dene fractional bandwidth as


TU

f 2 (f0 fm ) 2fm 4
= =2 =2 m (5.20)
f0 f0 f0
we obtain p !
f 4 4 1 m 2 RL Z0
=2 m =2 cos p : (5.21)
f0 1 2 jRL
m
Z0 j
The above analysis assumes TEM lines, and ignores the eects of reactance associated with discontinuities
of the transmission line when there is a step change in line width. The latter eect can be compensated for
JN

by making a small adjustment in the length of the matching section.

Example 5.8 Design a quarter-wave transformer to match a 75 ohm line to a 30 ohm load at 1 GHz.
Determine the percent bandwidth for which SW R 2.
Solution: Since at f0 = 1 GHz 0 = 30 cm,

0 30
L = = = 7:5 cm,
4
p 4
Z1 = (75) (30) = 47:43 ohms.

For SW R = 2,
SW R 1 1
m = =
SW R + 1 3

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5.5. THE THEORY OF SMALL REFLECTIONS 107

and so

p !
f 4 1 2 RL Z0
m
= 2 cos p
f0 1 2 jRL
m
Z0 j
0 p 1
4 1=3 2 (75) (30) A
= 2 cos 1 @ q
2 j30 75j
1 (1=3)
4 1 4
= 2 cos (0:7454) = 2 0:7297 = 1:071;

ld
or 107% bandwidth. The means the band extends from

f
f0 = 0:465 GHz
2

or
to
f
f0 + = 1:535 GHz.
2

Note: for SW R < 1:1, m = 0:0476 and f =f0 = 0:128 (12:8%), or from 0:936 GHz to 1:064 GHz. So,
W
as desired SW R #, m #, and BW #.

For a xed m, the larger the ratio RL =Z0 (or Z0 =RL ), the smaller the bandwidth, as shown below.
TU

|| ZL
= 4, 0.25
Z0

ZL
= 2, 0.5
Z0

1
JN

5.5 The Theory of Small Reections

The theory of small reections will facilitate the development of approximate formulas for the design of
multi-section quarter-wave transformers, which will be shown to be relatively broadband.

I. Single Section Transformer:

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108 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

T 21
T 12
Z1 Z2 RL

1 2 3

ld
T 21
1
-j
1 e

-j
e 3
T 12
-j
2 e

or
-j 3
e
T 12

2
W
Z2 Z1 ZL Z2
1 = ; 2 = 1; 3 = ; (5.22)
Z2 + Z1 ZL + Z2
T21 = 1 + 1 ; T12 = 1 + 2 ;

where is the overall reection coe cient and i, i = 1; 2; 3, are the interfacial reection coe cients. We
have
j2 2 j4
= + T12 T21 3e + T12 T21 3 2e + ::: (5.23)
TU

1
1
X
j2 n n j2n
= 1 + T12 T21 3e 2 3e :
n=0

Using the geometric series result


1
X 1
xn = for jxj < 1 (5.24)
n=0
1 x
leads to
JN

j2
T12 T21 3 e
= 1 + j2
(5.25)
1 2 3e
j2
1 + 3 e
= :
1 + 1 3 e j2
If the impedance do not dier greatly, then 1 and 3 are small, and so 1 3 is very small compared to 1
and so
j2
' 1 + 3e : (5.26)
The above expression shows that is dominated by the rst reection from the initial discontinuity between
Z1 and Z2 , 1 , and the rst reection from the discontinuity between Z2 and ZL .

II. Multi-Section Transformers:

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5.6. BINOMIAL MULTISECTION MATCHING TRANSFORMERS 109

Now consider the N section transform shown below,

Z0 Z1 Z2 ... ZN
ZL

ld
0 1 2 N-1 N

where we assume that ZL is real-valued. We have

or
Z1 Z0 Zn+1 Zn ZL ZN
0 = ; n = ; N = : (5.27)
Z1 + Z0 Zn+1 + Zn ZL + ZN
Assume that Zn increases or decreases monotonically. Then n is real-valued and has the same sign for all
n;

n > 0 for ZL =Z0 > 1; (5.28)


n < 0 for ZL =Z0 < 1;

and
W
j2 j4 j2N
( )' 0 + 1e + 2e + ::: + Ne (5.29)
from considerations of the single-section transformer.
In some cases it is desirable to simplify further. Assume that the transformer is made symmetrical, in
the sense 0 = N , 1 = N 1 , etc. (this does not imply that the Zn s are symmetrical). Then,
n h i h i
( ) ' e jN 0 e
jN
+ e jN + 1 ej(N 2) + e j(N 2) + 2 ej(N 4) + e j(N 4)
TU

)
N 1 ej + e j ; N odd
+ ::: + 2 ; (5.30)
N ; N even
2

leading to
jN
( ) ' 2e f 0 cos N + 1 cos (N 2) + 2 cos (N 4) + ::: + n cos (N 2n)
)
N 1 cos ; N odd
+::: + 1
2 ; (5.31)
2 N ; N even
2
JN

which is seen to be a nite (truncated) Fourier cosine series for ( ). Since a Fourier cosine series can
represent any smooth function , we can synthesize any desired reection coe cient response as a function
of frequency by proper choice of the n values, and by using enough sections (some limitations are imposed
by the Bode-Fano criteria as discussed later). Two choices of desirable functions to implement are presented
next, in each case leading to a method to choose the n values in (5.29) (or (5.30) or (5.31)).

5.6 Binomial Multisection Matching Transformers


A desirable function to implement for matching purposes is given by
j2 N
g( ) = A 1+e : (5.32)

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110 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

The absolute value is


j N
jg ( )j = jAj e ej + e j
(5.33)
jN N
= jAj e ej + e j

N N
= jAj ej + e j
= jAj j2 cos j
N
= 2N jAj jcos j ;

which is plotted below.

ld
or
W
(n)
The function (5.32) has the property that at = =2, jf ( )j = 0, n = 1; 2; :::; N 1, where g (n) indicates
the nth derivative of g. Therefore, the response is as at as possible near the center frequency f0 (i.e., at
= 0 = =2). Such a response is known as maximally at.
So far, (5.32) is merely a function with a nice atness property. To obtain a multisection transformer
that behaves like (5.32), we equate the actual (approximate) input reection coe cient of the multisection
transformer, (5.29) (or (5.30) or (5.31)), and (5.32), in order to determine what n values will lead to the
TU

response (5.32).
Since (5.29) is in the form of a series, in order to equate (5.29) (or (5.30) or (5.31)) and (5.32) we use
the binomial expansion
XN
N
(1 + x) = CnN xn ; (5.34)
n=0

where the binomial coe cients are


N!
CnN = ; (5.35)
(N n)!n!
JN

to convert (5.32) to series form, leading to

j2 N
g( ) = A 1+e (5.36)
N
X
= A CnN e j2n
: (5.37)
n=0

Equating (5.37) with (5.29) leads to

N
X
g( ) = A CnN e j2n
= ( )' 0 + 1e
j2
+ 2e
j4
+ ::: + Ne
j2N
: (5.38)
n=0

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5.6. BINOMIAL MULTISECTION MATCHING TRANSFORMERS 111

The constant A can be determined by letting f ! 0 ( = L = 0),

ZL Z0
g (0) = A2N = ; (0) = (5.39)
ZL + Z0
ZL Z0
) A=2 N : (5.40)
ZL + Z0

Equating nth terms in (5.38) results in

ZL Z0 N
n = ACnN = 2 N
C ; (5.41)
ZL + Z0 n

ld
the sought-after formula for choosing n values to yield a response that is equal to the maximally-at
response (5.32)1 . Since CnN = CN
N
n , then n = N n and the transformer turns out to be symmetrical.
The nal step is determining the desired impedance values. Since

Z1 Z0 Zn+1 Zn ZL ZN
0 = ; n = ; N = (5.42)
Z1 + Z0 Zn+1 + Zn ZL + ZN

or
then, for example,
Zn+1 Zn N ZL Z0 N
n = =2 C (5.43)
Zn+1 + Zn ZL + Z0 n
which can be solved for Zn+1 in terms of Zn as

N Z L Z0 N
1+2 ZL +Z0 Cn
W Zn+1 = Zn
1 2 N Z L Z0 C N
: (5.44)
ZL +Z0 n

One can start with n = 0 (Z0 ) to nd Z1 , etc.


Interestingly, while (5.44) follows exactly from (5.43), making the following approximation to (5.43) leads
to better results. Since
3
x 1 2 x 1
ln (x) = 2 + + ::: (5.45)
x+1 3 x+1
TU

x 1
'2
x+1
for x ' 1, then
Zn+1 Zn Zn+1 =Zn 1 1 Zn+1
= ' ln (5.46)
Zn+1 + Zn Zn+1 =Zn + 1 2 Zn
for Zn+1 ' Zn (this assumption was used in developing the theory of small reections, and so the approxi-
mation in (5.46) is consistent with the approximations leading to (5.29), leading to a self-consistent formula
that provides accurate results). Therefore, making the same approximations on both sides of (5.43) leads to
JN

1 Zn+1 N ZL Z0 N N 1 ZL
n ' ln '2 C '2 CnN ln ; (5.47)
2 Zn ZL + Z0 n 2 Z0
Zn+1 ZL
ln = 2 N CnN ln ; (5.48)
Zn Z0
N ZL
ln Zn+1 = ln Zn + 2 CnN ln ; (5.49)
Z0
resulting in
N N ZL
Zn+1 = eln Zn +2 Cn ln Z0
(5.50)
1 Actually, since (5.29) is an approximate formula, then the resulting response is approximately that of (5.32).

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112 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

1
which is generally valid for 2 Z0 ZL 2Z0 . Bandwidth can be determined as follows. From (5.32) we
obtain
N
j mj = 2N jAj jcos mj (5.51)
N N
= 2 jAj cos m

when 0 m =2. Therefore,


" 1 #
1 j mj N

m = cos (5.52)
jAj 2N
" #

ld
1

1 1 j mj
N
= cos :
2 jAj

From (5.20) we have


f 2 (f0 fm ) 4
= =2 m (5.53)
f0 f0

or
" 1 #
4 1 j mj N
= 2 cos 1 (5.54)
2 jAj

where
N 1 ZL
A=2 ln (5.55)
2 Z0
Example 5.9 Design a three section binomial transformer to match a 50 ohm load to a 100 ohm line.
W
Calculate the bandwidth for j m j = 0:05.
Solution:
N N ZL
Zn+1 = eln Zn +2 Cn ln Z0
(5.56)
3 3 50
ln Zn +2 Cn ln
= e 100 ; (5.57)
and
3! 3! 3!
C03 = = 1; C13 = = 3; C23 = = 3.
3!0! 2!1! 1!2!
TU

Therefore,
3
C03 ln 50
Z1 = eln Z0 +2 100 = 91:70 ohms, (5.58)
3
ln Z1 +2 C13 ln 50
Z2 = e 100 = 70:71 ohms, (5.59)
3
ln Z2 +2 C23 ln 50
Z3 = e 100 = 54:53 ohms. (5.60)

/2 /2 /2
JN

100 91.7 70.71 54.53 Z L = 50

0 1 2 3
-0.043 -0.129 -0.129 -0.043

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5.6. BINOMIAL MULTISECTION MATCHING TRANSFORMERS 113

To compute the bandwidth,


" 1 #
f 4 1 1 j mj
N
=2 cos ; (5.61)
f0 2 jAj

and, with

N 1 ZL 31 50
A=2 ln =2 ln = 0:0433
2 Z0 2 100

ld
and m = 0:05,
" 1 #
f 4 1 1 0:05 3
=2 cos = 0:703; 70:3%
f0 2 0:0433

or
W
j2 (f ) N
A 1+e vs. f =f0 :
TU

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15
JN

0.10

0.05

0.00
10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50

f (GHz)

Example 5.10 Design an N section binomial transformer that needs to operate from 1:2 GHz to 2:8 GHz
with j m j 0:05. Assume ZL = 100 ohms, Z0 = 50 ohms.
Solution: In order to determine the Zn values we need to rst determine how many sections (N ) are

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114 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

required.

f 2 (f0 fm ) 2 (2 1:2)
= = = 0:8; (5.62)
f0 f0 2
1 ZL 1 100
A = 2 N ln = 2 N ln = 2 N (0:3466) (5.63)
2 Z0 2 50
" 1 #
f 4 1 1 j mj N
=2 cos (5.64)
f0 2 jAj
" 1 #
4 1 1 0:05 N

ld
=2 cos = 0:8: (5.65)
2 2 N (0:3466

Solving for N we obtain N = 3:64 ) N = 4. With N determined, the design proceeds as in the previous
example.
C04 = 1; C14 = 4; C24 = 6; C34 = 4;

or
4
C04 ln 100
Z1 = eln Z0 +2 50 = 52:214;
4
ln Z1 +2 C14 ln 100
Z2 = e 50 = 62:093;
4
ln Z2 +2 C24 ln 100
Z3 = e 50 = 80:525;
4
ln Z3 +2 C34 ln 100
Z4 = e 50 = 95:76:
W /2 /2 /2 /2

50 52.2 62.1 80.5 95.8 Z L = 100


TU

0.30

0.25
JN

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50

f (GHz)

Note: Pascals triangle is also useful for evaluating CnN ,

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5.7. CHEBYSHEV MULTISECTION MATCHING TRANSFORMERS 115

n CnN
0 1
1 1 1
2 1 2 3
3 1 3 3 1
4 1 4 6 4 1

5.7 Chebyshev Multisection Matching Transformers

ld
Another function with desirable properties to implement in a multisection transformer is a Chebyshev poly-
nomial. The Chebyshev polynomials are given by

T0 (x) = 1; (5.66)
T1 (x) = x;

or
T2 (x) = 2x2 1;
3
T3 (x) = 4x 3x;
4
T4 (x) = 8x 8x2 + 1;
..
.
Tn (x) = 2xTn 1 (x) Tn 2 (x) :
W
Another, equivalent form can be given where the Chebyshev polynomials look like trigonometric functions
(although they arent). Letting x = cos , jxj < 1, then it can be shown that Tn (cos ) = cos (n ), and

1
Tn (x) = cos n cos x ; jxj < 1; (5.67)
1
Tn (x) = cosh n cosh x ; jxj > 1.

The two main properties of Chebyshev polynomials are the following:


TU

1. For 1 x 1, jTn (x)j 1 and Tn oscillates between 1; Tn (x) has n zeros between 1. We will
map this range into the passband of the transformer.

2. For jxj > 1, jTn (x)j > 1. We will map this range to outside the passband.

1
JN

0.5

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
x

-0.5

-1

1
cos n cos (x) vs. x, n = 1; 2; 3; 4.

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116 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

||

= L

m /2 m

x=+1 x=-1

ld
With x = cos , as goes from 0 to , x goes from +1 to 1. Force x = +1 at = m, and x = 1 at
= m . To implement this we replace cos with cos = cos m = sec m cos :

cos
Tn (cos ) ! Tn (5.68)
cos m

or
(then when = m
cos m
Tn = Tn (1) = 1; (5.69)
cos m

and when = m,
cos ( m)
Tn = Tn ( 1) = 1:) (5.70)
cos m

Therefore,
W
T1 (x) = x; (5.71)
) T1 (sec m cos ) = sec m cos ;
2
T2 (x) = 2x 1;
2
) T2 (sec m cos ) = 2 (sec m cos ) 1
2
= sec m (1 + cos 2 ) 1;
TU

T3 (x) = 4x3 3x;


3
) T3 (sec m cos ) = 4 (sec m cos ) 3 (sec m cos )
3
= sec m (cos 3 + 3 cos ) 3 sec m cos ;
4 2
T4 (x) = 8x 8x + 1;
4 2
) T4 (sec m cos ) = 8 (sec m cos ) 8 (sec m cos ) + 1;
= sec4 m (cos 4 + 4 cos 2 + 3) 4 sec2 m (cos 2 + 1) + 1:

Procedure: Equate the actual multisection reection coe cient (5.31) to the N th order Chebyshev poly-
JN

nomial Ae jN TN (sec m cos ) for a given N . That is,


jN
( ) ' 2e f 0 cos N + 1 cos (N 2) + 2 cos (N 4) + ::: + n cos (N 2n)
)
N cos ;
1 N odd jN
+::: + 1
2 = Ae TN (sec m cos ) : (5.72)
N ; N even
2 2

The constant A is again determined by letting f = 0;


ZL Z0
(0) = = ATN (sec m) ; (5.73)
ZL + Z0
ZL Z0 1 1 ZL 1
)A= ' ln .
ZL + Z0 TN (sec m) 2 Z0 TN (sec m)

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5.7. CHEBYSHEV MULTISECTION MATCHING TRANSFORMERS 117

Since max TN (x) = 1 for jxj < 1, then A is also the maximum allowable reection coe cient magnitude in
the passband,
1 ZL 1
m =A= ln : (5.74)
2 Z0 TN (sec m )
Bandwidth: Using (5.74),
1 1 ZL
TN (sec m) = ln ; (5.75)
m 2 Z0
and, since sec m = 1= cos m 1 we use

ld
1 1 1 ZL
TN (sec m) = cosh N cosh sec m = ln ; (5.76)
m 2 Z0
1 1 1 1 ZL
) sec m = cosh cosh ln
N m 2 Z0

such that

or
f 2 (f0 fm ) 4
= =2 m (5.77)
f0 f0
4 1 1 1 1 ZL
= 4 sec 1 cosh cosh ln :
N m 2 Z0
W
TU

jN
Ae TN (sec m cos )

Example 5.11 Design a three section Chebyshev transformer to match a 100 ohm load to a 50 ohm line,
with m = 0:05.
Solution:

A= m = 0:05;
JN

1 1 1 ZL
sec m = cosh cosh 1 ln
N m 2 Z0
1 1 1 100
= cosh cosh 1 ln
3 0:05 2 50
= 1:4075; m = 0:7806:

To determine the Zn values, from (5.72) we have

( ) ' 2e j3 f 0 cos 3 + 1 cos g = Ae j3


T3 (sec m cos ) (5.78)
) 2 f 0 cos 3 + 1 cos g = AT3 (sec m cos ) (5.79)
= A sec3 m (cos 3 + 3 cos ) 3 sec m cos : (5.80)

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118 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

Equating similar terms,

cos 3 : 2 0 = A sec3 m; (5.81)


3
cos : 2 1= 3A sec m sec m ;
) 0 = 0:0697; 1 = 0:1036:

From symmetry,

ld
3 = 0; 2 = 1: (5.82)

/2 /2 /2

or
Z0 Z1 Z2 Z3
ZL
W 0 1 2 3

To determine the Zn values, note the relationship

Zn+1 Zn 1+ n
= $ Zn+1 = Zn (5.83)
TU

n
Zn+1 + Zn 1 n

such that

1+ 0
Z1 = Z0 = 57:49;
1 0
1+ 1
Z2 = Z1 = 70:77;
1 1
1+
JN

2
Z3 = Z2 = 86:97:
1 2

The bandwidth is

f 2 (f0 fm ) 4
= =2 m
f0 f0
4
= 2 0:7806 = 1:006; 100:6%

(compare with 71% for the binomial transformer with N = 3.

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5.7. CHEBYSHEV MULTISECTION MATCHING TRANSFORMERS 119

0.30

0.25

0.20


0.15

0.10

ld
0.05

0.00
10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50

f (GHz)

or
0.30

0.25
Chebyshev, N=3
0.20
Binomial, N=3

0.15
W0.10

0.05

0.00
10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50

f (GHz)
TU

Note: If given m and f =f0 , determine required N then recalculate m using N .


Example 5.12 For the previous example of matching a 100 ohm load to a 50 ohm line with m = 0:05
using Chebyshev polynomials, design an appropriate microstrip implementation. Assume "r = 9:8, f0 = 1
GHz, and that the load is an innite length of 100 ohm line.
Solution:
( 8eA w
w e2Ah 2
; i b < 2;
= 2 "r 1 0:61 w (5.84)
b B 1 ln (2B 1) + 2"r ln (B 1) + 0:39 "r ; b > 2;

where
JN

r
Z0 "r + 1 "r 1 0:11
A= + 0:23 + ; (5.85)
60 2 "r + 1 "r
377
B= p :
2Z0 "r
For
Z1 = 57:49;
Z2 = 70:77;
Z3 = 86:97;
Z0 = 50; ZL = 100

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120 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

we obtain
w0 wL
= 0:978; = 0:137;
b b
w1 w2 w3
= 0:721; = 0:427; = 0:227
b b b
Since
c
vp = p = f; (5.86)
"e
c 1

ld
) =p :
"e f

With
"r + 1 "r 1 1
"e = + q (5.87)
2 2 1+ 12d
w

or
we obtain
1 2 3
= 2:95 cm; = 3:01 cm; = 3:06 cm
4 4 4

50 57.49 70.77 86.97 100

... ...
W
1 2 3
4 4 4

Note that higher "r leads to smaller and therefore shorter transformers.
The Chebyshev transformer is called an equal ripple transformer. It optimizes bandwidth at the expense
of passband ripple.
TU

Note: Many other transformers are possible, simply by equating the desired function for ( ) with (5.29).

5.8 Tapered Lines


An alternative to using nite impedance steps such as in the binomial or Chebyshev cases is to use a
continuous taper.
JN

ZL

Z(z)
Z0

z=0 z=L

Considering the continuously tapered line to be made up of a number of incremental section of length
z, with impedance change Z (z) from one section to the next,

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5.8. TAPERED LINES 121

Z Z+Z

ld
and incremental reection coe cient is
(Z + Z) Z Z Z
= = ' . (5.88)
(Z + Z) + Z 2Z + Z 2Z
As Z ! 0, we can replace ; Z by d ; dZ such that
dZ
: d = (5.89)
2Z

or
This can be manipulated into a convenient expression as follows.
h i
d ln Z(z)
Z0 1 dZ (z) d
= =2 ; (5.90)
dz Z hdz i dz
Z
d 1 d ln Z0
=
dz 2 dz
Form the integral summation of
W (all partial reections) and add the approximate phase shifts,
Z
1 L d Z
= e j2 z ln dz: (5.91)
2 z=0 dz Z0
If Z (z) is known, then can be found.
1. Exponential Taper:

Z (z) = Z0 eaz ; 0 < z < L: (5.92)


TU

We want
Z (0) = Z0 ; (5.93)
aL
Z (L) = Z0 e = ZL :
Therefore,
ZL 1 ZL
eaL = ) a = ln : (5.94)
Z0 L Z0
Then,
JN

Z L
1 j2 z d Z
= e ln dz (5.95)
2 0 dz Z0
Z L
1 j2 z d
= e ln (eaz ) dz
2 0 dz
Z L
1 j2 z 1 ZL
= e ln dz
2 0 L Z0
Z L
1 1 ZL j2 z
= ln e dz
2 L Z0 0
1 ZL j L sin L
= ln e :
2 Z0 L

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122 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

ld
or
sin L
When L = 0, L = 1. From the plot, we see that L > (2 L > ) L > 2) for best
performance.

2. Triangular Taper:
Another common method is to assume a triangular taper for d ln (Z=Z0 ) =dz,
W
d ln ZZ0
=
(
4z ZL
L2 ln Z0 ; 0 z L=2;
: (5.96)
4 z ZL
dz L 4 L2 ln Z0 ; L=2 z L

This results in ( 2
Z0 e2(z=L) ln(ZL =Z0 ) ; 0 z L=2;
Z (z) = 2 2 : (5.97)
Z0 e(4z=L 2z =L 1) ln(ZL =Z0 ) ; L=2 z L
Integrating the triangular expression leads to
TU

2
1 j L ZL sin ( L=2)
= e ln : (5.98)
2 Z0 ( L=2)
JN

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5.8. TAPERED LINES 123

For L > 2 the peaks of the triangular taper are lower than the corresponding peaks of the exponential
2
taper because of the (sin x=x) factor. However, the rst null occurs at 2 , whereas the rst null appears
at for the exponential taper.

3. Klopfenstein Taper:
The Klopfenstein taper has been shown to be optimum in the sense that the reection coe cient is
lowest over the passband, for a given taper length greater than some critical value. Alternatively, upon
specication of m , the Klopfenstein taper yields the shortest length L.

ld
2
j L
cos ( L) A2
= 0e ; L > A (passband), (5.99)
qcosh A
2
j L
cos A2 ( L)
= 0e ; L < A;
cosh A

or
where
ZL Z0 1 ZL
0 = ' ln ; (5.100)
ZL + Z0 2 Z0
1 0
A = cosh :
m

The impedance taper must generally be calculated numerically from


W
ln Z (z) =
1
ln (Z0 ZL ) +
0
A2 (2z=L 1; A) ; 0 z L; (5.101)
2 cosh A
where p
Z x I1 A 1 y 2
(x; A) = ( x; A) = p dy; jx 1j (5.102)
0 A 1 y2
and where I1 (x) is the modied Bessel function.
TU

Example 5.13 Design a triangular taper, an exponential taper, and a Klopfenstein taper (with m = 0:02)
to match a 50 ohm load to a 100 ohm line. Plot the impedance variations and resulting reection coe cient
magnitudes vs. L.
Solution:

(a) Triangular Taper: For the triangular taper


( 2
Z0 e2(z=L) ln(ZL =Z0 ) ; 0 z L=2;
Z (z) = 2 2 ; (5.103)
Z0 e(4z=L 2z =L 1) ln(ZL =Z0 ) ;
JN

L=2 z L
2
1 j L ZL sin ( L=2)
= e ln :
2 Z0 ( L=2)

(b) Exponential Taper: For the exponential taper

Z (z) = Z0 eaz ; 0<z<L (5.104)


1 ZL 1
a = ln = 0:693 ;
L Z0 L
1 ZL j L sin L
= ln e :
2 Z0 L

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124 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

(c) Klopfenstein Taper: For the Klopfenstein taper

1 ZL
0 ' ln = 0:346 (5.105)
2 Z0
1 0
A = cosh = 3:543 = 1:13 ;
m

Z is evaluated numerically and in the passband ( L > A = 1:13 )

ld
q
2
j L
cos ( L) A2
= 0e : (5.106)
cosh A

or
W
TU
JN

Example 5.14 Design an exponentially tapered matching transformer to match a 100 ohm load to a 50
ohm line. Plot j j vs. L, and nd the length of the matching section (at the center frequency) required to
obtain j j 0:05 over a 100% bandwidth. How many sections would be required if a Chebyshev matching
transformer were used to achieve the same specications?

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5.8. TAPERED LINES 125

Solution:

Z (z) = Z0 eaz ; 0<z<L


1 ZL 1
a = ln = 0:693 ;
L Z0 L
z
) Z (z) = 50e0:693 L
1 ZL j L sin L
j j = ln e
2 Z0 L
1 100 sin L sin L
= ln = 0:3466 :

ld
2 50 L L

For 100% bandwidth,

f 4 2 (f0 fm )
= 2 m = = 1;
f0 f0
1

or
) fm = f0 ; m =
2 4

and so
1 3
f0 f f0
2 2
represents a 100% bandwidth.
W
TU

sin(x)
G (x) = 0:3466 x vs. x= .

Starting at L = 1:72 (where j j 0:05)

2 1:72
JN

L 1:72 ) L 1:72 ) L = 0:86 :


2

For
1 3
f : f0 to f0 ;
2 2
: 2 0 to 0:666 0:

Therefore,
L 0:86 (2 0) = 1:72 0

is needed. For example, if f0 = 30 GHz ( 0 = :01 m),

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126 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

ld
0.02

0.00
20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

f (GHz)

or
For the Chebyshev,

1
cosh 1
m
1
2 ln ZZL0
N= 1 (5.107)
cosh (sec m)
1 1 1 100
cosh 2 ln 50
W =
cosh
0:05
1
sec 4
= 2:97;

) N = 3:

Since a three section Chebyshev transformer is 3 0 =4 = 0:75 0 it is smaller then the exponential taper (which
has length L = 1:72 0 ).
Note that for the Klopfenstein taper,

ZL Z0
TU

0 = = 0:333;
ZL + Z0
1 0
A = cosh = 2:5846:
m

Since the passband is dened as L > A, and the maximum ripple in the passband 0:05, then for our value
of A the ripple will be at most 0:05 for L > A = 2:5846;

L > 2:5846;
2
L > 2:5646 ) L > 0:411 :
JN

Since max =2 0;
L > 0:411 (2 0) = 0:8227 0

would give a 100% bandwidth. Note that this is quite a bit shorter than the exponential taper, but still longer
than the Chebyshev taper.

5.9 Bode-Fano Criteria


The Bode-Fano criteria provides information about the theoretical limits that constrain the performance of
an impedance matching network.

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5.9. BODE-FANO CRITERIA 127

Zg

matching
Vg +
-
Z 0 ,v p network ZL
Z in

ld
Assume that the matching network is lossless, and ZL is generally complex.

1. Can we achieve a perfect match (zero reection) over a specied (nonzero) bandwidth?
2. If not, how good can we do? What is the trade-o between m and bandwidth?

The bode-Fano criteria gives the optimum result that can ideally be achieved. As an example, consider

or
the following.

matching
() network
W
The Bode-Fano criteria is, for this case,
Z 1
TU

1
ln d! : (5.108)
0 j (!)j RC
Assume that we desire the response to be as shown below.

||

1
JN

Then
Z 1 Z
1 1 1
ln d! = ln d! = ! ln ; (5.109)
0 j (!)j ! j mj j mj RC
) ! :
RC jln mj

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128 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

Note that as m varies from 0 to 1, RCjln mj


varies from 0 to 1. So,

m : 0 ! 1; (5.110)
! : 0 ! 1:
For a xed RC, broader bandwidth can only be achieved at the expense of a higher reection coe cient
in the passband.
Also, the passband m cannot be zero unless ! = 0. Thus, a perfect match cannot be maintained
except at possibly a nite number of frequencies.

ld
As R and/or C increase, ! decreases.

||

or

||
W

TU

Example 5.15 A parallel RC load having R = 50 ohm and C = 3 pF is to be matched to a 30 ohm line
from 1 to 3 GHz. What is the best m that can be obtained? Assume a square-wave prole.
Solution:

||
JN

m

2(1) 2(3)

Z 1 Z 2 (3 109 )
1 1
ln d! = ln d! 20:94 109 ; (5.111)
0 j (!)j 2 (1 109 ) j mj
1
2 (2) ln 20:94 ) m 0:1888:
j mj

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5.9. BODE-FANO CRITERIA 129

Alternatively, to match from 1 to 10 GHz,


1
2 (9) ln 20:94 ) m 0:691:
j mj

ld
or
W
TU
JN

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130 CHAPTER 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING

ld
or
W
TU
JN

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Chapter 6

ld
Power Dividers and Directional
Couplers

or
(Here we will cover Sections 7.4, 7.2, and 7.3)
Directional couplers are passive microwave components that provide power division or power combining.
They are usually represented in the following way:
W 1 input 2 through

4 isolated 3 coupled
TU

The main idea is that power is input into Port 1. Some fraction of the input power goes through to Port
2 (the through port), while the rest goes to Port 3 (the coupled port). Ideally, no power is transferred
to Port 4 (the isolated port).

P1
C = 10 log10 , coupling factor in dB, (6.1)
P3
P3
D = 10 log10 , directivity in dB,
P4
P1
I = 10 log10 , isolation in dB.
JN

P4

The coupling factor indicates the fraction of input power coupled to Port 3. Directivity indicates the couplers
ability to isolate forward (Port 3) and backward (Port 4) waves. Note that I = C + D. An ideal directional
coupler would have I = D = 1 (P4 = 0).
The device is reciprocal in the sense that power can be applied to Port 2, in which case Port 1 becomes
the through port, Port 4 becomes the coupled port, and Port 3 the isolated port. Also, if power is applied
to both Ports 2 and 3, power is combined and emerges from Port 1.

Bethe Hole Coupler:

131

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132 CHAPTER 6. POWER DIVIDERS AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS

ld
or
The principle of operation of this coupler, and of all couplers, is that two separate waves can be combined
in-phase at the desired output port, and can be combined out-of-phase at the desired isolated port. The
details of the single-hole coupler are provided in the text. It can be shown that, for the TE10 mode, the
W
skewed coupler design leads to
r
4k02 r03 2
C = 20 log10 ; = k02 : (6.2)
3ab a
One can thus design a coupler to achieve a certain coupling. This will only hold at one frequency, and is very
frequency sensitive. To decrease sensitivity, multi-hole couplers can be design, analogous to multi-section
quarter-wave transformers.
TU

Two-hole coupler:
JN

Here we use parallel guides. The apertures are small, and placed g =4 apart. Most of the input wave is
transferred to the through port. Aperture 1, referenced at 0 phase, radiates a backward (B1 ) and forward
(F1 ) wave into the upper guide. Aperture 2 does the same, B2 and F2 , respectively. At the reference point,

B1 ej z
z=0
= B1 ; F1 e j z
z=0
= F1 (6.3)

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133

due to Aperture 1. At this same reference point, the backward wave from Aperture 2 will be

B2 ej g =2
= B2 ej = B2 : (6.4)

If jB1 j ' jB2 j, these waves will cancel, such that no power comes out the isolated port.
Does any power come out of the coupled port? Yes: at the location of Aperture 2 we have
j g =4 j g =4
F1 e + F2 e = (F1 + F2 ) ( j) ; (6.5)

and so the two forward waves add in-phase.


It is important to note that for exact cancellation of the backward waves, jB1 j must equal jB2 j. This will

ld
not be true (why?), and so we never obtain perfect isolation.
The two-hole coupler is less frequency dependent than the one-hole coupler, even though the spacing will
be g =4 at only one frequency.

Example 6.1 Assume C = 3 dB with innite directivity. Determine the power dissipated at ports 2,3, and
4.

or
W
TU

Solution:
2
2Z0 Z0 1
power = = :
2Z0 + Z0 9
At Port 2:
1 1 1 1 4
p = = watts,
2 2 2 18 9
JN

at Port 3
1
watt,
2
and at Port 4
1 1 1
p = watts,
2 2 36
1
with 36 watts back out to Port 1.

N + 1 hole couplers:

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134 CHAPTER 6. POWER DIVIDERS AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS

ld
All apertures are spaced d = g =4 apart. The amplitude of the wave incident on the input port is A, as
is the amplitude at the output port of the through wave (of course, this is not self-consistent, nevertheless
it yields reasonable results)! Set the phase reference to be at the rst aperture.
At the coupled port,
XN
F = Ae j N d Fn (6.6)
n=0

or
(remember we have N + 1 apertures), and at the output of the isolated port,
N
X
j2 nd
B=A Bn e : (6.7)
n=0

Then,
WC= 20 log10
F
= 20 log10
N
X
Fn dB, (6.8)
A n=0
PN
B n=0 Bn e j2 nd
D= 20 log10 = 20 log10 PN
F n=0 Fn
N
X
j2 nd
= C 20 log10 Bn e dB.
n=0
TU

Assume that all aperture are round holes with identical positions, s, relative to the edge of the guide, with
rn being the radius of the nth aperture. It can be shown that

Fn = kf rn3 ; Bn = kb rn3 ; (6.9)

where kf;b are dependent on aperture shape, and are slowly varying functions of frequency. Therefore,
N
X
C= 20 log10 jkf j 20 log10 rn3 dB, (6.10)
n=0
JN

N
X
D= C 20 log10 jkb j 20 log10 rn3 e j2 nd
dB.
n=0
| {z }
highly frequency sensitive

In the design of multi-section quarter wave transformers we considered binomial and Chebyshev methods
to choose the impedances Zn . Here, the design involves choosing the hole radii using similar methods.

Binomial Response:

Pick rn3 proportional to the binomial coe cients,

rn3 = kCnN (6.11)

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135

(recall
N!
CnN = ): (6.12)
(N n)!n!
The proportionality constant k can be determined from

N
X
C= 20 log10 jkf j 20 log10 rn3 (6.13)
n=0
N
X
= 20 log10 jkf j 20 log10 kCnN

ld
n=0
N
X
= 20 log10 jkf j 20 log10 jkj 20 log10 CnN :
n=0

From this, and with a desired value of C and a known kf ; N , one can determine k. Note:

or
" 2
!#
2k02 s 2 1;0 s 2
s
jkf j = sin2 sin2
+ cos 2
; (6.14)
3ab 1;0 a k02 a 2
1;0 a
2 a
" 2
!#
2k02 s 2 1;0 s 2
s
jkb j = sin2 + 2 sin2
2 cos 2
: (6.15)
3ab 1;0 a k0 a 1;0 a
2 a

A Chebyshev response can also be obtained.


W
Example 6.2 Design a ve-hole coupler with a binomial response. The center frequency is 10 GHz, and the
required coupling is 18 dB. The physical structure is a rectangular waveguide with round coupling apertures
centered across the broad common wall of the guides.
Solution: For an X band waveguide, a = 0:02286 m, b = 0:01016 m (from the textbook appendix). For
a 5 hole coupler, N = 4. From (6.14)-(6.15),

jkf j = 1:113 105 ; jkb j = 1:705 106 :


TU

Then,

N
X
C = 20 log10 jkf j 20 log10 jkj 20 log10 CnN ;
n=0
N
X
) 20 log10 jkj = C + 20 log10 jkf j + 20 log10 CnN ;
n=0
N
!!
1 X
JN

jkj = log101 C + 20 log10 jkf j + 20 log10 CnN


20 n=0
8
= 7:071 10 :

With rn3 = kCn4 ,

r0 = 4:135 mm,
r1 = 6:564 mm,
r2 = 7:514 mm,
r3 = 6:564 mm = r1 ;
r4 = 4:135 mm = r0 :

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136 CHAPTER 6. POWER DIVIDERS AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS

N
X
C= 20 log10 jkf j 20 log10 jkj 20 log10 CnN
n=0
= 18 dB at f = f0 ;
N
X
D= C 20 log10 jkb j 20 log10 rn3 e j2 nd

n=0
= 283 dB at f = f0 .

Note that C is very insensitive to frequency (only via kf , which is a slowly-varying function with respect to

ld
frequency; upon taking log10 jkf j we obtain a fairly insensitive function of frequency for C. However, D is
very frequency sensitive due to the summation term.

or
100
5 Hole Coupler
80

60 D

40
W 20
C

0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
f (GHz)
TU

For a 3 hole coupler (r0 = 6:564; r1 = 8:27; r2 = 6:564 = r0 ),

100
3 Hole Coupler
80
JN

60 D

40
C

20

0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
f (GHz)

and for a 15 hole coupler

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137

100
15 Hole Coupler
80
D
60

40
C

ld
20

0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
f (GHz)

or
Directional couplers can also be implemented with transmission lines, although the theory will not be
developed here.

W
TU
JN

Hybrid Couplers:

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138 CHAPTER 6. POWER DIVIDERS AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS

Hybrid couplers are special cases of directional couplers where C = 3 dB.

1. Quadrature hybrid: There is a 90 phase shift between Ports 2 and 3 when fed at Port 1.

2. Magic-T hybrid: There is a 180 phase shift between Ports 2 and 3 when fed at Port 1.

ld
or
W
TU
JN

Power Dividers:

Power dividers are similar to direction couplers, but are usually three-port devices. The idea is still to
split input power into two parts. We will briey study a lossless divider. The resistive divider and Wilkinson
divider are also very common. All of these dividers are T-junction dividers; some physical implementations
are shown below.

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139

ld
or
A lossless divider is depicted below.

ut
tp
ou
1
Z1
W
input +
Z0 Vo jB
-

Yin Z2
2
ou
tp
TU
ut

The susceptance B accounts for the physical discontinuity in the waveguide or transmission line. We
have
1 1
Yin = jB + + ; (6.16)
Z1 Z2

and we want
JN

1
Yin = : (6.17)
Z0

If we ignore B then
1 1 1
+ = : (6.18)
Z1 Z2 Z0

If Z1 and Z2 satisfy this requirement then we divide the power with no reection. For example, Z1 = Z2 =
2Z0 will work, resulting in a 3 dB divider.
If the divider segments feed lines with Z0 characteristic impedance, quarter-wave transformers can be
used to provide a good impedance match.

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140 CHAPTER 6. POWER DIVIDERS AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS

ld
or
Some drawbacks to this type of divider are that there is no isolation between output ports, and looking
into an output port one sees an impedance mismatch.
To determine impedance values for a given power split, the following procedure is used:

1 v02
Pin = (6.19)
2 Z0
W
since the divider is match looking into the input, and

1 v02 1 v02
P1 = ; P2 = : (6.20)
2 Z1 2 Z2
If I want P1 = xPin and P2 = (1 x) Pin , then

1 v02 1 v2 Z0
P1 = = xPin = x 0 ; ! x = (6.21)
2 Z1 2 Z0 Z1
TU

1 v02 1 v02 Z0
P2 = = (1 x) Pin = (1 x) ;! 1 x= :
2 Z2 2 Z0 Z2
Example 6.3 Determine the normalized output impedances for a 3 : 1 power split.
Solution: We want
3 1
P1 =Pin ; P2 = Pin ; (6.22)
4 4
3 Z0 4
)x= = ) Z1 = Z0 ;
4 Z1 3
JN

1 Z0
1 x= = ! Z2 = 4Z0 :
4 Z2

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Chapter 7

Electromagnetic Compatibility and

ld
Interference (EMS/EMI)

or
From "Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility" by Clayton R. Paul (Wiley: 1992)

Radiated Emissions
W
The FCC regulates "unintentional radio-frequency devices". It is illegal to sell or advertise for sale
any such products until their radiated and conducted emissions have been measured and found to be in
compliance.

Class A devices are those that are marketed for use in a commercial, industrial or business environments.

Class B devices are those that are marketed for residential use.
TU

Class B limits are more stringent than Class A limits

FCC Emission Limits for Class B Digital Devices, Radiated Emissions (at 3 meters):
Frequency (MHz) uV/m dB(uV/m)
30 - 88 100 40
88 - 216 150 44
216 - 960 200 46
> 960 500 54
JN

Hertzian dipole model of a radiating transmission line:


The far eld (jrj , Lw ) from a wire of length Lw carrying a constant current I0 along the z axis is

e jkr
E(r) = b (I0 ) (Lw ) (j! ) sin (7.1)
4 r
jkr
7 e
E (r) = jI0 Lw 2 10 f :
r
This assumes current is constant (not a bad assumption for Lw )

Note that the measurement position r = 3 meters may not be in the far eld

141

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142CHAPTER 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND INTERFERENCE (EMS/EMI)

For two wires (see gure),


jk(r+ ) jk(r )
7 e e
E (r) = jLw 2 10 f I1 + I2 ; (7.2)
r+ r

where

b b
y r = sin sin (7.3)
s
= sin sin ; (7.4)
2

ld
since
cos (90 ) = sin

z r

or
s/2

y
W I1 I2

so that
jkr
7 e jk
E (r) = jLw 2 10 f I1 e + I2 ejk : (7.5)
r
TU

Dierential mode currents (I0 = I1 = I2 )


jkr
e
E dm (r) = I0 jLw 2 10 7
f e jk
ejk (7.6)
r
jkr
7 e
= I0 jLw 2 10 f (2j sin (k )) (7.7)
r
jkr
7 e s
= I0 Lw 4 10 f sin k sin sin : (7.8)
r 2
Assuming that s , sin k 2s sin sin ' k 2s sin sin ,
JN

jkr
2 7p e
E dm (r) = I0 Lw (2 ) 10 "f 2 s sin sin (7.9)
r
jkr
14 e
= 1:32 10 I0 Lw f 2 s sin sin ; (7.10)
r
14
1:32 10
E dm (r) = I0 Lw f 2 s sin jsin j (7.11)
r
Field is maximum for = = 90 ,
14
1:32 10
E dm;max (r) = I0 Lw f 2 s: (7.12)
r

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143

Maximum radiation occurs in the plane of the wires, broadside to the wire axes.

Radiation can be minimized at a certain frequency and position by

reducing the current level


reducing the wire length and/or wire separation (overall, reducing the loop area L s)
use ferrite beads (adds series inductance to attenuate high-frequency harmonics)

Common mode currents (I0 = I1 = I2 )

ld
jkr
e
E cm (r) = I0 jLw 2 10 7
f e jk
+ ejk (7.13)
r
jkr
7 e
= I0 jLw 2 10 f (2 cos (k )) (7.14)
r
jkr
7 e s
= jI0 Lw 4 10 f cos k sin sin ; (7.15)

or
r 2
Assuming that s , cos k 2s sin sin '1
jkr
e
E cm (r) = 1:26 10 6
jI0 Lw f (7.16)
r
6
1:26 10
jE cm (r)j = I0 Lw f (7.17)
r
W
Common mode radiation is insensitive to rotating the cable/wires

Radiation can be minimized at a certain frequency and position by

reducing the current level


reducing the wire length
use a common-mode choke (see gure)
TU

use ferrite beads (adds series inductance to attenuate high-frequency harmonics)

Example:
Lw = 1 m, I0 = 20 mA, s = 1 mm, f = 50 MHz, r = 3
14
1:32 10 2
E dm;max (r) = 20 10 3 (1) 50 106 1 10 3
(7.18)
3
= 220 V/m = 47 dB V/m (7.19)
JN

(above the limit)


6
1:26 10
jE cm (r)j = I0 Lw f (7.20)
r
6
1:26 10 3
= 20 10 (1) 50 106 (7.21)
3
= 420; 000 V/m (7.22)

(far above the limit)

Q. What I would produce 100 V/m?


A. For dierential mode, 9 mA, for common mode, 4:8 A

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144CHAPTER 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND INTERFERENCE (EMS/EMI)

Raise frequency to 1 GHz:


14
1:32 10 2
E dm;max (r) = 20 10 3
(1) 1 109 1 10 3
(7.23)
3
= 88; 000 V/m = 99 dB V/m (7.24)
(way over)
6
1:26 10
jE cm (r)j = I0 Lw f (7.25)
r
6
1:26 10 3
= 20 10 (1) 1 109 (7.26)

ld
3
= 8; 400; 000 V/m !!! (7.27)

Q. What I would produce 500 V/m?


A. For dierential mode, 114 A, for common mode, 1:1 A

Susceptibility Models

or
Circuit Model:

i(z,t) Vs(z,t) z R z L z i(z+dz,t)


-
+

+
W Is(z,t) z G z C z v(z+dz,t)

- -

z
TU

d2 v(z) 2 d vs (z)
v(z) = (R + i!L) is (z) + ; (7.28)
dz 2 dz
d2 i(z) 2 d is (z)
i(z) = (G + i!C) vs (z) + ;
dz 2 dz
where
2
= (R + j!L) (G + j!C) ; (7.29)
and = +j 2 C is called the propagation constant (1=m). The real and imaginary parts of the propagation
constant are known as the attenuation constant ( ) and the phase constant ( ), respectively.
JN

An incident electromagnetic wave induces voltages and currents on the transmission line, which are
represented by Vs and Is . Faradays law can be used to determine Vs . The induced emf around a loop l with
surface S is I Z
emf = E(r) dl = j! B(r) n dS: (7.30)
l S
Assume the y axis is vertical, so that the x axis is into the paper, and n = x b. The distributed voltage
source for two wires separated by distance s is
Z z+ z=2 Z s Z s
V (z) ' j! Bxi (y; z) dydz ' j! z Bxi (y; z) dy (7.31)
z z=2 0 0
Z s
V (z)
= Vs (z) = j! Hxi (y; z) dy:
z 0

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145

Since the wire separation s is much less than ,


Z s
Vs (z) = j! Hxi (y; z) dy ' j! sHxi (z) (7.32)
0
An incident, vertically polarized electric eld will induce a voltage between the wires, causing a displace-
ment current through the capacitance between the wires (we ignore here conduction current due to a lossy
insulator). Using Ohms law,
Z s
I (z)
V (z) = Eyi (y; z) dy = I (z) Zc = (7.33)
0 j!C
Z s

ld
Is (z) = j!C Eyi (y; z) dy ' j!CsEyi (z):
0

Rather than solve (7.28), we can simply things further by assuming that L , so that we only need
one section of line. Replacing z by Lw and setting R = G = 0,
RL Lw
VL = (Vs + Rs Is ) (7.34)
RL + Rs !2 R
L LC + j! (Rs RL C + L)

or
j!RL Lw s
= 2
Hxi + Rs CEyi (7.35)
RL + Rs ! RL LC + j! (Rs RL C + L)
Note that the area of the loop formed by the two wires, A = Lw s is important.
If frequency is su ciently low,
RL Lw
VL = (Vs + Rs Is ) (7.36)
RL + R s
j!ARL
Hxi + Rs CEyi :
W =
RL + Rs
Example:
Assume that the plane wave
jky Ez jky
E=b
zEz e ; b
H=x e (7.37)

is incident on a two-wire transmission, with Ez = 1 V/m and ! = 30 MHz. The wires have center-to-center
spacing D = 1:22 cm, radius a = 0:1 cm (this is the standard 300 ohm twin-lead line), and length Lw = 1
m. In this case,
TU

D "0
L = 0 cosh 1 ; C= ; (7.38)
2a cosh 1 2aD

and for this line L = 1 H and C = 11:2 pF. For this incident wave there is only a voltage source,
Vs = j! sHxi = j1:22 mV (7.39)
such that
1
Hxi = 4 10 7
= 3:33 10 9
: (7.40)
377
Assume RL = 1000 , Rs = 10 . Then,
JN

j!ARL
VL = Hxi + 0 = j1:21 mV. (7.41)
RL + Rs
If, instead, the incident plane wave was
jkx Ey jkx
b Ey e
E=y ; H=b
z e (7.42)

then
Rs CEyi = 1:12 10 10
; (7.43)
and
j!ARL
VL = 0 + Rs CEyi = j0:04 mV. (7.44)
RL + Rs

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146CHAPTER 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND INTERFERENCE (EMS/EMI)

ld
or
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Chapter 8

Microwave Filters

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147

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148 CHAPTER 8. MICROWAVE FILTERS

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Chapter 9

Appendix

ld
9.1 Transient transmission line current

or
We obtained the transient transmission line voltage as (2.111),

v (z; t) = v + (t z=vp ) + v (t + z=vp ) : (9.1)

Using
@v(z; t) @i(z; t)
= L (9.2)
@z @t
we obtain
W
@v (z; t) @v (t z=vp ) @ (t z=vp )
= (chain rule)
@z @ (t z=vp ) @z
0 1
= v (9.3)
vp
@i(z; t)
= L ;
@t
leading to
TU

@i(z; t) 1
= v +0 (t z=vp ) v 0
(t + z=vp ) ; (9.4)
@t Lvp
1
) i (z; t) = v + (t z=vp ) v (t + z=vp ) + c (z) (9.5)
Lvp
where c (z) is a constant of integration. To determine c (z), use
@i(z; t) @v(z; t)
= C : (9.6)
@z @t
JN

From (9.5) and using (9.3) we have


@ 1 @
i (z; t) = v +0 (t z=vp ) v 0
(t + z=vp ) + c (z) (9.7)
@z Lvp2 @z
@v(z; t)
= C :
@t
With
@v (z; t) @v (t z=vp ) @ (t z=vp )
= (9.8)
@t @ (t z=vp ) @t
0
= v (1)

149

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150 CHAPTER 9. APPENDIX

we have
@ 1 @
i (z; t) = v +0 (t z=vp ) + v 0
(t + z=vp ) + c (z) (9.9)
@z Lvp2 @z
@v(z; t)
= C = C v +0 (t z=vp ) + v 0
(t + z=vp ) :
@t
Therefore,
1 @
+ C v +0 (t z=vp ) + v 0
(t + z=vp ) + c (z) = 0; (9.10)
Lvp2 @z
| {z }

ld
0

such that
@
c (z) = 0 ) c (z) = constant. (9.11)
@z
c (z) = c provides at most a d.c. current that provides a d.c. oset to the q
time-dependent current. We will
1 L
ignore this oset (set c = 0) to arrive at, upon noting that Lvp = L LC = C
p = Z0 , the desired expression

or
1
i (z; t) = v + (t z=vp ) v (t + z=vp ) : (9.12)
Z0
W
TU
JN

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