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Oposa vs Factoran The defendant filed a motion to dismiss the complaint on the

following grounds:
Natural and Environmental Laws; Constitutional Law:
Intergenerational Responsibility

GR No. 101083; July 30 1993 1. Plaintiffs have no cause of action against him;

2. The issues raised by the plaintiffs is a political


question which properly pertains to the legislative or
FACTS: executive branches of the government.
A taxpayers class suit was filed by minors Juan Antonio
Oposa, et al., representing their generation and generations
yet unborn, and represented by their parents against
Fulgencio Factoran Jr., Secretary of DENR. They prayed that
judgment be rendered ordering the defendant, his agents, ISSUE:
representatives and other persons acting in his behalf to: Do the petitioner-minors have a cause of action in filing a
class suit to prevent the misappropriation or impairment of
Philippine rainforests?
1. Cancel all existing Timber Licensing Agreements
(TLA) in the country; HELD:

2. Cease and desist from receiving, accepting, Yes. Petitioner-minors assert that they represent their
processing, renewing, or appraising new TLAs; generation as well as generations to come. The Supreme
Court ruled that they can, for themselves, for others of their
generation, and for the succeeding generation, file a class
suit. Their personality to sue in behalf of succeeding
and granting the plaintiffs such other reliefs just and generations is based on the concept of intergenerational
equitable under the premises. They alleged that they have a responsibility insofar as the right to a balanced and healthful
clear and constitutional right to a balanced and healthful ecology is concerned. Such a right considers the rhythm and
ecology and are entitled to protection by the State in its harmony of nature which indispensably include, inter alia,
capacity as parens patriae. Furthermore, they claim that the the judicious disposition, utilization, management, renewal
act of the defendant in allowing TLA holders to cut and and conservation of the countrys forest, mineral, land,
deforest the remaining forests constitutes a misappropriation waters, fisheries, wildlife, offshore areas and other natural
and/or impairment of the natural resources property he holds resources to the end that their exploration, development, and
in trust for the benefit of the plaintiff minors and succeeding utilization be equitably accessible to the present as well as
generations. the future generations.
Needless to say, every generation has a responsibility to the environment constitutes at the same time, the performance
next to preserve that rhythm and harmony for the full of their obligation to ensure the protection of that right for
enjoyment of a balanced and healthful ecology. Put a little the generations to come.
differently, the minors assertion of their right to a sound