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THE MUSIC OF JEAN SIBELIUS BASED ON FINNISH LEGENDS

AND FOLK TALES

by

MATTHEW MICHEL SHEA

B.M.E., KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY, 2015


1

Biographical Information

Long recognized as Finlands greatest composer, having attained universal

significance as one of the most notable modern symphonists, Johan Christian Julius, later

Jean, Sibelius was born on December 8th, 1865 in Hmeenlinna, Finland to Christian

Gustaf and Maria Carlotta Sibelius. His father was a City Medical Officer and physician

to the Tavastehus territorial battalion and his mother descended from a long line of

soldiers, government officials, and clergymen.1 He was the second of three children;

preceded by his sister, Linda, and followed by his brother, Christian.2 To much dismay,

Sibelius father passed away due to cholera when Jean was three years old and his mother

and grandmother brought up the family.3 Growing up, he was well instructed in classic

languages and literature4; he read Homer and Horace with enthusiasm and had always

admired the writers for their depth of thought and simplicity of expression. He also found

himself absorbed into music when he began piano lessons at age nine and began to

compose before he received any theoretical instruction. From the time he was age fifteen

to age twenty-four, Sibelius was trained on the violin and very seriously considered being

a virtuoso.5

In May of 1885, he was sent to the University of Helsingfors to study law; the following

year he abandoned his law studies and embarked on his musical career. At the

1 Karl Ekman, Jean Sibelius: His Life and Personality, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1938), p. 4.
2 Robert Layton, Sibelius, Jean, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
ed. by Stanley Sadie, (New York: Groves Dictionaries, 2000). 8:280.
3 Ibid, p. 280.
4 Olin Downes, Jean Sibelius, The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians,
11th ed. edited by Bruce Bohle, (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985). 8:2059-
2068; see p. 2059.
5 Bakers Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 4th ed., edited by Nicolas
Slonimsky (New York: Schirmer Books, 1940); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 1017.
2

Conservatory he studied violin with H. Csillag6 and studied composition with Martin

Wegelius. One of his first compositions was a suite for strings and string quartet and was

performed in 1889. It made a fine impression on the public so he was granted a

government stipend for further musical study in Berlin. There, he studied counterpoint

and fugue with Albert Becker. After returning to Finland for a short time, he then went to

Vienna from 1890-1891 to complete his music training under Robert Fuchs and C.

Goldmark. In April of 1892, he completed his symphonic poem, Kullervo, the grand five-

movement work for large orchestra, soloists, and chorus.7 In June of that year, he married

the love of his life, Aino Jrnefelt, member of a distinguished Finnish family. They spent

their honeymoon in Karelia, the home of the Kalevala (the national saga of Finland,

comparable to Homers The Iliad and the Odyssey). It served as the inspiration for works

like En Saga and the Lemminkinen Suite. A year after, he became the applied teacher of

theory at the Helsingfors Conservatory where he taught for five years. For a considerable

time, Sibelius worked on an opera: The Creation of the Boat, based on material from the

Kalevala; adapted from material for the opera that was never completed, his

Lemminkinen Suite consisted of four legends in the form of tone poems.8 The work was

ready for rehearsal in early April of 1896. In 1897, the Finnish Senate granted him an

annual stipend of about 2,000 marks (around $400.00), which allowed him to spend more

time on composing.

6 Bakers Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 4th ed., edited by Nicolas Slonimsky


(New York: Schirmer Books, 1940); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 1017.
7 Nils-Eric Ringbom, Jean Sibelius: A Master and His Work, (Norman, OK: University
of Oklahoma Press, 1954), p. 33.
8 http://www.sibelius.fi/english/musiikki/ork_lemminkainen.htm
3

The year, 1900, marked the beginning of his international career.9 He

accompanied the Helsingfors Philharmonic Orchestra as assistant conductor on its tour to

the Paris Exhibition, Amsterdam, Brussels, etc., and then spent some time in Germany

and Italy.10 Returning to Finland before WWI, Sibelius and his wife moved to a country

home at Jrvenp, near Helsingfors where he continued creative activity. In 1909,

Sibelius underwent an operation for throat cancer and this may account for the greater

austerity, depth, seriousness and concentration of his other music of this period. His

career before 1926 is a record of ceaseless creative activity, but after the 7th Symphony

(1924), Tapiola (1925), and The Tempest (1926),11 the final three decades of his life were

marked by silence. Out of sympathy with both Schnberg and Stravinsky, Sibelius felt

that his moment in music history had passed.12 He lived in quiet retirement until his death

from a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 91 at his home on September 20th, 1957.13

Sibeliuss Influences and the Evolution of His Music

The development of Sibelius harmonic and symphonic style had developed in a

manner not only entirely original, but also one that has little reference to contemporary

developments in the music of other composers. From his beginnings, his closest

companion had been nature. Forest and sea became his familiars. As a boy he hunted in

9 Britannica Book of Music, edited by Benjamin Hadley, (Garden City, NY:


Doubleday/Britannica Books, 1980); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 749.
10 Bakers Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 4th ed., edited by Nicolas Slonimsky
(New York: Schirmer Books, 1940); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 1017.
11 Britannica Book of Music, edited by Benjamin Hadley, (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday/Britannica Books, 1980); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 749.
12 Jon Thompson, The Choral Music of Jean Sibelius: An Introduction The Choral
Journal 47, No. 8 (2007): 8-15.
13 Britannica Book of Music, edited by Benjamin Hadley, (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday/Britannica Books, 1980); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 749.
4

the woods.14 The region of Karelia (visited during his honeymoon) and the natural

legends of Finland (especially in the Kalevala) are his chief sources of inspiration.15

Sibelius themes have often been mistaken for Finnish folk melodies. He himself

is the authority for the statement that he has not used a single Finnish folksong in any of

his orchestral works. It is a striking instance of the composer of individual genius

speaking, in their own tongue, for his forefathers.16 Sibelius harmony is not distinguished

so much by originality of material as by novelty in the use of material already known,

and in the highly picturesque and unprecedented manner of his northern

orchestration17 There is hardly a page of his scoring, which does not present

fascinating and unprecedented groupings of instruments. Therefore, astonishing

orchestral effects are obtained by simple means. Sibelius has composed copiously in

many forms, including songs and piano pieces; but his genius finds its most characteristic

and eloquent expression in the larger symphonic works.

It would appear that there was no more worthy a descendant of a race of nature

worshippers than Sibelius, of whom it might be said that he had a secret communication

with the organic world about him in a language all his own. Hearing those sounds, one is

aware of a composer whose ears were not numbed or inhibited by any of the conventions

of his art, who heard nature with the sure and unimpaired aural sense of a wild animal,

and who was incredibly able by some instinctive, uncontaminated process to put down

14 Olin Downes, Jean Sibelius, The International Cyclopedia of Music and


Musicians, 11th ed. edited by Bruce Bohle, (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985).
8:2059-2068; see p. 2059.
15 Bakers Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 4th ed., edited by Nicolas Slonimsky
(New York: Schirmer Books, 1940); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 1017.
16 Olin Downes, Jean Sibelius, The International Cyclopedia of Music and
Musicians, 11th ed. edited by Bruce Bohle, (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985).
8:2059-2068; see p. 2060.
17 Ibid, p. 2059.
5

precisely the sounds that he heard in his own consciousness.18 Yet he was withal a

conscious matter, a musician of masterful knowledge and authority; and, finally, one who

restored symphonic music to a path which is truly its own.

Kullervo (1892)

Even though the work was published posthumously19, this five-movement

symphonic poem of Mahlerian proportions20 is not only a landmark in the composers

career, but also in the musical history of his home country of Finland. Drawing his

inspiration from the Karelian region, Kullervo contains fresh, folk-like themes and

rhythms dictated by the national poetry and songs.

The introduction of the work (Allegro moderato) begins with an ominous distant

humming in the strings. Above that, the clarinets and the French horns play a kind of

destiny theme. The strings take over the theme and the atmosphere lightens for a moment.

However, the French horn gives us a hint of the inevitability of fate in a secondary theme.

The images included are from the first page of the manuscript of Kullervo and depict the

arpeggiated, humming strings and the beginning of the destiny theme.

18 Olin Downes, Jean Sibelius, The International Cyclopedia of Music and


Musicians, 11th ed. edited by Bruce Bohle, (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985).
8:2059-2068; see p. 2060.
19 Cecil Gray, Sibelius, (London: Oxford University Press, 1931), p. 69.
20 Robert Layton, Sibelius, Jean, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
ed. by Stanley Sadie, (New York: Groves Dictionaries, 2000). p. 280.
6

Figures 1.1 and 1.2 Kullervo Manuscript21

21 http://www.sibelius.fi/english/musiikki/ork_kullervo.htm
7

Introduction is purely orchestral, and is a musical portrait of Kullervo as a tragic

hero. This latter theme sounds clumsy here but will later, amazingly, be altered into a

very runic-sounding melody. A further unusual feature is Sibeliuss use of fast repeated

notes on the oboe.22

Kullervos Youth is marked Grave and is also solely orchestral. It tells of Kullervos

unhappy childhood with his uncle, Untamo, who had been responsible for the death of the

boys father and who later sells him as a slave to the smith, Ilmarinen. Sibelius composed

this movement as a lullaby, but its songlike main theme has dark (often runic) overtones

and an insistent forward impulse23; it is also interrupted by a despairing downward

moving motif from the violins. A contrasting passage featuring the woodwinds is more

animated but still one senses the underlying atmosphere of oppression.

Kullervo & His Sister24, marked Allegro Vivace, is the longest movement,

lasting approximately twenty-three minutes. It involves a male and female soloist, male

chorus, as well as the orchestra. Kullervo, no longer a slave but journeying homeward

after paying his taxes (the dashing 5/4 introduction), meets three maidens and attempts to

tempt them into his sleigh. The chorus, usually in unison, narrates the story and the

soloists act out dialogue between Kullervo and the maidens. The first two girls reject his

advances but the third, tempted by his silver and rich clothes, eventually succumbs. At

this point, the chorus falls silent and the seduction itself is strikingly depicted by the

22 Jean Sibelius, Kullervo, Op. 7, Karita Mattila, mezzo-soprano, Jorma


Hynninen, baritone, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, cond. Neeme Jrvi (Grammofon
AB BIS, 313, 1985).

23 Jean Sibelius, Kullervo, Op. 7, Karita Mattila, mezzo-soprano, Jorma Hynninen,


baritone, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, cond. Neeme Jrvi (Grammofon AB BIS,
313, 1985).
24 Ibid, p. 3.
8

orchestra alone. Next comes the discovery scene for the two soloists. This third maiden

is revealed to be Kullervos long-lost sister. Triumph is converted into despair. The sister

sings of her youth, wishing that she had perished as a small child, and then commits

suicide. Finally, Kullervo sings a powerful lament accompanied by crashing chords from

the orchestra. According to Robert Layton, the vocal writing in this movement suggests

that Sibelius could have developed an extremely respectable operatic style had he chosen

to do so.25

Kullervo Goes to War is marked Alla Marcia. In this unexpected movement,

Kullervo goes to war against his murderous uncle, Untamo. The music is brash and

colorful, in free rondo form and scored for orchestra alone. Fanfares represent a warrior

who desires revenge, yet the music is not without its reflective moments. The end of the

movement contains a fanfare that brings the final sounds of victory.

The fifth and final movement, marked Andante, is Kullervos Death. The chorus

returns in the last movement. Much of the movement is a vast crescendo, but so gradual

as to not be noticed. Kullervo, having defeated his uncle, happens to find himself in the

place where he seduced his sister and can only free himself from his guilt by committing

suicide, for which his weapon is his own sword, a gift from the god, Ukko. The chorus

narrates his last moments of remorse:

Kullervo, son of Kalervo,



Fixed the hilt onto the heath
And turned to point towards his chest.
And he threw himself on the point.
Thus he found the death he wanted,
He threw himself to his own death.

25 Robert Layton, Sibelius, Jean, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
ed. by Stanley Sadie, (New York: Groves Dictionaries, 2000). p. 280.
9

So the young man died like this.


Kullervo, the hero, died thus.
In this way the heros life ended,
The unlucky hero died just so.26

Sibelius quotes many themes from other movements and, at the very end, the

Introductions first theme returns. The tragic wheel has turned full circle.27

Kullervo was premiered on April 28th, 1892 in the University Hall in Helsinki and

Sibelius himself conducted. The soloists were Emmy Acht and Abraham Ojanper. The

work was a success - well received for its musical content and national flavor while

bringing Sibelius to the forefront of Finnish music. Despite the positive feedback from

the premiere, Sibelius was sensitive to criticism, and his keen self-criticism28 was

responsible for the suppression of the early quartet and Kullervo, as well as the

destruction of his 8th Symphony. Sibelius contributions to the development of the

symphonic poem reveal a power to encompass the imaginative world of Finnish

mythology within the strongest formal framework.29

Symphonic Poems On Motifs From The Lemminkinen Myth (1895-1896)

Sibelius gave this title to the newly composed four orchestral pieces on the program for a

concert of his own works. Better than any of the other names others have used, the

composers own title defines the form and character of the work.30 Originally intended to

26 Jean Sibelius, Kullervo, Op. 7, Karita Mattila, mezzo-soprano, Jorma Hynninen,


baritone, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, cond. Neeme Jrvi (Grammofon AB BIS,
313, 1985). p. 21.
27 Ibid, p. 3.
28 Britannica Book of Music, edited by Benjamin Hadley, (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday/Britannica Books, 1980); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 749.
29 Ibid, p. 750.
30 Jean Sibelius, The Lemminkinen Suite Op. 22, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra,
cond. Neeme Jrvi (Grammofon AB BIS, 294, 1985). p. 1.
10

be an opera in collaboration with J.H. Erkko, Sibelius eventually abandoned the idea, but

not before he had written The Swan of Tuonela which was to have been the prelude to

the opera, The Creation of the Boat. This widely played movement has shifted over the

years between being programmed as the second or the third movement.31 Premiered on

April 13th, 1896, the misnomer that is the Lemminkinen Suite returns to the Finnish

mythological source, the Kalevala.32

Lemminkinen and the Maidens of Saari33 - Lemminkinen is the carefree, youthful

figure in the epic, as fond of pretty maidens as he is of war-like ventures. From the very

beginning, a spread five-six chord in the horns and chromatic trembling in the violins

create the almost impressionist mood of a motionless lake at dusk. A clarinet figure

starting on a rising fourth, which like the rising fifth becomes a creative interval for the

whole piece. Conceived in particularly free sonata form, Robert Layton34 prefers to speak

of two alternating thematic groups. The main theme is comparable to an impressionistic

shimmer of light in contrast to themes presented in Sibelius Kullervo. The dance that this

movement is based around becomes wild:

Then the lively Lemminkinen,


Roamed about through every village,
For the island-maidens pleasure.

The colorful harmony might suggest Lemminkinens constant longing. With the

secondary theme played by the cellos, there emerges a passionate element, which swells

31 Ibid, p. 1.
32 Daniel M. Grimley, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Sibelius, (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2004). p. 101.

33 Jean Sibelius, The Lemminkinen Suite Op. 22, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra,
cond. Neeme Jrvi (Grammofon AB BIS, 294, 1985). p. 1.
34 Robert Layton, Sibelius, Jean, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
ed. by Stanley Sadie, (New York: Groves Dictionaries, 2000). p. 280.
11

until the dance, now shared by only two violins, and seems to disappear in a mist. The

tension subsides and the yearning motif of the introduction arches over the top of the

piece. The composer then plays directly on the nerves of the listener by presenting a

motif of chromatic sounds in parallel fourths. In the final bars of the movement, Sibelius

captures the farewell mood of the poem with a minor setting and a farewell signal in the

flutes. The strings gently die away with rising fourths.

As Lemminkinen leaves the island of Saari, he and a maiden, Kyllikki, make

vows to each other; however, thinking Lemminkinen has broken his vows, the maiden

retracts hers and Lemminkinen abandons her and sets off to woo the Maiden of the

North. His mother tries to stop him and be the voice of reason, but Lemminkinen

disregards her warnings, claiming that when he's in danger, his hairbrush starts to bleed.

After a long journey, he asks Louhi, the Mistress of the North, for her daughter's hand in

marriage to which she then assigns tasks to him to prove himself. She sends him to

Tuonela, the realm of death, to kill the Tuonelan Swan that floats on the sacred river.

During his quest, Lemminkinen is shot by the Shepard of the North who is annoyed by

his bad behavior and disrespect, and falls into the river of death. As he lies dead in the

river, his mother at home notices blood flowing from Lemminkinen's hairbrush.

Remembering her son's words, she goes in search of him. With a rake given to her by

Ilmarinen (the smith who at one time was in custody of Kullervo), she collects the pieces

of Lemminkinen scattered in the river and pieces him back together, a bee bringing her

the ingredients necessary to revive him.35

Sibelius The Swan of Tuonela is scored for an orchestra in which all the bright-toned

instruments are omitted and features: a cor anglais solo for the mournful song of the

35 http://www.sibelius.fi/english/kirjallisuus/index.htm
12

swan, one oboe, one bass clarinet, bassoons, horns, trombones, harp, kettledrums, bass

drum, muted strings divided into an immense number of parts. The movement begins

with strings (divisi con sordino) with a sustained A-minor triad moving in octaves to even

higher pitches whilst maintaining continuous sound to give a vision of flowing water.

Mans sorrow and lamentation sound are conveyed expressively in the highest register of

the violins. When the cor anglais solo reaches its points of greatest intensity, the harp

plays a C major triad probably meant to represent a ray of hope, yet quickly extinguished.

Rising to its highest register, the final passage on the cello paints a vision of the dead

souls in the eternal nightfall of Tuonela.36

Lemminkinen in Tuonela is the most operatic music in the suite.37 Flute, oboe,

cello and cor anglais are all treated as solo instruments that hand the melody off and

eventually acquire a softer, more human tone. Due to a disturbance caused by

Lemminkinen, evil spirits seem to have awakened. The infernal atmosphere is created

by a tremolo from the lower strings. When the buzzing of the strings grows faint and

human sounds of woe sound in the woodwinds, the harmonic language begs the audience

to question, What has happened to Lemminkinen? The tempo then becomes faster and

the "inferno" motif is heard in the wind instruments. The theme becomes surprisingly

impressionistic. The central section, marked molto lento, is identified by a frosty, unreal

mood. Followed by intense repeated sections of previous material; one can interpret the

repeated material as visions of the horrors of the underworld. Finally, only repentance

and death seem to remain. The music then shifts to Lemminkinen's mother. The lullaby

present at the end of the piece represents maternal love, apparent when she rakes up the

36 Jean Sibelius, The Lemminkinen Suite Op. 22, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra,
cond. Neeme Jrvi (Grammofon AB BIS, 294, 1985). p. 3.
37 http://www.sibelius.fi/english/musiikki/ork_lemminkainen.htm
13

pieces of Lemminkinen from the river of Tuonela and once more pieces him back

together.38 Once revived, his first words to his mother are:

And my inclination leads me


To the charming maids of Pohja,
With their lovely locks unbraided.

Lemminkinens Return is scored for ordinary full orchestra. The initial

bassoon theme includes a three-note (up a minor second, then down a perfect fourth; b-c-

g) germ motif, to which Sibelius then varies and uses through the rest of his rondo. The

thematic material consists of fragments, tossed from one group to another, and then

gradually melded together into a whole as the work proceeds a method of construction

characteristic of Sibelius later style, but uniquely featured here.39 One can also parallel

the piecing together of thematic material to the actual piecing together of the heros body

as his mother gathered him out of the River of Death.

Figure 2.1 - Lemminkinen's Return, p. 5540

38 Jean Sibelius, The Lemminkinen Suite Op. 22, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra,
cond. Neeme Jrvi (Grammofon AB BIS, 294, 1985). p. 4.
39 Cecil Gray, Sibelius, (London: Oxford University Press, 1931), p. 80.
40 http://www.sibelius.fi/english/musiikki/ork_lemminkainen.htm
14

Elements suggestive of riding a galloping horse take us to the joyful end of the movement

as illustrated in Figure 2.1 with the dotted eighth-note/sixteenth-note rhythms. The

programmatic foundation of this final movement is set upon the following passage in the

30th runo (song) of the Kalevala, which tells how after many adventures, Lemminkinen

reaches his home country at last, rejoicing at the sight of the familiar scenes with all their

childhood memories41:

Then the lively Lemminkinen


From his cares constructed horses,

Reins from evil days he fashioned,
Saddles from his secret sorrows,
Then his horses back he mounted
On his white-front courser mounted,
And he rode upon his journey.42

41 Nils-Eric Ringbom, Jean Sibelius: A Master and His Work, (Norman, OK:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), p. 49.
42 Cecil Gray, Sibelius, (London: Oxford University Press, 1931), p. 81.
15

In relation to the whole, The Return of Lemminkinen is a spirited, idyllic

finale for a fantastically rich work, which touches strings of emotions and moods that

span the extreme poles of human existence: life raised to its nth power, and death to the

uppermost limit.43

Conclusion

In his old age, Sibelius himself was inclined to emphasize the symphonic nature

of his work. "I actually have nine symphonies, since some of the movements in Kullervo

and Lemminkinen are in pure sonata form," he said. However, during the actual

composition he did not want to use the term symphony. Moreover, the subtitle "four

legends" implied that the works could be regarded as independent, despite forming a

whole.44

Jean Sibelius is regarded by his countrymen with honor and adoration, which only

a small people, such as his home country of Finland, can attribute to a creative artist of its

own people. He is in the fullest sense of the term a musical patriot45 and has enriched

Finnish music, both publically and in great depth, with a large number of works likely to

remain a part of Finlands history for many years to come. Looking back on the life of

Jean Sibelius, he is an inspiration to those who study him in that he was never subservient

to other claims than those of his own artistic integrity, and that he lived his life with

passion, grace, and wonderful adventure.

43 Nils-Eric Ringbom, Jean Sibelius: A Master and His Work, (Norman, OK:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), p. 51.
44 http://www.sibelius.fi/english/musiikki/ork_lemminkainen.htm
45 Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5, Vol. 7, edited by Eric Blom (New
York: St. Martins Press, Inc., 1954); s.v. Sibelius, Jean. p. 772-773.
16
17

Bibliography

Blom, Eric, ed. Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed. Vol. 7. New York: St.
Martins Press, Inc., 1954; s.v. Sibelius, Jean.

Downes, Olin. Jean Sibelius. The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians,
11th ed. Edited by Bruce Bohle, 8:2059-2068. New York: Dodd, Mead &
Company, 1985.

Ekman, Karl. Jean Sibelius: His Life and Personality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1938.

Gray, Cecil. Sibelius. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.

Grimley, Daniel M, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Sibelius. Cambridge: Cambridge


University Press, 2004.

Hadley, Benjamin, ed. Britannica Book of Music. Garden City, NY:


Doubleday/Britannica Books, 1980; s.v. Sibelius, Jean.

Layton, Robert. Sibelius, Jean. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed.
by Stanley Sadie. New York: Groves Dictionaries, 2000.

Ringbom, Nils-Eric. Jean Sibelius: A Master and His Work. Norman, OK: University of
Oklahoma Press, 1954.

Sibelius, Jean. Kullervo, Op. 7. Grammofon AB BIS, 313, 1985.

Sibelius, Jean. Lemminkinen Suite Op. 22. Grammofon AB BIS, 294, 1985.

http://www.sibelius.fi/english/

Slonimsky, Nicolas, ed. Bakers Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 4th ed. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1940; s.v. Sibelius, Jean.

Thompson, Jon. The Choral Music of Jean Sibelius: An Introduction. The Choral
Journal, Vol. 47, No. 8, pp. 8-15: American Choral Directors Association, 2007.
<http://www.jstor.org/stable/23557206>