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Implementation of Wind Turbine System for Fault

Tolerant Control

By

Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah


FA13-MSEE-015/LHR

MS Thesis
In
Electrical Engineering

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

Lahore-Pakistan

Spring, 2016
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

Implementation of Wind Turbine System for Fault


Tolerant Control

A Thesis Presented to

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore

In partial fulfillment
of the requirement for the degree of

MS (Electrical Engineering)

By

Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah


FA13-MSEE-015

Spring, 2016
Implementation of Wind Turbine System for Fault
Tolerant Control

A Post Graduate Thesis submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering as


partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree Of MS (Electrical
Engineering)

Name Registration Number


Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah FA13-MSEE-015

Supervisor

Dr. Mirza Tariq Hamayun


Assistant Professor Department of Electrical
Lahore Campus
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT)
Campus.
June, 2016
Final Approval

This thesis titled

Implementation of Wind Turbine System for Fault


Tolerant Control

By

Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah


FA13-MSEE-015

Has been approved


For the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore

External Examiner: __________________________________________


Dr. Tahir Izhar

Supervisor: ______________________________________________
Dr. Mirza Tariq Hamayun
Electrical Engineering / Lahore

HoD: ______________________________________________
Dr. Sobia Baig
HoD (Electrical Engineering/ Lahore)
Declaration

I Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah (FA13-MSEE-015) hereby declare that I have produced
the work presented in this thesis, during the scheduled period of study. I also declare that I
have not taken any material from any source except referred to wherever due that amount
of plagiarism is within acceptable range. If a violation of HEC rules on research has
occurred in this thesis, I shall be liable to punishable action under the plagiarism rules of
the HEC.

Date: June 13, 2016 Signature of the student:

____________________________
Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah
FA13-MSEE-015
Certificate

It is certified that Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah (FA13-MSEE-015) has carried out all
the work related to this thesis under my supervision at the Department of Electrical
Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore and the work fulfills
the requirement for award of MS degree.

Date: June 13, 2016

Supervisor:
___________________________
Dr. Mirza Tariq Hamayun
Assistant Prof.

Head of Department:
_____________________________
Dr. Sobia Baig.
<<Dept. Of Electrical Engineering>>
DEDICATION

I dedicate this thesis to my father Dr. Ghafoor Shah Qasim


for always been a mentor to me without him none of my
success would be possible and to my dearest niece Aiza,
who has a very special place in my heart.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

All the greatness and knowledge belongs to ALLAH Almighty, I am very thankful to my
creator to give me ability and strength to accomplish this research thesis.

Especially grateful to my supervisor, Dr. Mirza Tariq Hamayun., who has always been a
support and encouragement to me technically as well as morally.

Love to my family, specially my mother and father for their encouragement, love and
support.

Thanks to CIIT Lahore. Pakistan, for providing me a platform to continue my higher


studies.

Thanks to my friends, Junaid Anwar, Azhar Majeed and few others for helping me in few
issues related to this research work.

Muhammad Zohaib Hassan Shah (FA13-MSEE-015)


ABSTRACT

The key attribute of Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) system is to maintain the stability of
system in the presence of faults. In this thesis a fault tolerant control scheme is proposed
to evaluate the performance of wind turbine using nonlinear sliding mode control scheme
in the presence of faults in the actuators of wind turbine system. A nonlinear benchmark
model of a wind turbine is considered and a nonlinear controller is designed in the
simulation environment to improve the stability and reliability of the wind turbine system.

The methodology is to design the controller featuring outstanding properties of accuracy,


robustness and implementation. It has two main benefits specifically: the behavior of the
system may be accommodated by the choice of a suitable sliding function, secondly, the
response of the system is i to matched uncertainties acting in the control channel. In this
thesis different fault scenarios e.g. hydraulic leakage / pressure drop and high air content
in hydraulic oil are considered to show the usefulness of adopted FTC scheme.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1............................................................................................................ 0

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 0

1.1 MOTIVATION: .................................................................................................. 3


1.2 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS: ............................................................................. 3

CHAPTER 2............................................................................................................ 5

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION & MODELLING ...................................................... 5

2.1 WIND TURBINE COMPONENTS:........................................................................ 6


2.2 MODEL STRUCTURE: ....................................................................................... 7
2.2.1 Wind Model: ............................................................................................. 8
2.2.2 Blade and Pitch System Model:.............................................................. 10
2.2.3 Drive Train Model: ................................................................................. 12
2.2.4 Generator/Converter Model: ................................................................... 12
2.2.5 Controller Model: ................................................................................... 13
2.2.6 Sensor Model: ......................................................................................... 13
2.3 FAULT SCENARIOS: ........................................................................................ 14

CHAPTER 3.......................................................................................................... 15

WIND TURBINE FAULT ANALYSIS .............................................................. 15

3.1 ROTOR FAULTS: ............................................................................................. 16


3.2 DRIVE TRAIN FAULTS: ................................................................................... 17
3.3 ROTOR FAULT PROPAGATION ANALYSIS: ..................................................... 17
3.4 PITCH ACTUATOR FAULTS ASSESSMENT: ..................................................... 19
3.4.1 Occurrence: ............................................................................................. 19
3.4.2 Severity: .................................................................................................. 20
3.4.3 Pitch Actuator Faults Severity and Occurrence Analysis: ..................... 21
3.4.4 Pitch Actuator Redundancy Analysis: .................................................... 22
3.5 SELECTED FAULT PARAMETERS: ................................................................... 22
3.5.1 Hydraulic Leakage: ................................................................................. 23
3.5.2 High Air Content in Oil: ......................................................................... 23
3.5.3 Sequence of Occurrence: ........................................................................ 24

CHAPTER 4.......................................................................................................... 26

FAULT TOLERANT CONTROL APPROACH .............................................. 26

4.1 CONTROL CRITERION: ................................................................................... 27


4.1.1 Control Mode 1: ...................................................................................... 28
4.1.2 Control Mode 2: ...................................................................................... 29
4.1.3 Control Modes Switching: ...................................................................... 30
4.2 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY: ...................................................................... 31
4.2.1 Why Sliding Mode Control? ................................................................... 31
4.2.2 Few Concepts Related to SMC:.............................................................. 32
4.2.3 Properties of the SMC: ........................................................................... 32
4.3 SMC FOR PITCH SYSTEM:.............................................................................. 33
4.3.1 Observer Design: .................................................................................... 34
4.4 SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER DESIGN: ......................................................... 37
4.41 Design Procedure: .................................................................................... 37
4.42 Physical Constraints: ............................................................................... 40

CHAPTER 5.......................................................................................................... 41

SIMULATION AND RESULTS ANALYSIS.................................................... 41

5.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS: ................................................................................... 42


5.1.1 Wind Speed Sequence: ........................................................................... 42
5.1.2 Measured Generator Speed: .................................................................... 43
5.2 SIMULATION RESULTS OF PITCH ACTUATORS:.............................................. 44
5.2.1 Step Response of Pitch Actuators:.......................................................... 45
5.2.2 Actual Response of Pitch Actuators: ...................................................... 47
5.3 POWER GENERATION RESULTS: .................................................................... 55
5.3.1 PI Control Strategy: ................................................................................ 55
5.3.2 LQR Control Strategy: ............................................................................ 56
5.3.3 SMC Control Strategy: ........................................................................... 57
5.4 COMPARISON OF SIMULATION RESULTS: ...................................................... 58
5.4.1 Comparison of Pitch Actuator Results: .................................................. 58
5.4.2 Comparison of Power Generation Results: ............................................ 62

CHAPTER 6.......................................................................................................... 64

CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................... 64

6.1 CONCLUSION: ................................................................................................ 65


6.2 FUTURE WORK: .............................................................................................. 65

REFERENCE: ...................................................................................................... 66
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1: Pakistan wind map ................................................................................................... 1


Fig. 2: Components of wind turbine system [2] ................................................................. 6
Fig. 3: Model of wind turbine system [1] ........................................................................... 7
Fig. 4: Plot of Cq, tip speed ratio and pitch angle............................................................. 11
Fig. 5: Hydraulic pitch actuators for three wind turbine blades. ...................................... 16
Fig. 6: FEMA scheme illustrating the propagation of rotor faults [3] .............................. 18
Fig. 7: Criticality Matrix as defined by FEMA [24] ......................................................... 19
Fig. 8: Step response for faulty and fault free pitch system.............................................. 24
Fig. 9: Sequence of faults with respect to simulation time ............................................... 25
Fig. 10: Zones in wind turbine system [1], [3] ................................................................. 27
Fig. 11: Cp plot with respect to pitch angle and tip speed ratio [6]................................... 29
Fig. 12: Structure of implemented controller .................................................................... 31
Fig. 13: Sliding surface ..................................................................................................... 33
Fig. 14: LQR Control Scheme with observer design [16] ................................................ 35
Fig. 15: Error between measured and estimated state....................................................... 36
Fig. 16: Wind Speed Sequence [1] ................................................................................... 43
Fig. 17a: Measured Generator Speed in PI Control Scheme ............................................ 43
Fig. 17b: Measured Generator Speed in LQR Control Scheme........................................ 44
Fig. 17c: Measured Generator Speed in SMC Control Scheme ....................................... 44
Fig. 18a: Step response of fault free pitch actuator 1 ....................................................... 45
Fig. 18b: Step response of faulty (hydraulic leakage) pitch actuator 2 ............................ 46
Fig. 18c: Step response of faulty (high air content in oil) pitch actuator 3....................... 46
Fig. 19: Deflections of pitch actuators and generated power using PI Control scheme ... 49
Fig. 20: Deflections of pitch actuators and generated power using LQR Control scheme52
Fig. 21: Deflections of pitch actuators and generated power using SMC control scheme 54
Fig. 22: Generated power using PI control scheme .......................................................... 55
Fig. 23: Generated power using LQR control scheme ...................................................... 56
Fig. 24: Generated power using SMC control scheme ..................................................... 57
Fig. 25a: Comparison of pitch actuator 1 simulation results ............................................ 59
Fig. 25b: Comparison of pitch actuator 2 simulation results ............................................ 60
Fig. 25c: Comparison of pitch actuator 3 simulation results ............................................ 62
Fig. 26: Generated power in PI, LQR, and SMC control scheme .................................... 63
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Wind turbine model parameters............................................................................ 8


Table 2: Wind model parameters [1] .................................................................................. 9
Table 3: Blade and Pitch system model parameters [1] .................................................... 12
Table 4: Drive train model parameters [1] ........................................................................ 12
Table 5: Generator and Converter model parameters [1] ................................................. 13
Table 6: Sensor model parameters [1] .............................................................................. 14
Table 7: Occurrence evaluation criteria [3], [8] ............................................................ 20
Table 8: Severity evaluation criteria [3], [8] ................................................................. 20
Table 9: Pitch actuator faults occurrence and severity indices. [3] .................................. 21
Table 10: Pitch actuator fault parameters [3] .................................................................... 22
Table 11: Time domain performance parameters ............................................................. 24
Table 12: Control modes parameters [1] .......................................................................... 30
Table 13: PI controller parameters of benchmark model [1] ............................................ 47
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Angular position of three blades (deg)


H Height of the tower (m)
R Radius of the rotor (m)
Empirical wind shear exponent.
r0 Radius of the blade hub (m)
k Aerodynamic factor
Cq Rotor torque coefficient
Tip-speed ratio (TSR)
Air density (kg/m3)
Yaw error (deg)
Blade pitch angle (deg)
V Wind speed (m/s)
K Standard torque control gain (kg-m2)
r Rotor angular speed (rad/s)
Damping factor
n Natural frequency
Jr Moment of inertia of low speed shaft
Kdt Torsion stiffness of drive train
Bdt Torsion damping coefficient of drive train
Bg Viscous friction of high-speed shaft
Ng Gear ratio
Jg Moment of inertia of e high speed shaft
dt Efficiency of drive train
Torsion angle of drive train (deg)
Nominal generator speed (rad/s)
g Measured generator speed (rad/s)
gc Generator and converter model parameters
g Efficiency of generator
g Measured generator torque (Nm)
g,r Reference generator torque (Nm)
Speed offset (rad/s)
Pg Measured power generation (MW)
Pgr Power reference (MW)
Tuning parameter for SMC
Cp Power coefficient
Linear switching function
S Sliding surface
A Area swept by the turbine blades
Rlqr Tuning parameter for LQR
Qlqr Tuning parameter for LQR
Chapter 1

Introduction

0
In growing demand of energy production, wind turbines are the one of the most suitable
energy source. The demands for their reliability is very high, so their off time should be
minimum.

In case of Pakistan, where there is an acute energy short fall, wind turbines can play a very
important role in fulfilling the growing demand of electricity. Wind is a natural resource
and Pakistan is very suitable country for wind turbines as here the average wind speed for
the entire year is above 7 m/sec which is considered to be very suitable parameter for wind
turbine. An overview of Wind speed in different parts of Pakistan is given in Fig. 1. Few
wind turbines have already been installed and operational at different sites while work at
other projects is in progress. So wind speed is a blessing for this country which must be
exploited to meet current energy demand.

Fig. 1: Pakistan wind map

1
The wind energy is becoming a leading energy source. Power generation of megawatt sizes
wind turbine are available but are very expensive. So their shutdown time should be
minimum to produce power as much as possible. The wind turbines reliability must be high
to mitigate for higher installation cost. In this perspective research work has been carried
on wind turbine system. There are various research domains in wind turbine for instance
conventional as well as non-conventional techniques, Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) and
Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) has been used to tackle wind turbines malfunctioning.

A benchmark model of wind turbine has been presented in [1]. This benchmark model has
been designed and used by a professional organization (K K Electronic from Denmark) for
their various research projects. In [1] PI controller has been used as the underlying
controller. Some more advanced models of wind turbine have been presented recently. In
[21] well-recognized FAST (aero elastic wind turbine simulator designed by NREL)
software based wind turbine model has been presented, and the faults were observed in
both sensors and actuators. Wind turbine model was implemented in FAST while faults of
sensor and actuator were implemented within the Simulink environment. A very simplified
wind turbine model is introduced in [22], where rotor speed has been adjusted through
pitch angle control of turbine using PID, PID controller was used to eliminate steady state
error and adjust overshoot of the system. To make it simple gear box model was eliminated.
In [23] a pitch angle control of blades has been presented to maintain the constant rpm and
power generation. In addition to that research report by NREL [25], a practical control
design of wind turbine has been discussed. The classical and modern control design
approaches have been compared. Modern control techniques like Disturbance
Accommodating Control (DAC). Simulation tools likes FAST, AeroDyn, ADAMS,
DUWECS (simulation tools) are discussed briefly in this research report.

Fault tolerant control system [18] is of high importance as it has tendency to mitigate the
effects of faults in wind turbine for the continuous operation. In [27], observer based fault-
tolerant control approach for sensors and actuators fault is implemented. The author of this
paper uses 5MW reference wind turbine [28] specifications for observer based fault
tolerant control.

2
1.1 Motivation:

In order to overcome the limitations of traditional feedback control, fault tolerant control
schemes are the best alternative during fault scenarios. In wind turbine the most often faults
are related to actuators [32].Therefore, wind turbine pitch actuators and sensors are often
the topic of the FDI (Fault Detection and Isolation) and FTC (Fault Tolerant Control)
research works. This research work is based on designing the fault tolerant control scheme
for wind turbine system and the possible faults in actuators of pitch system are considered
to see their effects on system performance. A nonlinear sliding mode control technique is
implemented to cope with actuator faults. The aim of this research is to minimize the effect
of actuator faults while keeping the power generation at max reference value of 4.8MW.
Benchmark model of wind turbine [1] is used for research purpose. Pitch actuators and
power generation results are compared with PI and LQR an end objective of this research
work.

1.2 Organization of Thesis:

This research thesis has been organized in a six different chapters as follows.

In chapter 2 its a system description of a wind turbine and modelling of its subsystem is
discussed, like wind, drive train, generator model, sensors and controller model.

In chapter 3 different possible faults in wind turbine system are mentioned which includes
actuator faults and sensor faults that could occur in drive train, pitch system or gear box of
wind turbine etc. The severity and sequence of occurrence of actuator faults has also been
discussed in this chapter.

In chapter 4 fault tolerant control approach for the pitch system has been presented. Control
modes and switching criterion between these control modes are discussed. Sliding mode
controller has been chosen for this research work. Design procedure for SMC has been
described and necessary condition for sliding mode is mentioned. Designed LQR is
implemented on the wind turbine model, later to that SMC is implemented on the very
same wind turbine model.

3
In chapter 5 the simulations results of SMC are compared with PI and LQR considering
the same scenario given in [1] in the fault free as well as the faulty environment. Finally at
the end concluding remarks are given and some future research works are suggested.

4
Chapter 2

System Description & Modelling

5
In this chapter wind turbine components will be described in detail. This chapter is inspired
from benchmark model of wind turbine presented in [1].

2.1 Wind Turbine Components:


In this section a typical wind turbine components will be discussed. Wind turbines used in
this research thesis is selected by the KK-electronic, A Danish concept wind turbine.
This model represents 4.8MW pitch-controlled wind turbine [1].

Fig. 2: Components of wind turbine system [2]

The parts of wind turbine system can be seen in Fig 2 and are described in below
alphabetical order as inspired from [2].

6
Anemometer measures the wind speed. The wind turbine in this system operates between
3 to 25 m/s of wind speed.
Brakes are used to forcefully stop the wind turbine in times of very high wind speed.
Gearbox transfers the low torque from wind energy to high torque required by the
generator.
Generator produces the required power of 4.8MW by conversion of wind energy to the
electrical energy.
Hub and rotor blades makes the rotor of the wind turbine. And particularly in hub wind
turbine pitch system is installed to maximize the power generation during variation of wind
speed.
Nacelle is at the top the wind turbine tower and it comprises of low speed, high speed shaft,
gearbox, generator and brakes.
Tower holds the nacelle and the rotor. Tall tower will generate more power.
Wind vanes are installed in wind turbine system to measure the wind speed and wind
turbines are oriented accordingly to attain maximum power generation.
Wind turbines are complicated machines and a very simple PI control scheme is
implemented in benchmark model of wind turbine. [1]. In this research work conventional
PI control scheme is replaced with a well-recognized SMC control scheme.
The wind turbine mathematical models are described as follows.

2.2 Model Structure:


Wind turbine system is divided in to sub models. These sub models are shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3: Model of wind turbine system [1]

7
The parameters given in Fig 3 has been defined in Table 1.

Table 1: Wind turbine model parameters

r Pitch Angle Reference (Deg) g Generator Angular Speed (rad/s)


r Rotor Torque (Nm) m Measured Pitch Angle (Deg)
r Rotor Angular Speed (rad/s) Pg Generated Power (Watt)
Pr Power Reference (Watt) g Generator Torque (Nm)
w, m Measured Wind Speed (m/s) g,r Generator Torque Reference (Nm)
Measured Generator Angular Speed
g, m w Wind Speed (m/s)
(rad/s)
Measured Rotor Angular Speed
r, m g, m Measured Generator Torque (Nm)
(rad/s)

Each part of the wind turbine is further explained as follows.

2.2.1 Wind Model:


A wind model describes the stochastic behavior, wind shear effect, wind speed varies with
height of wind turbine and tower shadow effects, accounting for the passing of the blade
in front of the wind turbine tower [2].
The Wind model has been divided into four parts. i.e.
The mean wind slow wind variations Vm(t); stochastic Vs(t); the wind shear Vws(t) and
tower shadow effect Vts(t). Specifically;

Vw (t) = Vm (t) + Vs (t) + Vws (t) + Vts (t) (2.1)

The wind model is constituted using four different wind speeds. At hub height, wind speed
is measured by anemometer and it is referred as Vhub(t). The wind speed at the blade tips,
are represented as Vw1(t), Vw2(t), and Vw3(t). respectively and these wind speeds can vary
by the tower shadow and wind shear effects, while Vhub (t) depends only the two terms in
Eq. (2.1).

8
2.2.1.1 Mean Wind (Vm):
The mean wind speed varies with height above mean sea level and the average time
interval; a standard reference elevation is 10 m and a standard time interval is 1 h
Mean wind speed has been calculated by a slowly altering wind sequence and it is acquired
by processing a set of measured wind data with low-pass filter. The implementation of
mean wind has been discussed in [3].

2.2.1.2 Wind Shear (Vs):


Wind shear effect described as wind speed varies with height of wind turbine and it can
be calculated from the Eq. 2.2.

2Vm (t) R3 . R4 1 2Vm (t) R5 (2 ).(2)


Vws,i (t) = .( + . . . 2 ) + .( . . 3 ) (2.2)
3.R2 3.H 4 2.H2 3.R2 5 6.H3

Where = cos( ()), is the position of three blades. and H are two aerodynamic
parameters.
1 () = ()
2
2 () = () +
3
4
3 () = () +
3
The wind model parameters are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Wind model parameters [1]

H r0
0.12 81m 1.5m

2.2.1.3 Tower Shadow (Vts):


When a blade is located in front of the tower, the lift on that blade decreases because the
tower reduces the effective wind speed. This phenomenon is called tower shadow and
implies that the force acting on each blade decreases every time a blade is located in front
of the tower. The magnitude of the tower shadow depends on the diameter of the tower and

9
the distance between the blade and the tower. The tower shadow effect of wind is
calculated as follows:
r(t)
m.
Vts,i (t) = ( + V) (2.3)
3.r2

Where
R2 r0 2
= 22
(R2 + r0 2 )sin(r, i(t))2 + k 2 )
(r0 2 R2 )(r0 2 sin(r, i(t))2 + k 2 )
2 2
V = 2 k
R2 sin(r, i(t))2 + k 2
( 1). r0 2
m= 1+
8. H 2
(i 1). 2
(i 1). 2 r (t) +
r, i(t) = r (t) + floor ( 3 ) . 2
3 2

The corresponding parameters are given in abbreviation of introductory pages.

2.2.2 Blade and Pitch System Model:


Blade and pitch system comprises of aerodynamic model and pitch system model. And the
reference torque is calculated from the aerodynamic model.

2.2.2.1 Aerodynamic Model:


The torque calculated from the aerodynamics of wind turbine system is described in [1] &
[4]. And is calculated as:
Cq ((t),(t))R3 Vw (t)2
r (t ) = (2.4)
2

In which Cq ( (t), (t)) is a plot which is influenced by the tip speed ratio (t) and pitch
angle (t). The Cq plot is given in Fig. 4.

10
Fig. 4: Plot of Cq, tip speed ratio and pitch angle

In order to model the wind turbine blades a very simple model is considered. The torque
acting on each blade is equal to the one third of the provided torque by three blades. This
can be expressed as:
R3 Cq ((t),(t))Vw,i (t)2
r (t) = 13 (2.5)
6

2.2.2.2 Pitch System Model:


Pitch system can be expressed as a transfer between the measured and the reference value
of pitch angle. ref is the input provided by the controller where as m is the output of the
pitch system. Pitch system of wind turbine is modelled as:

2

= 2 2 (2.6)
+2. .+

This pitch system model is connected to all three pitch actuators. In case of no fault, the
damping parameter of all the three pitch actuators is identical. However, in case of actuator
fault, their parameter will different from one another. The parameters and the specifications
of faulty system are discussed in detail in chapter 3 of this research thesis. The blade and
pitch system parameters are given in Table 3.

11
Table 3: Blade and Pitch system model parameters [1]

R wn
rad Kg
57.5m 0.6 11.11 1.225
s m3

2.2.3 Drive Train Model:


Drive train model in benchmark model of wind turbine [1] is expressed as two mass model.
Torque from the rotor to the generator is transferred by the drive train system. Drive train
comprises of the gear box that transforms the rotational speed from low speed shaft to the
high speed shaft. And it can be calculated by using the following equations:
Bdt
Jr r(t) = r (t) K dt (t) (Bdt + Br )r (t) + g (t) (2.7)
Ng

dt Kdt dt Bdt dt Bdt


Jg g(t) = (t) + r (t) ( + Bg ) g (t) g (t) (2.8)
Ng Ng N2g

1
(t) = r (t) (t)
Ng g
The values of drive train model are given in Table 4.

Table 4: Drive train model parameters [1]

Bdt Br Bg Ng
Nms Nms Nms
775.49 7.11 45.6 95
rad rad rad
Kdt dt Jg Jr
Nms
2.7.109 0.97 390kg. m2 55.106 kg. m2
rad

The parameter abbreviations are given at the start of research work in introductory pages.

2.2.4 Generator/Converter Model:


Generator/ converter model can be expressed as:
g (s)
= (2.9)
g,r (s) +

The power delivered by the generator can be calculated as follows in Eq. 2.10

12
Pg (t) = g . g (t)g (t) (2.10)
In above equations gc is the generator/converter model parameters while g is the
efficiency of generator. And their values are given in Table 5.

Table 5: Generator and Converter model parameters [1]

gc gc
rad
50 0.98
s

2.2.5 Controller Model:


The wind turbine system, controller works in two modes as described in the introduction
chapter. Zone 2 is called the power optimization zone and zone 3 is called as power
reference zone. Control modes 1 and 2 are used for representation of zone 2 and zone 3
respectively.
Control strategy as discussed in wind turbine benchmark model [1] has been adopted with
modification in controller. PI is replaced with LQR and a nonlinear SMC techniques as the
focus of this research work is on the fault tolerant control of wind turbine. The controllers
are implemented with a sampling frequency of 100 Hz. The design and control
methodology is discussed in detail in Chapter 5.

2.2.6 Sensor Model:


Each sensor is expressed as the combination of real values and noise. The mean and the
variance values against each sensor are denoted as given:
mw, w Wind speed - vw
mr, r Rotor speed - r
mg, g Generator speed - g
mg, g Generator torque - g
mPg, Pg Generator power - Pg
m, Pitch angle -

The parameter values of sensor model are given in Table 6.

13
Table 6: Sensor model parameters [1]

mw w mwr wr mwg wg
m m rad m rad rad
1.5 0.5 0 0.025 0 0.05
s s s s s s
mg g mPg Pg m
0 Nm 90 Nm 0W 1.103 W 0o 0.2o

2.3 Fault Scenarios:


This research work which is based on benchmark model of wind turbine [1] only focuses
on actuator faults of pitch system, specifically; pitch actuator 2 and pitch actuator 3 as
discussed below.
The fault of drop in hydraulic pressure is considered in pitch actuator 2 which is active in
pitch actuator 2 from the 2900-3000sec.
The fault of increase in air content in hydraulic oil is considered in pitch actuator 3 from
3400-3500sec.it is introduced slowly from 3400-3430 sec with a uniform rate and then stay
active from 3430-3470sec and its value drop slowly from 3470-3500sec.
n2 and 2 , n3 and 3 represent the fault parameters of hydraulic pressure drop and high
air content in oil respectively there values are given in Table 10. Keeping in view the above
fault scenarios, nonlinear sliding mode controller has been used in this research work as it
is inherently robust against the actuator faults.

14
Chapter 3

Wind Turbine Fault Analysis

15
The aim of this chapter is to recognize the actuator faults on the wind turbine and to define
their consequence on the overall system performance. In this research work only wind
turbine actuator faults are considered. The faults in different parts of wind turbine system
are sub grouped accordingly.

3.1 Rotor Faults:


In wind turbine system rotor assembly covers pitch actuators, blades, controller and
sensors. In the benchmark model, three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine has been
considered where each blade system has its individual pitch actuator, controller and two
sensors for pitch position measurement. For each actuator, pitch position sensors are
denoted as 1 1 , 1 2 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 3 1 , 3 2 . There can be faults in pitch actuator,
controller or sensors of the wind turbine rotor. The sensor faults results in fixed value or
variation in the gain factor. If not properly accommodated, the faults will affect the pitch
position measurements, as the implemented controller controls the pitch positions based on
these position measurements. In wind turbine, including six positon sensors as discussed
above, also there are two speed sensors denoted as r 1 , r 2 .The fault on rotor speed
sensor can results in fixed value or gain factor.
The pitch actuators of wind turbine are hydraulically controlled. A very basic scheme for
these hydraulic pitch actuators is shown in Fig. 5

Fig. 5: Hydraulic pitch actuators for three wind turbine blades.

It can be seen from Fig. 5 that the faults in pitch actuators of three wind turbine blades
could be any of the form like hydraulic leakage/ pressure drop, high air content in hydraulic
oil, valve jammed, pump wear and pump blockage. These faults and their effects are further
discussed in this chapter.

16
3.2 Drive Train Faults:
In wind turbine system drive train assembly contains generator speed sensors and gear box.
The generator speed is measured through two generator speed sensors g 1 , g 2. The
fault in generator speed sensors will influence the pitch position measurements and
generator torque reference as their calculations are based on these generator speed
measurements. The origin of faults in low speed, high speed shaft and Gear box is of
mechanical in nature like bearing wear, misalignment or tooth wear respectively. These
faults will result in non-uniform rotation and low efficiency of wind turbine.

3.3 Rotor Fault Propagation Analysis:


The section is based on [3] and the aim of this section is to explain the propagation of faults
and their effects. These are examined by Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA).
FMEA is a well-recognized technique for describing fault propagation analysis, [6]. The
basic assumption in FEMA is that no fault handling mechanism present in the system. And
the other assumption is made that normal system is fault free. This research work will focus
only on few actuator faults of wind turbine rotor, But FMEA for all faults of rotor has been
made. The FMEA for rotor is given in Fig. 6. Even though in wind turbine there are three
blades and their corresponding pitch actuators and pitch position sensors but only one block
against each of them is drawn as the effect is identical in each of these components.

17
Unbalance Changed Changed Out of
Rotor
Rotation Efficiency Dynamics Control
Pitch Offset x
Fixed Pitch x
Pitch Not Pitched x
actuator
Full Pitched x
(1 2, 3,)
Random Pitched x
Slower Actuation x
Blade Lower Efficiency x
(1 2, 3, ) Changed aerodynamics x

Blade (1,2,3) Lower Efficiency Changed Aerodynamics


Dirt on blade x
Damaged blade tip x

Pitch actuator Pitch Fixed Not Full Random Slower


(1 2, 3,) Offset Pitch Pitched Pitched Pitched Actuation
Valve blockage x
Pump blockage x
Pump wear x
Hydraulic oil leakage x
High air content in oil x
Biased output x
Pitch
Controller
Low output x
(1,2,3 ) High output x
Random output x

Low Random
Pitch controller (1,2,3) Biased output High output
output output
Biased output x
Pitch
Fixed output x x
Sensor
Random output x
(1,2,3)
No Output x x

Random No
Pitch Sensor (1,2,3) Biased output Fixed output
output output
Internal Fault x x x x

Fig. 6: FEMA scheme illustrating the propagation of rotor faults [3]

18
3.4 Pitch Actuator Faults Assessment:
In this section, pitch actuator faults, their occurrence and severity will be assessed as
referred from [3]. Severities of these faults has been found through simulations with fault
incorporation on wind turbine model. In order to avoid the disruption of flow in research
work, only the results of these simulations are discussed.
Wind turbine pitch actuator faults have been classified on the basis of probability of their
occurrence and severity. Their consequences are scaled from 1-10. The criticality matrix
as defined by [7] tells priority level to handle any occurred fault in wind turbine as shown
in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7: Criticality Matrix as defined by FEMA [24]

3.4.1 Occurrence:
Occurrence is the frequency of fault on a scale from 1 (unlikely) to 10 (inevitable).
Occurrence and its interpretation is mentioned in Table 7 which is based on [3], [8]. The
likelihood of occurrence ranking number has a meaning rather than a mere value.

19
Table 7: Occurrence evaluation criteria [3], [8]

Probability of failure Likely failure rate Scale

Very High: Almost inevitable 20% failures 10


failure. 15-20% failures 9
10-15% failures 8
High: Repeated failure.
5-10% failures 7
4-5% failures 6
Moderate: Occasional failure. 3-4% failures 5
2-3% failures 4
1-2% failures 3
Low: Rare failure.
0.1-1% failures 2
Remote: unlikely failure. <0.1% failures 1

3.4.2 Severity:
Severity is an assessment of the criticality of the end effect by the fault. And it apply to
the effects only. A possible severity ranking index scheme on a scale from 1 to 10 is shown
in Table 8 which is based on [3], [8]. In most of the literature the severity scheme has been
referred to automotive industry because FEMA was first incorporated by automotive
industry. But later engineers designed severity scheme for wind turbine faults as discussed
below.

Table 8: Severity evaluation criteria [3], [8]

Effect Criteria: severity of effect Scale


Hazardous Very high severity ranking when a potential failure mode
without affects safe turbine operation and/or involves noncompliance 10
warning with government regulation without warning.
Very high severity ranking when a potential failure mode
Hazardous
affects safe turbine operation and/or involves noncompliance 9
with warning
with government regulation with warning.
Very high Turbine/item inoperable, with loss of primary function. 8

20
Turbine/item operable, but at reduced level of performance.
High 7
Customer dissatisfied.
Turbine/item operable, but comfort/convenience item(s)
Moderate 6
inoperable. Customer experiences discomfort.
Turbine/item operable, but comfort/convenience item(s)
Low operable at reduced level of performance. Customer 5
experiences some dissatisfaction.
Fit and finish/squeak and rattle item does not conform.
Very low 4
Defect noticed by most customers.
Fit and finish/squeak and rattle item does not conform.
Minor 3
Defect noticed by average customer.
Fit and finish/squeak and rattle item does not conform.
Very minor 2
Defect noticed by discriminating customer.
None No effect. 1

3.4.3 Pitch Actuator Faults Severity and Occurrence Analysis:


It has already been discussed that the wind turbine system have various faults in different
components like rotor and drive train. But this research work will only focus on the faults
related to pitch actuator of wind turbine rotor assembly. Therefore only the actuator faults
severity and occurrence indices have been given in Table 9 which are derived from [3].

Table 9: Pitch actuator faults occurrence and severity indices. [3]

Effect Fault Occurrence Severity


Pitch actuator - Pump wear 4 5
Changed
Pitch actuator Hydraulic leakage 3 8
Dynamics
Pitch actuator - High air content in oil 5 5
Out of Pitch actuator - Valve blockage 3 8
Control Pitch actuator - Pump blockage 2 9

21
3.4.4 Pitch Actuator Redundancy Analysis:
In the benchmark model of wind turbine system [1], there are no redundant pitch actuators
available. Therefore the fault tolerant control approach has become much more complex
and tedious task during non-availability of redundancy and in wind turbine system the most
common failure is in fact because of malfunctioning of actuators [32]. The various FDI and
FTC schemes were implemented on benchmark model of the wind turbine, the results of
these control schemes have been summarized in [31] where it states that sensors faults are
accommodated in better way than that of actuator faults. This might be due to the fact that
all the sensors are physically redundant, while the actuators have no redundancy.
If the actuator redundancy would be available in this model then different control schemes
like use of virtual actuators or control allocation could be used as described in [33] and
[13] respectively. In this thesis sliding mode controller has been implemented and it is
shown in results (chapter 5) that how SMC cope with the actuator faults.

3.5 Selected Fault Parameters:


The fault considered for pitch actuators are hydraulic leakage / pressure drop and increase
of air content in the hydraulic oil. In case of no fault, the damping factors of pitch actuators
have identical value. But in case of actuator fault their parameters will be different from
one another. In this thesis fault in two pitch actuators have been considered, specifically;
hydraulic leakage and high air content in oil in pitch actuator 2 and 3 respectively.
Hydraulic pressure drop or leakage in pitch actuator 2 is denoted by n2 and 2. Whereas
increase of air content in oil at pitch actuator 3 is represented by n3 and 3. Parameters
for faulty and fault free system are given in Table 10.

Table 10: Pitch actuator fault parameters [3]

Faults Tags Parameters


wn

No Fault - rad
11.11 0.6
s
wn 2 2
Hydraulic Leakage F1 rad
3.42 0.9
s

22
wn 3 3
High Air Content in Oil F2 rad
5.73 0.45
s

3.5.1 Hydraulic Leakage:


It an irreversible fault. When this fault is present in this system, it should be accommodated
at earliest. if the hydraulic leakage is very fast then the recommended procedure in case of
wind turbine, is to go for shut down because if it will not treated earliest, the faulty wind
turbine blade would stuck in undesired position. And will be exposed to wind stresses and
high vibrations. In this research work 50% of hydraulic leakage has been considered.
During hydraulic leakage system dynamics will vary as under this fault condition natural
frequency is reduced to wn 2 = 3.42 rad/s and damping ratio is 2 = 0.9. In this research
work it will be demonstrated that how efficiently system behaves in the presence of faulty
pitch actuator using the proposed SMC control scheme. The corresponding parameters of
this fault F1 has been taken from and discussed in [1], [3] and [9].

3.5.2 High Air Content in Oil:


In comparison to hydraulic leakage, high air content in the oil is a reversible fault, it means
that this fault may disappear without any repair procedure. The nominal value of the air
content in the oil is 7 %, whereas the high air content in the oil is equal to 15 %. During
this fault the system dynamics will vary, the natural frequency will be to wn 3 = 5.73 rad/s
and damping ratio 3 = 0.45. The parameters for fault F2 has been extracted from [9]. The
pitch actuators step response in the presence of faults is shown in Fig. 8 and their time
domain performance parameters are given in Table 11.

23
Pitch Actuators Step Response
Normal-Fault Free
1.2
Hydraulic Leakage Fault
High Air Content in Oil Fault
1

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (Sec)

Fig. 8: Step response for faulty and fault free pitch system

The time domain performances against Fig. 8 can be seen in Table 11.
Table 11: Time domain performance parameters
Fault Free Hydraulic Leakage High Air Content in
System Fault Oil Fault
Rise Time (sec) 0.1670 0.8431 0.2702
Settling Time (sec) 0.5350 1.3742 1.4564
Overshoot (%) 9.4773 0.1524 20.5193
Peak 1.0948 1.0015 1.2052
Peak Time (sec) 0.3523 2.1096 0.6072

3.5.3 Sequence of Occurrence:


In this section, sequence of occurrence of two considered actuator faults i.e. hydraulic
leakage and high air content in oil will be discussed. The model was simulated for the total
time of 4400 sec and power generation was the end result of all these simulations. This
section is inspired from the benchmark model of wind turbine as discussed in [1].
Hydraulic leakage fault, F1 has been introduced in pitch actuator 2 of wind turbine blade
2 for the total time of 100sec from 2900 to 3000sec. This fault has been considered for only
100sec with changed dynamics as given in Table 10. Furthermore high air content in oil,
F2 has been introduced in pitch actuator 3 of wind turbine blade 3 for the total time of
100sec from 3400 to 3500sec as in [1]. The fault of high air content in oil is incorporated

24
in the pitch system with increase of its value for 30sec with uniform rate. Then for next 40
sec fault is present in this system with its full value and the fault value decreases with
uniform rate for next 30 sec. in this way the fault is active for total of 100sec. Time line of
both the faults is given in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9: Sequence of faults with respect to simulation time

So far in this part of research work, faults, their effects and occurrence has been discussed.
In the next chapter controller design methodology will be discussed in detail to tackle these
faults, and results will be shown and analyzed in the last chapter of this research work.

25
Chapter 4

Fault Tolerant Control Approach

26
A benchmark model of 4.8MW wind turbine [1] is considered. In this research work
nonlinear sliding mode control scheme is designed and implemented. The results of SMC
has been compared with existing benchmark model of wind turbine which is implemented
through PI controller. In this chapter control strategy, requirements and implementation of
sliding mode controller in the presence of two actuator faults will be discussed in detail.

4.1 Control Criterion:


In this section control criterion will be discussed which is based on benchmark model of
wind turbine given in [1] and other research works [6], [9]. There are four zones in the
wind turbine system based on varying wind speed. These four zones are shown in Fig. 10.

Fig. 10: Zones in wind turbine system [1], [3]

It is clear from the above Fig: 10 that wind energy generates power during very narrow
wind speed zones. In zone 1 power production is zero when wind energy will be less than
3 m/s and this point is called as cut in value of wind speed. Wind turbine will be shut down
below this value, since the operational cost surpasses the power generation cost. Zone 2 is
referred as partial load or power optimization region. The main control objectives in this
region is to obtain optimal value of power production. Zone 3 is a full load or constant
power production zone, the main control objective i.e. constant and maximum power
production, is obtained through pitching of wind turbine blades in the presence of pitch

27
controller. Similar to zone 1, zone 4 is also shut down region of wind turbine, when the
wind speed exceed the cut out point it is hazardous to operate the wind turbine, so wind
turbine is forcefully shutdown to protect it from structural overloads. Therefore zone 1 and
zone 4 are not of concern in this research work, while zone 2 and zone 3 will be described
further with respect to their control mode 1 and control mode 2 respectively.

4.1.1 Control Mode 1:


In this control mode the wind turbine is modelled to generate as much energy as possible.
This is achieved by imposing the generator torque reference to obtain an optimum value
between the tip speed of the blades and the wind speed. And by this the efficiency of the
wind energy is maximized.
The power coefficient mapping Cp characterizes the efficiency of the energy transfer from
wind energy to mechanical energy and it depend on tip speed ratio () and pitch angle
(). Tip speed ratio is defined as the ratio between the tip speed of the blades and the
rotor effective wind speed given by:
r (t). R
(t) = (4.1.1a)
vw (t)
where r is the angular speed of the rotor, R is radius of blades and vw is the wind speed
sequence. This parameter is not expressed in a mathematical form, but rather has to be find
out from look up table. The Cp-surface is provided by KK-electronic as referred from [1].
The optimal value of is represented by opt and can be find out as the optimal point in the
power coefficient (Cp) plot as shown in the Fig. 11.

28
Fig. 11: Cp plot with respect to pitch angle and tip speed ratio [6]

This optimal value is attained in mode 1 by adjusting the pitch angle reference to zero (r=
0) and the torque reference g,r is calculated as follows:

g,r [n] = K opt . (g [n])2 (4.1.1b)


1 CP
K opt = AR3 3max
2 opt
Where g,r is generator torque reference and g is the generator speed.
The value of Kopt is given in Table 12 and it will be used as it is in further calculations.

4.1.2 Control Mode 2:


The main action in this mode is controlled by the pitch system controller, i.e. SMC. The
main objectives in this mode 2 is to maintain the measured generator speed g[n] to
nominal generator speed nom, whereas the torque reference is used to subdue fast
disturbances as given below:
Pr [n]
g,r [n] = (4.1.2)
gc . g [n]
Where Pr is Generator power reference.

29
SMC is implemented in this research work because of its tremendous property of
robustness against matched uncertainties. Controller design, methodology and
implementation strategy is discussed in detail in chapter 5.

4.1.3 Control Modes Switching:


In both control modes as referred from [1], the controller enforces the torque reference
g,r [n] and the pitch angle reference r[n] respectively. All the pitch actuators have a
common reference of torque and pitch angle.

In Mode 1 the controller starts to operate. The control mode shifts from Mode 1 to 2 if
[] [] []
where is the nominal generator speed and Pg is measured power generation.

The control mode shifts from Mode 2 to 1 if


[] <
Where is an offset from the normal generator speed to avoid frequent switching between
two control modes. Control mode parameters are given in Table 12.

Table 12: Control modes parameters [1]

Pr Kopt
rad rad
162 15 4.8.106 Watt 1.2171
s s

Switching criterion for both the control modes and controller configuration can be seen in
the Fig. 10. Faults considered on both the actuators 2 and 3 can be seen in Fig 12. The fault
tolerant controller considered in this research work will be further discussed in next section.

30
Fig. 12: Structure of implemented controller

4.2 Implementation Strategy:


In this section controller implementation strategy will be discussed. A nonlinear sliding
mode controller has been chosen because of its tremendous property of robustness against
uncertainties and disturbance which can be modelled as the actuator faults. The design
procedure for sliding mode control, associated assumptions and limitations of control
system will be discussed in detail in this chapter.

4.2.1 Why Sliding Mode Control?


In this research work a nonlinear sliding mode control technique has been adopted as it
features the outstanding property of robustness, Sliding mode control [11], [12] is a robust
control technique The most attractive feature of sliding mode control is the complete
compensation of the so-called matched uncertainties when the system is in the sliding phase
and a sliding mode is enforced. Sliding mode takes place when the system states are on
sliding surface. The dynamics of the system becomes unresponsive to matched
uncertainties under sliding mode control, so SMC guarantees robustness against the un-
modeled dynamics, uncertainties and external disturbances. SMC schemes efficiently deals

31
with actuator faults which can be effectively modeled as matched uncertainties [13].
However it experiences chattering phenomena.

4.2.2 Few Concepts Related to SMC:


In this section a few concepts related to sliding mode controller design has been presented,
which involve two steps.

Selection of stable hyperplane(s) in the state/error space on which motion should be


restricted, called the switching function.
Synthesis of a control law which makes the selected sliding surface attractive.

The trajectory evolves in two phases:

Reaching Phase: In which system states reaches the sliding surface. The time in
reaching phase should be minimum as robustness against matched uncertainties is not
guaranteed in the reaching phase.
Sliding mode: In which the trajectories evolves according to the dynamics defined
by the sliding surface.

4.2.3 Properties of the SMC:


Few properties of siding modes are summarized as below:

1. During a sliding mode the system behaves as reduced order system. [10], [11], [13].
2. The stability of the closed-loop sliding motion depends only on these n-m
nonnegative eigenvalues.
3. The stability and the performance of the closed loop sliding motion depends on the
choice of the sliding surface.
4. During sliding mode the sliding motion is insensitive to matched uncertainties.

In SMC system states are forced to reach the sliding surface at time ts and afterwards they
stay there as can be seen in the phase portrait of the Fig. 13.

s(t) = 0 for all t > ts

32
Fig. 13: Sliding surface

A very important condition in the sliding mode is to verify the reachability condition,
which guarantees the existence of the sliding mode on the sliding surface. Once sliding is
achieved and maintained, robustness against matched uncertainties is guaranteed.

|| (4.1)

4.3 SMC for Pitch System:


SMC has been implemented on pitch system model which is expressed as transfer function
between the measured pitch angle m and reference pitch angle ref as given below.
2

= 2 2 (4.2)
+2. .+

ref is provided by the pitch system sliding mode controller while m is the output of the
transfer function. The above transfer function is expressed in state space form as:
0 1 0
[ ] = [ ] [ ] + [ 2 ]
2n 2. wn n

m
Y=[1 0] [ ]
m

33
The values for and wn are given in Table 10 of chapter 3. Sliding mode control design
requires full state information. If the information of all the states is not available then
observer will be required to estimate remaining unavailable states.
So the first step is to check the observability and controllability of the plant specifically;
the pair (A, B) is controllable and pair (A, C) is observable.
From the matrix it is clear that only the pitch angle is available at the output while the other
state i.e. angular velocity will be observed with the help of suitable observer.

4.3.1 Observer Design:


Observer design is required if all the system states are not available for feedback for any
reason. In our case the system has two states and both the states are observable but only
one state is available for feedback. Therefore a full state observer will be designed. The
model of the observer is same as that of the plant except for an extra term to compensate
for differences between the measured and estimated states [14]. The mathematical model
of the Luenberger observer is defined as:

= Ax + Bu + L[y Cx] (4.3)

Based on the assumption that


e = x = (Ax + Bu) (Ax + Bu + L[y Cx]) (4.4)
e = (A LC)e (4.5)
Where the matrix L, which is called the observer gain matrix and is the correction term
between the measured state and the estimated state. The matrix L should be designed
such that the error dynamics are asymptotically stable with sufficient speed of time. The
error will approach zero when x will approach x if the matrix [A-LC] is Hurwitz (has
negative eigenvalues). The speed of convergence will depends on the poles of estimators.
The observer poles should be faster than the controller poles nearly 4-10 times than that of
the slowest controller pole. So the problem becomes same as that of the pole placement
problem.

34
LQR Controller LQR has also been chosen in this research work for comparison purpose.
The prerequisite of LQR is that the system pair (A, B) should be controllable.
Controllability of second order function has already been checked in previous section i.e.
both the states of system are controllable as well as observable. The generic control
diagram for LQR controller is shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 14: LQR Control Scheme with observer design [16]

The next step in LQR controller design is to design the state feedback control matrix K
through Matlab command lqr which requires the parameters of two matrices Rlqr and
Qlqr that maintains the control effort (u) and error (e) respectively. Rlqr is a control effort
while Qlqr is tuning parameter to minimize the error. In the case of second order pitch
control system following parameters have been chosen for designing LQR.

Rlqr = [1]

35
1
2
0
Qlqr = [90 ]
1
0
92
The Matlab built in LQR command has been used which gives:

[K]= lqr [A, B, Qlqr, Rlqr]

So the obtained feedback gain is K = [0.0001 0.0470]


Since it has already been mentioned that poles of observer should faster than the poles of
controller. By keeping in view that basic criterion for observer the poles of controller has
been found out as follows;
Poles=eig [A-BK]
P1, 2 = -9.5636 + 5.6548i; -9.5636 - 5.6548i

The observer poles has been chosen as:


P = [-90 -91]
[L] = place (A', C, P)'
Observer design shall be verified by finding the error between the measured state and the
estimated state of the control system. When the step input has been applied to this model
while both the controller and observer states were at different initial conditions i.e. y (2)
and (0) but their states error has eventually gone to zero. It shall verify the healthiness of
observer that it is working up to the mark.as it can been seen from Fig. 15.
Error Value Between Estimated and Measured States
2

1.5

1
Error Value

0.5

-0.5
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time (Sec)

Fig. 15: Error between measured and estimated state

36
The error between the estimated and measured state decays to zero in less than 0.1 sec
when step input is applied to the system.

4.4 Sliding Mode Controller Design:


In this section sliding mode controller design will be discussed in detail. Control
requirements and objectives have already been discussed in previous chapter but shall be
revised here for completeness. In the benchmark model of wind turbine there are two
control modes referred as control mode 1 and control mode 2. In control mode 1 optimal
value of power production is achieved, and when mode 1 objectives are full filled, then
mode 1 shifts to mode 2 meeting the requirement of constant and maximum power demand
which is 4.8 MW. In mode 2 controller pitch the three wind turbine blades to suitable pitch
angle in order to achieve the main objective of max power demand. Each pitch actuator has
separate controller but they have common reference input.
In this research work of fault tolerant control there is an additional scenario considered i.e.
two faulty actuators of wind turbine blades. Fault of hydraulic leakage/pressure drop and
high air content in oil has been considered during a very specific time in pitch actuators 2
and 3 respectively. Considering all the above situations sliding mode controller has been
implemented.

4.41 Design Procedure:


As a first design step [13] switching function is defined as:
(t) = Gx(t) (4.6)
Where G Rmn is a design matrix and is of full rank.
Associated with a sliding surface such that:
S = {x Rn: (t) = 0}
It is assumed that GB is nonsingular matrix i.e. det [GB] 0. This property will be exploited
later in the formulations.
It is assumed that the system states are forced to reach the sliding surface at time ts, so that
after t ts an ideal sliding motion can be obtained.
(t) = (t) = 0 for all t ts

37
Whereas the time ts is referred during reaching phase i.e. the time that the state trajectories
take to reach the sliding surface.
Second step in the design procedure is to design a control law which has normally two
parts linear and nonlinear as given:

u (t) = uL (t) + uN (t) (4.7)


where uL = Linear Part and uN =Non Linear Part

The nonlinear part of the control input is of discontinuous in nature forcing the sliding
motion on the sliding surface S, and the linear part which is normally the nominal
equivalent control and is responsible to maintain sliding motion on sliding surface. Linear
part of control input is given as:

uL (t) = ueq (t) = (GB)1 (GA)x(t) for t t s (4.8)

The control law (4.7) including linear and nonlinear parts is given as:

u(t) = (GB)1 (GA)x(t) (t, x)(GB)1 sgn() for 0 (4.9)

Where sgn (.) is the signum function and has the property that sgn () = || and is a
modulation gain for sliding mode controller.
The state space model of the pitch system is:
0 1 0
[ ] = [ ][ ] + [ ] (4.10)
123.4321 13.3320 123.4321

m
Y=[1 0] [ ] (4.11)
m
After a state transformation and using the Matlab command Canon, the above system
can also be written as:
13.3320 1 0
[ ] = [ ] [ ] + [ ] (4.12)
123.4321 0 1

38
m
Y=[123.4321 0] [ ] (4.13)
m

In (4.6) G= [G1 G2] it is recommended to make the value of GB=1; so G2 has chosen to
be 1 while G1 is a tuning parameter and the best result of SMC has find out to be at:

G1 =6
And it make G matrix as:
. G = [6 1]
Using the fact that GB=1 and inv (GB) =1, the control input equation (4.9) shall be
simplified as:

u(t) = (GA)x(t) (t, x)sgn() (4.14)

u(t) = [203.4241 6] x(t) (t, x)sgn() (4.15)

The control law given in the Eq. (4.15) is implemented in Matlab for all three pitch system
of wind turbine.
In the sliding mode controller the best response for the pitch system is at = 0.001
In the final design procedure the designed controller u(t) must satisfy the reachability
condition which is a sufficient condition to ensure that the system state trajectories will
converge towards the sliding surface. Specifically the reachability condition is defined as:

< 0 or ||

where is positive scalar number. The simulations results of implemented LQR controller
and Sliding mode controller shall be discussed in next chapter.
To ensure that control law (4.9) satisfy the reachability condition, the sliding dynamics are
written as:
= Gx (t)

39
= G[Ax + Bu]
= GAx(t) + GBu(t)
Substitute the value of control law from 4.4.3 in to above equations, where GB=1
= GAx(t) (GA)x(t) (t, x)sgn()
= (t, x)sgn()
= (t, x) sgn () (4.16)
we know that: sgn () = ||
The Eq. (4.16) becomes:
= (t, x) || (4.17)
Hence the Eq. (4.17) satisfy the reachability condition and guarantees that sliding motion
will happen.

4.42 Physical Constraints:


There are few physical constraints which have been mentioned and implemented in wind
turbine model these are listed below.
Pitch angle = -2 to 90 degree
Generator torque = 0 to 36000 Nm
Generator angular speed = 0 to 186 rad/sec

40
Chapter 5

Simulation and Results Analysis

41
The model of wind turbine system as described in [1] is implemented through PI controller
in the literature. In this research work the same benchmark model of wind turbine has been
implemented for LQR and SMC controllers for comparison purpose. The two fault
scenarios in actuators are considered i.e. hydraulic pressure drop / leakage and fault of high
air content in hydraulic oil. Though system is not recommended to run for long time during
hydraulic leakage but in this research work 50% of persistent hydraulic pressure drop has
been incorporated for 100sec, and fault of high air content in oil is abrupt which has been
incorporated for another 100sec Controllers response will be analyzed in the presence of
these actuator faults. In this chapter simulations of few important design parameters will
also be presented.

5.1 Design Parameters:


In this section results of main parameters of wind turbine system will be presented which
includes wind speed sequence and measured generator speed.

5.1.1 Wind Speed Sequence:


The wind speed sequence used in this benchmark model of wind turbine is shown in Fig
16. It is been known from Fig. 10 that controller works in two modes depending upon the
various switching factors including generator speed and wind speed. From 3 m/sec to 12.5
m/sec of wind speed controller operates in control mode 1 and then switches to control
mode 2 from 12.6 m/sec to 25 m/sec of wind speed. Wind model discussed in section 2.2.1
has been implemented.

42
Wind Speed Sequence
30

25

Wind Speed Sequence (m/s)


20

15

10

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 16: Wind Speed Sequence [1]

5.1.2 Measured Generator Speed:


Measured generator speed is the key parameter in wind turbine control system as it is used
to decide the switching of control modes after comparing measured values with nominal
generator speed which is 162 rad/sec. The max value of generator speed can go up to 186
rad/sec. This constraint in the speed of generator has been incorporated by use of saturation
block in Matlab environment. Simulation results of measured generator speed can been
seen in Fig. 17 a, b, c. which represent measured generator speed during three different
controllers. This generator speed will be one of the main parameter to decide the switching
criterion for the control modes.
Measured Generator Speed - PI Control Scheme
180

160
Measured Generator Speed (rad/s)

140

120

100

80

60

40
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 17a: Measured Generator Speed in PI Control Scheme

43
Measured Generator Speed - LQR Control Scheme

180

Measured Generator Speed (rad/s)


160

140

120

100

80

60

40
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 17b: Measured Generator Speed in LQR Control Scheme

Measured Generator Speed - SMC Control Scheme

180
Measured Generator Speed (rad/s)

160

140

120

100

80

60

40
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 17c: Measured Generator Speed in SMC Control Scheme

5.2 Simulation Results of Pitch Actuators:


In this research work three controllers have been implemented i.e. LQR, SMC including
the reference PI controller of benchmark model of wind turbine system. The results have
been presented in this section considering the actuator faults in the system. These results
with respect to various aspects will be discussed in subsections.

44
5.2.1 Step Response of Pitch Actuators:
In this subsection step response of three implemented controllers on pitch system is
discussed. The structure of implemented controllers is given in Fig 12. In fact there are
three wind turbine blades having their individual pitch actuators and each actuator is
controlled through its own pitch controller. In this scheme two actuators of wind turbine
blades have been assumed to be faulty, infected with hydraulic leakage and high air content
fault at different time spans. The step responses of three actuators in the presence of
considered three different as mentioned are given in Fig 18a, b, c.
Step Response of Pitch Actuator 1 - Fault Free
1.2

1
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

0.8
LQR Control Scheme
PI Control Scheme
0.6 SMC Control Scheme
Step Input

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time (Sec)

Fig. 18a: Step response of fault free pitch actuator 1

The Fig. 18a shows the step response of a healthy system where it can be seen that original
system which has been implemented with PI controller in [1] is much oscillatory with large
steady state error, whereas in LQR and SMC, the response is not oscillatory and steady
state error is equal to zero. The response of LQR and SMC is nearly similar in case of
healthy system.

45
Step Response of Pitch Actuator 2 - Hydraulic Leakage Fault
1.4

1.2

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


1

0.8
LQR Control Scheme
PI Control Scheme
0.6 SMC Control Scheme
Step Input

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time (Sec)

Fig. 18b: Step response of faulty (hydraulic leakage) pitch actuator 2

In Fig. 18b step response of faulty pitch actuator 2 has been taken which is infected with
hydraulic leakage fault. It can be seen that after implementing LQR and SMC the response
has been improved with very less steady state error as compared to PI controller. While
comparing between LQR and SMC, the response using SMC is bit faster as compared to
that of LQR, It reaches the desired output much faster.
Step Response of Pitch Actuator 3 - High Air Content Fault

1.2

1
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

0.8
LQR Control Scheme
PI Control Scheme
0.6 SMC Control Scheme
Step Input

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (Sec)

Fig. 18c: Step response of faulty (high air content in oil) pitch actuator 3

In Fig. 18c step response of faulty pitch actuator 3 is shown in the presence of high air
content in oil in pitch actuator 3. The simulation results using LQR and SMC are much
better than that of PI controller. Response of PI controller is very oscillator with a large

46
steady state error, whereas LQR and SMC compensate oscillations and close to zero steady
state error is achieved. If a comparison is to be established between LQR and SMC, SMC
is faster than LQR. Using SMC the steady state value reaches faster than its counterpart
with the very same peak.

5.2.2 Actual Response of Pitch Actuators:


In this subsection real time or actual response of pitch actuators will be discussed in the
presence of two actuator faults in pitch actuator 2 and pitch actuator 3 whereas the three
controllers PI, LQR and SMC have been implemented for wind turbine system. This
subsection will be subdivided in three sections on the basis of simulation results of three
pitch actuators of wind turbine:

5.2.2.1 Pitch Actuators in PI Control Scheme:


PI controller has been implemented on benchmark model of wind turbine with the designed
parameters as listed in Table 13.

Table 13: PI controller parameters of benchmark model [1]

Kp Ki
4 1

The simulation results of pitch actuator can be seen from Fig 19a, b, c, d, e. The plot a
shows the reference value of pitch angle, when pitch reference is set to zero then it means
system is operating in control mode 1, whereas when the system is pitching then the
reference value of pitch system will be other than zero and 4.8MW power generation will
be achieved. The plot b, c and d of Fig. 19 show the response of three pitch actuators
1, 2 and 3 respectively against reference input. It can be seen that PI is not following the
reference values rather there is large over shoot and steady state error. While plot e shows
the power generation output of the system during the time span of 2700 to 3500 sec. it is
known from Fig. 9. that fault of hydraulic leakage is present in pitch actuator 2 from 2900
to 3000sec. whereas the fault of high air content in oil is present in the pitch actuator 3

47
from 3400 to 3500 sec. the considered time span of 2700 to 3500 sec cover the both fault
scenarios.
Pitch Actuators Reference-PI Control Scheme
14

12
Pitch Actuator Angle Reference (Deg)

10

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(a)

Pitch Actuator 1-Fault Free-PI Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(b)

48
Pitch Actuator 2-Hydraulic Leakage Fault-PI Control Scheme
14
Hydraulic Leakage
Fault
12

10

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


8

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(c)
Pitch Actuator 3-High Air Content Fault-PI Control Scheme
14
High Air Content
Fault
12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(d)
6
x 10 Generated Power - PI Control Scheme
5

4.5
Generated Power (Watt)

3.5

3
Hydraulic Leakage High Air Content
Fault Fault

2.5
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(e)
Fig. 19: Deflections of pitch actuators and generated power using PI Control scheme

49
In Fig. 19 the faults are present in the pitch actuator 2 and 3. The response of the faulty
actuators is different than that of healthy pitch actuator in the same time span whereas all
the three pitch actuators are also not following the reference input and there is a large steady
state error. Plot (e) show the results of power generation in the presence of PI control
scheme, where red highlighted circles shows the large oscillation in the power generation
response and these large oscillations are very dominant in faulty time zone i.e. 2900 to
3000sec and 3400 to 3500 sec.

5.2.2.2 Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Controller:


The simulation results of all three pitch actuator in the presence of LQR controller have
been presented in Fig. 20.a, b, c, d, e The Fig. 20 have been arranged in the very same way
as of above, plot a shows the reference value to all three pitch actuators, plot b, c, d
shows the response against the reference input. Whereas the plot e represents the power
generation during time span of 2700 3500sec is presented.
Pitch Actuators Reference-LQR Control Scheme
14

12
Pitch Actuator Angle Reference (Deg)

10

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(a)

50
Pitch Actuator 1-Fault Free-LQR Control Scheme
14

12

10

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


8

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(b)
Pitch Actuator 2-Hydraulic Leakage Fault-LQR Control Scheme
14

12 Hydraulic Leakage
Fault

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(c)
Pitch Actuator 3-High Air Content Fault-LQR Control Scheme
14
High Air Content
Fault
12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(d)

51
6
x 10 Generated Power - LQR Control Scheme
5

4.5

Generated Power (Watt)


4

3.5

Hydraulic Leakage High Air Content


2.5 Fault Fault

2
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(e)

Fig. 20: Deflections of pitch actuators and generated power using LQR Control scheme

The Fig. 20 shows that during LQR controller, reference signal is tracked in contrary to
that of PI controller but there are very large oscillations during time span 2800 to 2870sec
as the pitch actuators reference has not been properly calculated and the control modes are
continuously switching, therefore a very large oscillations are felt. The plot e shows the
power generation during a time span of 2700 to 3500 sec when the faults are present in the
system. The power generation in LQR control scheme is satisfactorily better in comparison
to that of PI control scheme except during a very high oscillating time as highlighted.

5.2.2.3 Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) Controller:


The simulation results of pitch actuators in the presence of SMC have been presented in
Fig 21a, b, c, d, e. Plot a shows the reference value to all three pitch actuators, whereas
plot b , c, d shows the response of three pitch actuators respectively against the
reference input while the plot e is power generation during this time span (2700-3500
sec). Both the faults of actuators are present in this considered time span.

52
Pitch Actuators Reference-SMC Control Scheme
14

12

Pitch Actuator Angle Reference (Deg)


10

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(a)

Pitch Actuator 1-Fault Free-SMC Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(b)

Pitch Actuator 2-Hydraulic Leakage Fault-SMC Control Scheme


14

12 Hydraulic Leakage
Fault

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(c)

53
Pitch Actuator 3-High Air Content Fault-SMC Control Scheme
14

High Air Content


12 Fault

10

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


8

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(d)

6
x 10 Generated Power - SMC Control Scheme
5

4.5
Generated Power (Watt)

3.5

2.5
Hydraulic Leakage High Air Content
Fault Fault

2
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

(e)

Fig. 21: Deflections of pitch actuators and generated power using SMC control scheme

It can be seen that results during SMC are nearly identical to that of LQR controller during
the fault incorporation times while there are very large oscillations in LQR control scheme
during 2800 to 2870 sec and these oscillations have degraded the performance of LQR. In
SMC there are no such oscillations present in the whole actuator responses as well as of
power generation results. The simulation results in SMC are comparable much better to
LQR and PI control scheme with a very almost zero steady errors and overshoots.

54
5.3 Power Generation Results:
In this section power generation results with respect to three different control strategies
will be presented. In case of wind turbine the most important aspect is power generation.
Therefore the efficiency of controller can be judged by the power generation in wind
turbine systems

5.3.1 PI Control Strategy:


The end objective of any wind turbine system is a constant, stable and maximum power
generation. In this implemented benchmark model of wind turbine the power reference is
set to 4.8MW, The simulations were run using PI controller over 4400 sec in the presence
of actuator faults, specifically; hydraulic leakage and high air content in oil on pitch
actuator 2 and pitch actuator 3. The power generation using PI control scheme is given in
Fig. 22.
x 10
6 Generated Power - PI Control Scheme
5

4.5

4
Generated Power (Watt)

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

x 10
6 Generated Power - PI Control Scheme
5

4.95

4.9
Generated Power (Watt)

4.85

4.8

4.75

4.7

4.65

4.6

4.55

4.5
2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 22: Generated power using PI control scheme

55
The Fig. 22 shows the power generation of wind turbine during PI control scheme. It can
be seen that the generated power has very large oscillations few due to wind speed
disturbances and others due to the low performance of control strategy.

5.3.2 LQR Control Strategy:


The controller parameters of LQR are given in chapter 4. The simulation results during
LQR controller can be seen in Fig. 23.

x 10
6 Generated Power - LQR Control Scheme
5

4.5

4
Generated Power (Watt)

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

x 10
6 Generated Power - LQR Control Scheme
5

4.95

4.9
Generated Power (Watt)

4.85

4.8

4.75

4.7

4.65

4.6

4.55

4.5
2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 23: Generated power using LQR control scheme

Fig. 23 shows the power generation using LQR control scheme where it can be seen that
the results of LQR controller are stable than PI control scheme except high oscillations for

56
few secs from 2800 sec to 2870 sec but over all its result are much better than PI controller
as the power generation is very constant in LQR control scheme.

5.3.3 SMC Control Strategy:


The main task of this research work is to implement a nonlinear sliding mode control
scheme which is inherently robust against actuator faults which are hydraulic leakage and
high air content in oil in pitch actuator 2 and pitch actuator 3 respectively. Design
methodology and implementation procedure for SMC has already been discussed in
chapter 4.The generated power results are given, which will be compared with other control
schemes in next section.

x 10
6 Generated Power - SMC Control Scheme
5

4.5

4
Generated Power (Watt)

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

x 10
6 Generated Power - SMC Control Scheme
5

4.95

4.9
Generated Power (Watt)

4.85

4.8

4.75

4.7

4.65

4.6

4.55

4.5
2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 24: Generated power using SMC control scheme

57
It can be seen that SMC results on power generation are far superior to PI and LQR control
schemes in the presence of actuators faults due to its robustness feature. In addition to fault
tolerance property of SMC power generation of 4.8 MW is very stable in comparison to
other control scheme.

5.4 Comparison of Simulation Results:


Simulation results of pitch actuators and power generation of wind turbine were presented
in section 2 and 3 of this chapter. In this section comparison will be established between
the three controllers on the basis of pitch actuator results and power generation results.

5.4.1 Comparison of Pitch Actuator Results:


In this subsection the comparison among control strategies implemented on a specific
actuator will be established. Three controllers PI, LQR, SMC have been implemented on
pitch actuator 1 which is fault free. Their comparison is given in Fig 25a. The response of
PI controller in the presence of actuator faults is worst in comparison to that of LQR and
SMC, it has a very large steady state error and overshoot while if comparison is done
between LQR and SMC, their response looks similar. But there is a time from 2800 to 2870
where SMC behaves well with minor oscillations where as LQR has very large oscillations.
These high oscillation are because of very fast switching between control modes. SMC
behaves as a very robust and stable controller in comparison to LQR control scheme.

58
Pitch Actuator 1-Fault Free-PI Control Scheme
14

12

10

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


8

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

Pitch Actuator 1-Fault Free-LQR Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

Pitch Actuator 1-Fault Free-SMC Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 25a: Comparison of pitch actuator 1 simulation results

59
Pitch Actuator 2-Hydraulic Leakage Fault-PI Control Scheme
14

12

10

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


8

-2

-4
2900 2910 2920 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000
Time (Sec)

Pitch Actuator 2-Hydraulic Leakage Fault-LQR Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actutaor Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2900 2910 2920 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000
Time (Sec)

Pitch Actuator 2-Hydraulic Leakage Fault-SMC Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
2900 2910 2920 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000
Time (Sec)

Fig. 25b: Comparison of pitch actuator 2 simulation results

60
In case of pitch actuator 2 which is faulty during the time span of 2900 to 3000sec. The
hydraulic leakage fault is present in pitch actuator 2. The comparison results of pitch
actuator can be seen in Fig. 25b, where it is clear that results of pitch actuator 2 during PI
controller is different than LQR and SMC. PI controller is not following its reference input
as according to Fig. 19, so PI response is having large steady state error whereas the
simulation results of LQR and SMC are nearly similar over time span of 2900 to 3000 sec
when fault is present in the system. Their results are slightly different during starting time
of 2900 sec as highlighted. From Fig. 21 it was concluded that SMC is tracking its reference
value very efficiently.
In pitch actuator 3, high air content fault of 15% was introduced during the time span of
3400 to 3500 sec. In Fig 25c comparison of three adopted control schemes has been
presented over pitch actuator 3 results. A very slight difference in response of two
controllers can be detected. But overall response of SMC is much better with respect to PI
controller in view of performance.

Pitch Actuator 3-High Air Content Fault-PI Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
3400 3410 3420 3430 3440 3450 3460 3470 3480 3490 3500
Time (Sec)

61
Pitch Actuator 3-High Air Content Fault-LQR Control Scheme
14

12

10

Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)


8

-2

-4
3400 3410 3420 3430 3440 3450 3460 3470 3480 3490 3500
Time (Sec)

Pitch Actuator 3-High Air Content Fault-SMC Control Scheme


14

12

10
Pitch Actuator Angle (Deg)

-2

-4
3400 3410 3420 3430 3440 3450 3460 3470 3480 3490 3500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 25c: Comparison of pitch actuator 3 simulation results

5.4.2 Comparison of Power Generation Results:


In this section a comparison over power generation results will be established between
above mentioned control schemes as given in Fig. 26.
There is major difference between power generation results of three controllers, SMC is on
the top with respect to performance, accuracy and robustness against the actuator faults
then it comes the LQR and in the end its PI controller. SMC is stable and consistent in
providing reference power to the system while LQR give large oscillations during a small
period of 2800 to 2870sec. PI response is unstable with large oscillations throughout the
simulations.

62
6
x 10 Generated Power - PI Control Scheme
5

4.95

4.9

Generated Power (Watt)


4.85

4.8

4.75

4.7

4.65

4.6

4.55

4.5
2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

6
x 10 Generated Power - LQR Control Scheme
5

4.95

4.9
Generated Power (Watt)

4.85

4.8

4.75

4.7

4.65

4.6

4.55

4.5
2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

6
x 10 Generated Power - SMC Control Scheme
5

4.95

4.9
Generated Power (Watt)

4.85

4.8

4.75

4.7

4.65

4.6

4.55

4.5
2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Time (Sec)

Fig. 26: Generated power in PI, LQR, and SMC control scheme

63
Chapter 6

Conclusion

64
6.1 Conclusion:
It is concluded that SMC is far more robust than PI and LQR control schemes and showed
very promising results with respect to power generation. Power generation performance
has been enhanced in SMC because of its consistency and also control mode shifting is
very less. After SMC, LQR results are satisfactory in comparison to PI control scheme.

6.2 Future work:


With respect to future work, integral sliding mode control (ISMC) can be implemented in
place of SMC as during reaching phase of SMC it is prone against uncertainties and
disturbance. As soon as system states reaches the sliding surface it is robust and insensitive
against disturbance and matched uncertainties. Integral sliding mode control is an approach
which limits the reaching phase [18], [19] so eventually it shall enhance performance of
the system.
There is a phenomenon associated with sliding mode control called as chattering. As
because of chattering system becomes keep oscillating around the sliding surface. Some
chattering free algorithms are presented like in [30] which can been used in future research
work along with a controller. And it shall make the system much more stable.
In this research work only fault tolerance has been worked out with respect to three
different control scheme, and there is no detection criterion been discussed in this research
work. As the faults has been introduced with their known values at their specific times and
only the effect the controller has been judged but in view to practical aspects of wind
turbine, some detection criterion for all turbine faults must be incorporated as discussed in
[20], [21] which could be taken as a reference for future work over wind turbine control
system.

65
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