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1. What is the Songun idea in a word?

The Songun idea is, in short, an idea of carrying


on the revolution and construction with the army
as the main force on the principle of giving priority
to the military affairs.

2. How was the Songun idea created?


President Kim Il Sung (19121994), the
father of socialist Korea, founded the Songun
idea. In the mid-1920s, Kim Il Sung embarked
on the struggle to liberate Korea from Japans
military occupation (19051945) and found
out the truth that victory in the revolutionary
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS cause and the independence, sovereignty and
prosperity of the country depend on arms. At
ON THE SONGUN IDEA
the meeting of leaders of the Young
The Foreign Languages Publishing
House, DPRK Communist League and the Anti-Imperialist
Published on March 30, Juche 101(2012) Youth League held in Kalun, China, in June 1930,
- 2835029 Kim Il Sung proposed the line of anti-Japanese
E-mail: flph@star-co.net.kp armed struggle based on the principle of
http://www.naenara.com.kp Songun. This marked the foundation of the
Songun idea.

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3. What were the socio-historical conditions bility of Korea that advances under the banner of
for the foundation of the Songun idea? Songun. The Songun idea and Songun politics deal
The Songun idea was created in the situation of hard blows at the imperialist aggressive forces on
the times when the imperialists acts of invasion a worldwide scale, encourage the anti-imperialist
and plunder of colonial countries became more forces of independence and give a forceful impetus
unscrupulous. As the imperialists were intensify- to the human cause of independence.
ing their invasion and plunder of colonial countries
more than ever before, the popular masses strug- 100. What is the historical position of the
gle against the imperialists moves was growing Songun idea?
stronger. In this situation, Kim Il Sung realized The Songun idea is a great revolutionary banner
the value and might of arms and put forward the of the contemporary times that pioneers and guides
idea of attaching importance to arms. Further, the the Songun era along the road of victory under the
creation of the Songun idea reflected the socio- banner of the idea based on the Juche idea. It is a
historical conditions in which the main task of the perfect revolutionary idea illuminating the revolu-
Korean revolution was the anti-Japanese national tionary theory, strategy and tactics for advancing
liberation struggle. At the time the Japanese the peoples cause of independence successfully in
aggressors were brutally suppressing the Korean any conditions and circumstances. And it is a
peoples national liberation struggle. So it became revolutionary idea that gives perfect answers to all
imperative for the Korean people to take up arms theoretical and practical problems arising in de-
to restore their national sovereignty. This revolu- fending socialism and building a powerful socialist
tionary requirement led Kim Il Sung to find the nation amidst fierce confrontation with imperialism.
key to a breakthrough in the national liberation
struggle in arms and put forward the Songun idea
on achieving the independence of Korea and

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the lead and all the people paved the way in a body advancing the revolution by means of arms.
for the building of a powerful socialist nation. This
proves that advancing under the banner of Songun, 4. What was the origin of the Songun idea?
the Korean people can attain the lofty goal of The two pistols Kim Il Sung inherited from his
building a powerful nation without fail. father Kim Hyong Jik and the programme of the
Fourthly, they find expression in the fact that a Down-with-Imperialism Union (DIU), the first
turning point was marked in the struggle for revolutionary organization formed by Kim Il Sung,
national reunification. In 2000 and 2007 historic constituted the origin of the Songun idea. The two
inter-Korean summit meetings took place in pistols mirrored Kim Hyong Jiks far-reaching idea
Pyongyang, adopting the June 15 North-South Joint that an organized armed struggle was the best form
Declaration and the October 4 Declaration, which of struggle to achieve national independence. The
marked a turning point in the struggle for national programme of the DIU organized in October 1926
reunification under the idea of by our nation itself. reflected the idea of routing Japanese imperialism
This is also a priceless fruit of the vitality of the by arms and achieving the independence of Korea,
Songun idea and Songun politics. building socialism in the country and accomplishing
Fifthly, they find expression in the fact that the the cause of independence against imperialism
international prestige of Korea has risen higher and throughout the world.
that enthusiasm of the progressive people of the
world for independence is running very high. A 5. What is the root of the Songun idea?
change has taken place in the foreign relations of The Juche idea is the root of the Songun idea.
Korea, with West European and many other coun- The Juche idea clarifies the principle of defending
tries that were indifferent or hostile to her in the and realizing the independence of the popular
past coming to establish diplomatic relations with masses and the nation, the principle of strengthen-
her while the world public recognizes the invinci- ing the driving force of the revolution and enhanc-

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ing its role and the principle of grasping the peo- 99. Where do the validity and vitality of the
ples thoughts as the main factor in the revolution Songun idea find expression?
and construction. The Songun idea is based pre- First, they find expression in the fact that the
cisely on these principles. Korean people have crushed the aggression and war
moves of the United States and its followers and
6. How does the Songun idea embody the defended their country and nation and socialism. It
requirement of the Juche idea? is a valuable fruit of the Songun idea that the Korean
Proceeding from the fundamental requirement people have defended and glorified their country
of the Juche idea for realizing the independence of and nation and socialism in a showdown with the
the popular masses, the Songun idea sets it as its United States for more than half a century.
fundamental object to attach importance to arms Secondly, they find expression in the fact that the
and accomplish the popular masses cause of revolutionary ranks have been more firmly united
independence entirely by means of arms. And and that the single-hearted unity of the whole
based on the Juche ideas principle on the driving society has been further strengthened. The army and
force of the revolution, the Songun idea proposes people of Korea have been more firmly united in a
to strengthen the driving force of the revolution genuine comradely relationship and the political
with the army as its core and model and enhance and ideological might of the Korean revolution has
its role to the utmost. And in compliance with the increased incomparably under the guidance of the
guiding principle of the Juche idea on applying the leader Kim Jong Il. This is a precious fruit of the
theory of putting the main stress on thoughts, the exertions to imbue the whole society with the
Songun idea puts up the revolutionary soldier Songun idea.
spirit as the main factor in defending the destiny of Thirdly, they find expression in the fact that a
the nation and propelling overall socialist con- new turn has come about in the endeavours to build
struction. a powerful socialist nation. The Peoples Army took

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and the system of state administration with the 7. When did the Songun leadership of
main stress on national defence. President Kim Il Sung start?
Kim Il Sung started his Songun leadership by
97. What is the Supreme Commanders founding the Anti-Japanese Peoples Guerrilla
monolithic system of leadership? Army (AJPGA), the first revolutionary armed force
It is a system of leadership under which all of the Korean people, in Xiaoshahe, Antu County,
problems arising in the revolution and construction China, on April 25, 1932, thereby launching the
are solved in conformity with the Supreme armed struggle against the Japanese imperialists.
The founding of the AJPGA meant the formation of
Commanders thought and purpose, and all the
a hardcore force to take the lead in advancing the
Party, army and people act like one organism under
Songun revolution and the application of the idea of
his monolithic guidance and unconditionally accept
attaching importance to arms in the revolutionary
and thoroughly carry out his intentions, orders and
practice to pioneer and advance the revolution by
instructions.
means of arms.

98. What is the system of state administration 8. How was the Songun leadership of
with the main stress on national defence? President Kim Il Sung effected?
It is a state machinery and a state control system Proceeding from the idea of attaching impor-
under which a state apparatus is set up with the tance to arms and the prevailing conditions of
National Defence Commission as its core to direct Korea, Kim Il Sung built the army first. In the
state and social life as a whole on the principle of midst of the fierce anti-Japanese armed struggle,
setting down military affairs as the most important Kim Il Sung reorganized the AJPGA into the
of all affairs in state administration and subordinat- Korean Peoples Revolutionary Army (KPRA), and
ing everything to them. by relying on it, he accomplished the historic cause

52 5
of Koreas liberation on August 15, 1945. After that ideas and fighting ardour of the army and the
he founded the Party and the state. In the pressure people based on the revolutionary soldier spirit.
of work for building a new society after liberation,
Kim Il Sung lost no time in reorganizing the 95. What should be done to adhere to the
KPRA into a revolutionary regular armed force and principle of putting up the army as the main
did his level best to build up the defence capabili- force of the revolution?
ties of the country. Giving precedence to military The army should be built up solidly into a
affairs of all affairs of the state, he put forward the revolutionary force equipped well with qualities
idea and line of attaching importance to military and traits worthy of the main force of the revolu-
affairs, proposing the line of carrying on economic tion. And also, the army should be actively
construction and defence upbuilding in parallel and
engaged and encouraged to set fine examples in
held fast to the principle of giving priority to mili-
the practical work of socialist construction. Fur-
tary affairs in the whole course of carrying out the
ther, the consensus of ideas and fighting ardour
socialist cause.
of the army and the people should be firmly main-
tained.
9. How was the Songun idea developed in
depth?
The leader Kim Jong Il developed the Songun 96. What is clarified by the Songun leadership
idea in depth. He defined Kim Il Sungs idea and system?
line of attaching importance to arms as the Songun The Songun idea newly sheds light on the
idea and formulated a complete system of it, en- idea and theory of the Songun leadership system
riching it with profound theories and propositions. which embodies the principle of Songun. The
As a result, the Songun idea, along with the Juche Songun leadership system contains the Supreme
idea, came to be recognized as a great guiding ide- Commanders monolithic system of leadership

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and innovations not only on the anti-imperialist ology for accomplishing the independent cause of
military front but also in economic and cultural mankind.
construction. The revolution and construction,
therefore, can emerge victorious only by putting 10. When did Kim Jong Il begin his Songun
up the army as the pillar and fully depending leadership?
on it in all fields of the revolution and construc- Kim Jong Il began his Songun leadership with
tion. his inspection of the Seoul Ryu Kyong Su 105
Guards Tank Division of the Korean Peoples Army
93. Why should the army be put in the (KPA) on August 25, 1960. His inspection of the
van and the revolution and construction be tank division marked the start of his Songun lead-
propelled by concerted efforts of the army and ership which aims to strengthen the army and by
the people? relying on it, defend the country and the people and
Putting up the army as the main force of socialism and vigorously propel overall socialist
the revolution never means dependence only on construction.
the army. The army is only the vanguard and
shock force that makes a breach for advance at the 11. When did the leader Kim Jong Il begin
head of the people and arouses the masses to a Songun politics?
heroic struggle. The revolution and construction Kim Jong Il began his Songun politics in the
can successfully advance only when all the people late 1960s. At the Fourth Enlarged Plenary
turn out with the army in the lead in army-people Meeting of the Fourth Party Committee of the
unity. KPA in January 1969, he took steps to firmly
establish the system of Party leadership over the
94. What is army-people unity? KPA. He put the main emphasis on building up
Army-people unity means the consensus of the KPA while directly taking command of the

50 7
armys military operations on many occasions 90. What does it mean that the army is put up
including the US naval spy ship Pueblos inva- as the main force of the revolution?
sion of Korean waters in January 1968 and the US It means that the army is the main force for
spy plane EC-121s violation of Korean airspace promoting the revolution and construction and
in April 1969 when the situation in the Korean everything is done by relying on it as the pace-
peninsula was driven to the brink of war under US maker.
provocation. On the basis of strengthening the
army, he directed all affairs of the Party and the 91. What are the contents of the principle of
state. putting up the army as the main force of the
revolution?
12. When did the leader Kim Jong Il apply The principle has two main contents. The first is
Songun politics in all fields? to regard the army as the most potent force and
Kim Jong Il enforced Songun politics in all entirely depend on it in all affairs of the revolution
fields in the mid-1990s. Towards the close of last and construction, and the second is to put the army
century socialism collapsed in the former Soviet in the van and push forward the revolution and
Union and other East European countries. Availing construction by concerted efforts of the army and
themselves of this opportunity, the allied forces of the people.
imperialism tried every means possible to isolate
and stifle Korea. This brought the worst ordeals to 92. Why should the army be regarded as the
the country. At this juncture, Kim Jong Il held up most potent force and be depended on entirely?
the banner of Songun still higher by visiting a KPA Because the army is a political force with a
sub-unit called Tabaksol Post on a field inspection higher revolutionary spirit, organizational sense
on January 1, 1995. With this as a start, he went on and combat capacity than any social class, stratum
a ceaseless tour of inspection to army units, paying or group, it is the main force making miracles

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military affairs in the leadership of the Party over primary attention to bolstering up defence capa-
the revolution and construction. bilities. On this basis, he applied Songun politics in
all fields of social life.
88. Why is it that all matters arising in the
revolution and construction should be settled in 13. What are the contents of the Songun idea?
subordination to military affairs? The Songun idea comprises the principle of the
The revolutionary struggle and construction Songun revolution, the theory of the Songun revo-
work to transform nature, society and people entail lution and the mode of Songun politics.
heaps of urgent and important matters. How to cope
with them successfully depends largely on whether 14. What does the principle of the Songun
priority is given to military affairs or not. Therefore, revolution explicate?
everything in the revolution and construction should The principle of the Songun revolution expli-
be viewed from the angle of military precedence cates the philosophy of arms and the principle of
and all problems be solved on the principle of sub- Songun. The philosophy of arms and the principle
ordinating and orienting them to military buildup. of Songun underlie all the system and contents of
the Songun idea.
89. What should be done to live up to the
principle of giving priority to military affairs? 15. What is the philosophy of arms?
The army should be strengthened into an invin- The philosophy of arms means that the revolu-
cible revolutionary force. Further, priority should be tion is pioneered, advanced and completed by
given to the development of the defence industry. It force of arms. It amounts to the principle that
is also important to pervade the whole society with clarifies the general law of the revolutionary
the spirit of giving preference to arms and military movement which starts and develops by dint of
affairs. arms.

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16. What does it mean that the revolution is 85. What does it mean to give priority to mili-
pioneered, advanced and completed by force of tary affairs?
arms? It means putting military affairs before all other
It means that the revolutionary struggle for the affairs and laying the greatest emphasis on them in
independence of the popular masses can never break advancing the revolution and construction.
out or come off victorious, or defend, advance and
complete the victorious revolution either without 86. What are the contents of the principle of
arms, that is, its own formidable revolutionary giving priority to military affairs?
armed forces. The principle of giving priority to military affairs
comprises two contents. One is to put the greatest
17. What is the essence of the philosophy of emphasis on military affairs and the other is to solve
arms? all problems arising in the revolution and construc-
The philosophy of arms imports, in essence, that tion in subordination to military affairs.
arms constitute the main factor in winning decisive
victory in the confrontation of strength with all sorts 87. Why should the greatest emphasis be put
of counter-revolutionary forces including imperial- on military affairs?
ism. The struggle against the counter-revolutionary In the revolution and construction, military af-
forces signifies a showdown between arms, and fairs are a very important problem directly con-
arms serve as the most powerful means for accom- nected with the realization of independence of the
plishing the revolutionary cause. The philosophy people and the country. Apart from military affairs,
also implies essentially that arms play a decisive it is impossible to win in the revolution, defend the
role in socialist construction. The pivotal, leading victorious revolution or guarantee the future secu-
role of soldiers in arms is the major guarantee for rity of the country and nation. Therefore, priority
effecting a radical turn in the thinking, mentality should be given and the greatest attention be paid to

10 47
ety, the socialist political modes include the politics and fighting spirit of all members of society for the
of benevolence, that is, of love for and trust in the latter to bring about miracles and innovations in all
people, and socialist democratic politics that com- fields of socialist construction including the econ-
prehensively expresses their will. Songun politics is omy and culture.
the prerequisite for fully guaranteeing the applica-
tion of these socialist political modes. Without 18. What is the principle of Songun?
Songun politics, it is impossible to defend socialist The principle of Songun is that the army repre-
society or speak about any kind of love for and trust sents immediately the Party, the state and the peo-
in the people or about democracy. The politics of ple. It clarifies the position and role of the army in
benevolence and socialist democratic politics pro- the struggle for the independence of the popular
vide the possibility of meeting the demands of masses in relation to other socio-political organiza-
Songun politics still better. Benevolence politics tions.
promotes in every way the single-hearted unity of
the whole society with love for and trust in the peo- 19. What does it mean that the army repre-
ple and socialist democratic politics enables the sents the Party, the state and the people?
wishes and demands of the people to be fully met. It means that the army shares its lot with the
Party, the state and the people; in other words, that a
84. What is clarified by the principle of strong army means a strong Party, a strong state and
Songun leadership? a strong people, but that a weak army means a weak
The principle of Songun leadership clarifies Party, a weak state and a weak people.
matters of principle arising in practising the Songun
political mode. It comprises the principle of giving 20. What is the essence of the principle of
priority to military affairs and the principle of put- Songun?
ting up the army as the main force of the revolution. The essence of the principle is, first, that the

46 11
army represents the revolutionary Party. A Party basic principle of socialism. The basic idea of so-
without control over the army is powerless. The cialism is to realize the independence of the popu-
invincibility of the Party is guaranteed by arms. lace and its basic principle is to meet the demands
Meanwhile, an army without Party leadership is and wishes of the working class to the full. Songun
unable to discharge its mission as a revolutionary politics gives the possibility of defending socialism
army. So it can be said that the Party and the army against all challenges and aggression of imperialism,
are in the same boat. Secondly, it means that the realizing the independence of the masses completely
army represents the socialist state. Revolutionaries and bringing the socialist cause to a victorious com-
can win the struggle against the counter- pletion according to the principle of the working
revolutionary forces and establish a socialist class in any circumstances. Another reason is that
government only when they have a strong armed Songun politics is a mode of politics that must be
force. And the continuous buildup of the army is consistently adhered to in the whole process of pur-
imperative for thwarting all manner of underhand suance of the socialist cause. The socialist cause is a
moves of the imperialists and maintaining and con- process of creation and construction to be carried on
solidating the socialist government. Thirdly, the in fierce confrontation with imperialism. Songun
principle means that the army represents the inde- politics is a strategic political mode to build up
pendent people. Only when they have their own massive military strength in keeping with the char-
staunch army can the popular masses exalt their acteristics of the pursuance of the socialist cause
dignity as independent masters of the state and and, by relying on it, firmly ensure and push forward
society and enjoy a happy life. overall socialist construction.

21. What does the theory of the Songun 83. How is Songun politics related to other
revolution clarify? political modes?
The theory of the Songun revolution clarifies the Owing to the essential features of socialist soci-

12 45
80. Why is Songun politics a lofty politics of idea on the main force of the revolution, the idea on
love of the country, nation and people? the revolutionary soldier spirit and the idea on the
It is because Songun politics makes it possible to building of a prosperous socialist nation which
exalt the dignity, honour, authority and prestige of derive from completely systematizing the theories
the country and nation with the help of arms and on the revolution and construction on the basis of
build a powerful socialist country where the people the principle of Songun.
will live in abundance.
22. What does the idea on the main force of
81. What is the position of Songun politics in the revolution show?
accomplishing the socialist cause? The idea of Songun makes it clear, by elucidating
In a word, the position of Songun politics is the true nature, the defining factor and the law of
clarified by the fact that it is the basic mode of so- change and development of the main force of the
cialist politics. As it has originated from the destiny revolution in the theory on the force, that the army
of socialism and the vital demand of the accom- constitutes the main force of the revolution in the
plishment of the socialist cause, Songun politics present age, thereby providing a new viewpoint on
regulates the functions and roles of other political the driving force of the revolution with the army as
modes. Songun politics is the basic political mode its core.
that should always be placed first and adhered to as
the cardinal factor in socialist politics. 23. What is the true nature of the main force
of the revolution?
82. What is the reason that Songun politics is The main force of the revolution is the socio-
the basic mode of socialist politics? political group that takes the central position
The reason is that Songun politics makes possible and plays the leadership role in advancing the
the complete materialization of the basic idea and revolution and construction. The main agency of

44 13
the revolution that launches and propels the and enriched the Presidents idea and line of
revolutionary movement is the broad masses of attaching importance to arms, and newly formulated
people who are guided by the Party and the the theory on the mode of Songun politics and laid
leader along the right path. The main force of the down Songun politics as the basic political mode of
revolution is none other than the class, stratum or socialism.
social group that holds the central position and
plays the leadership role in the main agency of the 78. What is the character of Songun politics?
revolution. The character of Songun politics is that it is the
most principled and righteous politics of inde-
24. What is the factor that defines the main pendence opposed to imperialism and a lofty
force of the revolution? politics of love of ones country, nation and
The main force of the revolution is defined by its people.
position and role in the revolution and construction.
A class, a stratum or a social group, no matter how 79. How is it that Songun politics is politics of
many people it may embrace, cannot be the main independence opposed to imperialism?
force of the revolution if it fails to hold the leading It is because Songun politics makes it possible to
position and play the decisive role in the revolution crush the imperialists aggression and war moves by
and construction. giving priority to arms and bolstering up the mili-
The main force of the revolution is also defined tary strength and exercise national sovereignty with
by its revolutionary spirit, organization and fighting dignity on the international political arena. Also
efficiency. No class, stratum or social group with a because it makes it possible to vigorously promote
weak revolutionary spirit, organization and fighting the cause of global independence by strengthening
efficiency is equal to its mission as the main force of the anti-imperialist independent forces on the inter-
the revolution. national scale.

14 43
mental in the administration of socialist politics and 25. What is the decisive factor making for
where to concentrate on. becoming the main force of the revolution?
The guidance of an outstanding leader and a
76. What is the meaning of defending the revolutionary Party is the decisive factor qualifying
country and revolution and socialism and push- a class, a stratum or a social group for the main force
ing ahead with overall socialist construction by in the main agency of the revolution. Even if a class,
relying on the revolutionary spirit and combat a stratum or a social group has a staunch revolu-
strength of the army? tionary spirit, organization and fighting efficiency
It means defending national security and and holds the leading position and plays the decisive
revolutionary gains at all costs by strengthening role in the revolutionary movement, it cannot per-
the army into an invincible revolutionary armed form its mission as the main force of the revolution
force and building up the main agency of the without the correct guidance of an outstanding
revolution solidly and carrying on all works of leader and a revolutionary Party.
socialist construction in a revolutionary and mili-
tant way with the army as the hardcore and driving 26. How does the main force of the revolution
force. This indicates the method adopted by change and develop?
Songun politics in achieving the aim of socialist With the development of the times and the
politics. alteration of social and class relations, a certain
change may take place in the position and role of the
77. What is the basis of Songun politics? main force of the revolution in the revolutionary
The basis of Songun politics lies in the idea movement. With the development of the revolu-
and line of attaching importance to arms put for- tionary movement, there may emerge a new revo-
ward and consistently adhered to by President lutionary main force more powerful than its prede-
Kim Il Sung. The leader Kim Jong Il took over cessor. And because the actual conditions differ

42 15
from country to country, a class, a stratum or a meeting the contemporary demands of the IT
social group that forms the main force of the industry.
revolution in a country cannot always be the main
revolutionary force in another country. The issue of 73. What is clarified by the mode of Songun
the main force of the revolution is not to be solved politics?
simply in conformity to the class relations. As class The mode of Songun politics throws full light on
relations become simplified with the development the principle and system of Songun leadership for
of science and technology and of society and as conducting Songun politics, by explaining the
some people from each class and stratum can form essence, foundation and character of Songun
into a new social group together and launch a social politics and its position and role in socialist politics.
movement, not only a class or a stratum but any
social group can make the main force of the revo- 74. What is the essence of Songun politics?
lution. Songun politics is a mode of revolutionary
leadership to defend the country, revolution and
27. Who make up the main force of the socialism and push ahead with overall socialist
revolution at the present day? construction by giving priority to military affairs
Proceeding from the Juche-oriented view on the and relying on the revolutionary spirit and combat
main force of the revolution, the Songun idea has strength of the Peoples Army.
advanced the conception of army coming before
working class for the first time in the history of the 75. What is meant by priority of military
revolutionary movement in accord with the devel- affairs over all other state affairs?
oping times and the changing social and class rela- It means regarding military affairs as the foun-
tions, and put up the army as the core force, the dation of politics and putting all ones back into it.
main force, of the revolution. This shows what Songun politics considers funda-

16 41
according to their preference and wishes. 28. What is the conception of army coming
before working class?
71. Why is the building of an economic power The conception of army coming before working
important in the establishment of a powerful class is literally the idea of placing the army before
socialist nation? the working class in the revolution and construction.
The reason is that the economy constitutes the This expression has been presented for the first time
material basis for guaranteeing the general strength by the Songun idea. With regard to the issue of the
of the country. Another reason is that a developed main force of the revolution, the former working-
economy is prerequisite for fully meeting the mate- class theory of the revolution put up the working
rial demands of the people and providing a happy class as the main revolutionary force and regarded
civilized life to them. Yet another reason is that the the army as a political means to realize the working
economy must be mighty to jail the attempts of the classs rule over other classes. Accordingly, in
imperialists to economically isolate and stifle so- many countries in the past, the revolutionary strug-
cialism. gle and construction work used to be carried on with
the working class as the main force. Times, how-
72. What is meant by building an economic ever, have advanced a long way and a great change
power according to the Songun idea? has taken place in the social environment, class
The Songun idea puts up the army not only as an relations and the status of the working class. The
armed force defending the country but as the main Songun idea generalized the changed environment
force of the revolution to accelerate overall socialist of the times, the actual conditions and the practical
construction by dint of their leading role. And the experiences of the revolution and put up the army as
idea guarantees, on the strength of the powerful the main force of the revolution placing it before the
defence industry, the development of economic and working class. This opened up new ground in the
technological potentials and high productivity development of the revolutionary theory.

40 17
29. Why is the army the main force of the on earth. It is also because building a military power
revolution? is essential for boosting the national strength as a
The army is the main force of the revolution whole. Only when the army is strong will it be pos-
because it holds the leading position and plays the sible to channel everything into augmenting na-
decisive role in the revolutionary struggle and con- tional power in a stable and peaceful environment
struction work. Also because it is a social group and develop all fields of life in the country.
possessing a stronger revolutionary spirit, organi-
zation and fighting efficiency than any class, stra- 69. What is meant by building a military
tum or social group that constitutes the main agency power according to the Songun idea?
of the revolution. The Songun idea enables the army to develop
into an invincible force impeccable in politico-
30. How is it that the army holds the leading ideological and military-technical terms by arming
position in the revolutionary struggle and con- the soldiers with the revolutionary soldier spirit.
struction work? Moreover, the idea makes it possible to build a
The army holds the leading position in the powerful defence industry and an iron-clad defence
revolutionary struggle and construction work setup by giving top priority to military affairs.
because it is the revolutionary force that stands
in the forefront of defence of the revolution. The 70. What is an economic power?
main force of the revolution as the hardcore and An economic power means a country where the
principal body of the main agency of the economy keeps developing with vigour by virtue of
revolution naturally stands in defence of the chief the independent economic foundation never af-
front, or the lifeline, of the revolution which is fected by any global economic upheaval and of
decisive of the destiny of the revolution and con- modern science and technology and where the
struction. people enjoy material and cultural life to the full

18 39
imperialistswho behave haughtily on the strength 31. What is the lifeline of the revolutionary
of their military capacityby means of the huge struggle and construction work?
national power and conduct independent politics The anti-imperialist military front is the lifeline
meeting the needs and interests of the people and of the revolutionary struggle and construction
suited to the actual conditions of the country in work to realize the independence of the popular
defiance of the imperialists appeasement policy masses. The anti-imperialist military front is the
and blackmail. main front of the revolution that has direct bearing
on the realization of the popular masses inde-
67. What is a military power? pendence.
A military power is an impregnably fortressed
country whose army is politico-ideologically well 32. How is it that the anti-imperialist military
prepared, highly modernized in military technique front is the lifeline of the revolution?
and permeated through with the tone of officer-man The anti-imperialist military front is the lifeline
unity and military-politics concord, and where the of the revolution because it is the main front to
ethos of army-people unity and military precedence bring the revolution to a victorious conclusion
prevails in the whole society, with the entire people by crushing all manner of counter-revolutionary
placed under arms and the whole land fortified. violences of the imperialists, establish the peoples
power and safeguard the already achieved gains of
68. Why is the building of a military power the revolution. Also because the anti-imperialist
important in the establishment of a powerful military front is the key link decisive of the issue of
socialist nation? the battle on the other fronts of the revolution and
Building a military power is important because construction. A setback on the anti-imperialist
socialism will always face military threats and military front involved in a fierce confrontation of
challenges of the imperialists as long as they remain power with imperialism will not only negate

38 19
victory on the other fronts of the revolution and 64. What is a political power?
construction but also obliterate the revolutionary A political power means a country with a most
cause itself. solid socio-political foundation laid through secur-
ing the single-hearted unity of whole society by
33. What is the meaning of the leading posi- fully realizing political independence and success-
tion of the army in the revolutionary struggle fully applying the politics of unity and patriotism.
and construction work?
The leading position of the army standing in 65. Why is the building of a political power
defence of the anti-imperialist military front is the important in the building of a powerful socialist
most responsible position related to the destiny of nation?
the country and the people and to the fate of social- The reason is that politics represents a field of
ism and revolution. The army, standing face to face decisive significance in social life. The building of a
with the imperialist aggressors, defends with arms political power is imperative for laying the firm
the destiny of the Party and the revolution and the foundation for the realization of independence
country and the people. The leading position of the which is the life and soul of man, the social being,
army standing in defence of the anti-imperialist and of the country and the people. Another reason is
military front is also a key position giving firm that the leading role of politics is indispensable for
military guarantee for the position held by the uninterruptedly promoting socialist construction as
working class and other broad sections of the people a whole including defence upbuilding and economic
in the revolution and construction. Without the and cultural construction.
army the working class, peasants and other broad
sections of the popular masses will be unable to 66. What is the import of the building of a
hold their due position in the revolution and con- political power based on the Songun idea?
struction. The Songun idea makes it possible to curb the

20 37
ary soldier spirit encourages people to turn out 34. What is the decisive role of the army in the
as one in socialist construction for national pros- revolutionary struggle and construction work?
perity and their own well-being. It also makes peo- In the early days of the revolution, the army
ple overcome any trials and hardships in socialist plays the decisive role, by force of arms, in routing
construction free from defeatism and brings them the enemy of the revolution, building a new society
to display the spirit of working miracles and for the people to become the masters of the state and
performing feats by their own exertions and hard defending it. For its revolutionary spirit and fighting
work. stamina, the army also plays the decisive role in
propelling socialist construction in the political,
62. What is elucidated in the theory on the economic, ideological, cultural and all other fields.
building of a powerful socialist nation?
In the theory on the building of a powerful 35. Where does the revolutionary spirit of the
socialist nation, the Songun idea illuminates the army find expression?
essence and features of such a nation and gives a Taking it as its cardinal mission to guard the
comprehensive explanation to the theory. Party, the leader and the independent cause of the
. popular masses, the Korean Peoples Army (KPA)
63. What is the essence of a powerful socialist struggles in the face of death to defend the Party and
nation? the leader, implement the policies of the Party and
A powerful socialist nation means a country with accomplish the independent cause of the people.
great national power where everything thrives and The KPA soldiers love the country more fervently
the people live happily in plenty. In other words, it than anybody else, have a strong spirit of defending
is a country where everything has come into full socialism and make it an inveterate habit to fight for
bloom by reaching its goal of a political, a military victory in the revolution at the risk of their youth
and an economic power. and lives.

36 21
36. Where does the organization of the army 60. How does the revolutionary soldier spirit
find expression? make it possible to win ultimate victory in the
Organization is a specific character indispensa- confrontation with imperialism?
ble to the main force of the revolution. The KPA Confrontation with imperialism is a showdown
soldiers form a harmonious whole firmly rallied of strength, a military showdown and, at the same
behind their supreme commander. They act as one time, a showdown of ideology, faith and will. For
under the orders and instructions of the supreme victory in this confrontation, great military strength
commander. And all their activities and life are is needed, but more essential than that is great
regularized as required by military discipline and ideological-spiritual power. The revolutionary sol-
regulations. The relations between officers and dier spirit makes the army and people stand up
soldiers in the army are not the relations of order against imperialism with a do-or-die spirit and will.
and obey but the lofty relations of revolutionary The imperialists who chant Power is everything
comrades-in-arms who share blood and flesh with fear most the do-or-die spirit of the army and people
each other and even unhesitatingly sacrifice them- rather than any modern weapons. The revolutionary
selves for the sake of their comrades in the field of soldier spirit also enables the army and people to
decisive battle. The army is higher than any other display an undaunted offensive spirit of meeting and
groups of society in the spirit of collectivism; vol- repulsing any formidable enemy.
untary discipline prevails in it and all its ranks form
a single group of comrades. 61. What makes the revolutionary soldier
spirit a powerful driving force of socialist con-
37. Where does the fighting efficiency of the struction?
army find expression? The revolution for the independence of the
The army continues to boost its fighting efficiency masses of people develops and comes to comple-
through combat drills and political trainings while tion through socialist construction. The revolution-

22 35
revolutionary spirit giving a sure guarantee for keeping on the alert and prepared to act at all times.
successfully remodelling people and, on this basis, Full of fight in tackling anything, the KPA maps out a
securing victory consecutively in the confrontation bold plan, acts on the offensive stubbornly and gets
with imperialism and in socialist construction for through it by swiftly disposing of one task after an-
national prosperity and peoples welfare. other. In socialist construction, too, the KPA braves
through any trials and ordeals, makes things from
59. How does the revolutionary soldier spirit scratch and effects great innovations and long leaps
ensure and promote the successful remodelling forward through a do-or-die struggle.
of people?
The remodelling of people is a prerequisite for 38. What is the main agency of the revolution
the development of the times and the revolution, and clarified by the Songun idea?
what is essential in it is to arm the people with the By inheriting and further developing the princi-
revolutionary ideas and spirit. The revolutionary ple of the Juche idea on the main agency of the
soldier spirit perfectly embodies the spirit of loyalty revolution on the basis of the unique explanation
to the Party and the leader and, with it as the nu- that the army is the main force of the revolution, the
cleus, all the ideological-spiritual traits proper to Songun idea has newly elucidated that the main
revolutionaries, including a high collective spirit, a agency of the revolution is the integral whole of the
strong sense of organization and discipline, an un- leader, the Party, the army and the people.
compromising revolutionary principle and a staunch
spirit of class struggle against imperialism. And 39. What does it mean that the main agency of
also, it embodies the loftiest traits of moral obliga- the revolution is the integral whole of the leader,
tion indispensable to revolutionaries. Further, it the Party, the army and the people?
completely incarnates the cultural and emotional It means that the main agency of the revolution is
traits essential for people. the integral whole of the popular masses rallied

34 23
firmly around the Party and the leader organiza- ardently love and strive with all devotion for the
tionally and ideologically and morally and dutifully sake of their class, people and social system.
with the army as its hard core.
57. How is it that the revolutionary soldier
40. What is the position of the popular masses spirit is the highest manifestation of the class
in the main agency of the revolution? consciousness and revolutionary spirit of the
Of the main agency of the revolution, the popular working class?
masses are directly in charge of the revolution. The It is because the revolutionary soldier spirit pul-
masses are the masters of the revolution and con- sates with the consistent working-class principle.
struction and the decisive force that transforms Class consciousness of the working class is inten-
nature and revolutionizes society. The revolutionary sively expressed in the working-class principle of
struggle and construction work are undertakings to resolutely defending their class needs and interests.
realize the independence of the popular masses, The revolutionary soldier spirit characterized by do-
which fall on their own shoulders. The revolution- or-die courage embodies the consistent working-
ary movement is impossible apart from the popular class principle which is entirely alien to compro-
masses, and so the masses are the principal con- mise and concession. Further, it connotes burning
stituent of the main agency of the revolution. hostility and hatred against the imperialists and the
class enemy and a relentless determination to wipe
41. What is the position of the army in the them out.
main agency of the revolution?
The army is the central force in the main agency 58. How is it that the revolutionary soldier
of the revolution. It is a powerful force that beats all spirit is a powerful ideological-spiritual weapon
sorts of counter-revolutionary forces, establishes a for propelling the revolution and construction?
genuine peoples social system, defends the gains of It is because the revolutionary soldier spirit is a

24 33
spirit of the army fighting off whatever formidable the revolution and vigorously accelerates overall
enemy forces and fearlessly pulling through any socialist construction. Even the popular masses as
hardships and trials. the main factor of history can take up their position
and play their part as the main agency of the revo-
55. What are the position and role of the lution only when they rely on the army.
revolutionary soldier spirit in the revolution and
construction? 42. What is the position of the Party and the
The Songun idea has clarified that the revolu- leader in the main agency of the revolution?
tionary soldier spirit is the highest manifestation of The Party and the leader constitute the nucleus
the class consciousness and revolutionary spirit of and centre of the main agency of the revolution. The
the working class and is a powerful ideological- Party is the general staff and the leader is the brains
spiritual weapon of the revolution and construction of the revolution and construction. The correct
and their main driving force, and thereby shed light guidance of the Party and the leader is the decisive
on its position and role in the development of the guarantee for preparing the popular masses to be
times and revolution. genuine masters of the revolution and for fostering
the army into the main force of the revolution. The
56. What does it mean that the revolutionary people and the army can take up their position and
soldier spirit is the highest manifestation of the play their role as masters in the revolution and con-
class consciousness and revolutionary spirit of struction only when they are awakened and organ-
the working class? ized under the guidance of the Party and the leader.
It means that the revolutionary soldier spirit per-
fectly embodies the ideological firmness and will of 43. What is the essential feature of the main
the working class who have the deepest hatred and agency of the revolution?
fight irreconcilably against the class enemies and The main agency of the revolution is an

32 25
ideological crystal into which all the people The construction was a hard job unprecedented
centring round the army have been united with in the volume and conditions of work. Korea was
the Party and the leader as its nucleus. It is also undergoing severe economic difficulties due to
an organizationally united body of the people with the imperialists foulest economic blockade of the
the leader as the central guide and the army as country following the collapse of many socialist
the pivot and model. Further it is an integral countries and to consecutive natural disasters. The
whole in which the army and the people are united prevailing conditions made the construction work
morally and dutifully around the Party and the practically impossible. For all that, the soldiers
leader. brought the work to completion by displaying the
spirits of defending the supreme commander with
44. What is elucidated by the theory of the their lives and carrying out his orders and instruc-
revolutionary soldier spirit? tions in the face of death and of heroically sacrific-
In the theory of the revolutionary soldier spirit, ing themselves for the country, the people and the
the Songun idea elucidates that the loftiest revolu- comrades. The leader Kim Jong Il named the spirit
tionary spirit in the present day is the revolutionary displayed by the soldier-builders the revolutionary
soldier spirit created and displayed by the army and soldier spirit, and saw to it that all society actively
comprehensively clarifies the intrinsic features of followed their example.
the spirit and its position and role in the revolution
and construction. 54. What is the feature of the revolutionary
soldier spirit?
45. What is the revolutionary soldier spirit? It is the do-or-die spirit of soldiers devoting their
The revolutionary soldier spirit is a lofty youth and lives totally to the struggle for the sake of
revolutionary spirit of soldiers that consists of the the Party and the leader, the country and the revo-
spirits of guarding the leader with ones very life, lution. And also it is the invincible revolutionary

26 31
52. How is it that the spirit of heroic sacrifice implementing the Partys policies at the risk of
constitutes one of the main contents of the revo- ones life and sacrificing oneself heroically.
lutionary soldier spirit?
The revolutionary army means the ranks of vol- 46. What is the spirit of guarding the leader
untary fighters who set out in the life-and-death with ones very life?
fight with arms in hand, being ready to devote their It is a spirit of guarding the personal safety of the
all to the independent cause of the masses. It is just leader, defending his authority and dignity and
the revolutionary army that can neither exist nor adhering to his thoughts and lines at the risk of ones
fulfil its duty and mission without the spirit of infi- life with absolute trust in him.
nite devotion to lay down ones life for the Party and
the leader, the country and the people, and without 47. Why is the spirit of defending the leader
the spirit of heroic sacrifice for victory of revolu- with ones very life the most important content
tion. Therefore, the army is inevitably pervaded of the revolutionary soldier spirit?
with the spirit of sacrifice to fight heroically for the Only when there is the leader can there be
Party and the leader, the country and the people, and the army and its development and can the revolu-
thus the spirit of heroic sacrifice constitutes one of tion come off victoriously. The ultimate mission of
the main contents of the revolutionary soldier spirit. the army, therefore, is defending the leader with
their very lives. The spirit of defending the leader
53. How was the revolutionary soldier spirit in the face of death is the foremost ideological
created? and spiritual feature of the army and its life and
The revolutionary soldier spirit was created in soul. The revolutionary soldier spirit is inconceiv-
the latter half of the 1990s by the soldier-builders able apart from the spirit of guarding the leader
who participated in the construction of the Anbyon with ones very life. The spirit of death-defying
Youth Power Station in eastern Korea. defence of the leader is the very heart of the

30 27
revolutionary soldier spirit. 50. Why is the spirit of desperate implemen-
tation one of the main contents of the revolu-
48. What does it mean that the spirit of tionary soldier spirit?
defending the leader with ones very life is the The ideas and intentions of the Party and the
very heart of the revolutionary soldier spirit? leader are the lifeline of the revolutionary army in
It means that the spirit of defending the its existence and development, and its sole guideline
leader with ones very life, as the central idea in fulfilling its mission and duty. The army accepts
and spirit of the revolutionary soldier spirit, the ideas and lines, orders and instructions of the
defines all its other ideological and spiritual con- Party and the leader as vital demands and absolute
tents and controls the processes of their manifes- truths and makes every effort for their implementa-
tation. tion. It is none other than the revolutionary army
The spirits of desperate implementation and that carries out the orders and instructions of the
heroic sacrifice which make up the revolutionary Party and the leader without pessimism, vacillation
soldier spirit are based on the spirit of death-defying or hesitation and regards it as the highest honour to
defence of the leader, and so they are lofty fighting go through fire and water without flinching and
spirits. willingly give ones life in the fight for their imple-
mentation.
49. What is the spirit of desperate implemen-
tation? 51. What is the spirit of heroic sacrifice?
The spirit of desperate implementation is a spirit It is a self-sacrificing spirit of devoting ones all
of accepting the ideas and lines, orders and instruc- to the struggle for the sake of the Party and the
tions of the Party and the leader as most equitable leader, the country and the people, and a fighting
ones and as supreme orders and carrying them out spirit of performing great feats and making miracles
correctly without fail. and innovations in its course.

28 29
50. Why is the spirit of desperate implemen-
tation one of the main contents of the revolu-
tionary soldier spirit?
The ideas and intentions of the Party and the
leader are the lifeline of the revolutionary army in
its existence and development, and its sole guideline
in fulfilling its mission and duty. The army accepts
the ideas and lines, orders and instructions of the
Party and the leader as vital demands and absolute
truths and makes every effort for their implementa-
tion. It is none other than the revolutionary army
that carries out the orders and instructions of the
Party and the leader without pessimism, vacillation
or hesitation and regards it as the highest honour to
go through fire and water without flinching and
willingly give ones life in the fight for their imple-
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS mentation.
ON THE SONGUN IDEA
51. What is the spirit of heroic sacrifice?
The Foreign Languages Publishing
House, DPRK It is a self-sacrificing spirit of devoting ones all
Published on March 30, Juche 101(2012) to the struggle for the sake of the Party and the
- 2835029 leader, the country and the people, and a fighting
E-mail: flph@star-co.net.kp spirit of performing great feats and making miracles
http://www.naenara.com.kp and innovations in its course.

56 29
52. How is it that the spirit of heroic sacrifice bility of Korea that advances under the banner of
constitutes one of the main contents of the revo- Songun. The Songun idea and Songun politics deal
lutionary soldier spirit? hard blows at the imperialist aggressive forces on
The revolutionary army means the ranks of vol- a worldwide scale, encourage the anti-imperialist
untary fighters who set out in the life-and-death forces of independence and give a forceful impetus
fight with arms in hand, being ready to devote their to the human cause of independence.
all to the independent cause of the masses. It is just
the revolutionary army that can neither exist nor 100. What is the historical position of the
fulfil its duty and mission without the spirit of infi- Songun idea?
nite devotion to lay down ones life for the Party and The Songun idea is a great revolutionary banner
the leader, the country and the people, and without of the contemporary times that pioneers and guides
the spirit of heroic sacrifice for victory of revolu- the Songun era along the road of victory under the
tion. Therefore, the army is inevitably pervaded banner of the idea based on the Juche idea. It is a
with the spirit of sacrifice to fight heroically for the perfect revolutionary idea illuminating the revolu-
Party and the leader, the country and the people, and tionary theory, strategy and tactics for advancing
thus the spirit of heroic sacrifice constitutes one of the peoples cause of independence successfully in
the main contents of the revolutionary soldier spirit. any conditions and circumstances. And it is a
revolutionary idea that gives perfect answers to all
53. How was the revolutionary soldier spirit theoretical and practical problems arising in de-
created? fending socialism and building a powerful socialist
The revolutionary soldier spirit was created in nation amidst fierce confrontation with imperialism.
the latter half of the 1990s by the soldier-builders
who participated in the construction of the Anbyon
Youth Power Station in eastern Korea.

30 55
the lead and all the people paved the way in a body The construction was a hard job unprecedented
for the building of a powerful socialist nation. This in the volume and conditions of work. Korea was
proves that advancing under the banner of Songun, undergoing severe economic difficulties due to
the Korean people can attain the lofty goal of the imperialists foulest economic blockade of the
building a powerful nation without fail. country following the collapse of many socialist
Fourthly, they find expression in the fact that a countries and to consecutive natural disasters. The
turning point was marked in the struggle for prevailing conditions made the construction work
national reunification. In 2000 and 2007 historic practically impossible. For all that, the soldiers
inter-Korean summit meetings took place in brought the work to completion by displaying the
Pyongyang, adopting the June 15 North-South Joint spirits of defending the supreme commander with
Declaration and the October 4 Declaration, which their lives and carrying out his orders and instruc-
marked a turning point in the struggle for national tions in the face of death and of heroically sacrific-
reunification under the idea of by our nation itself. ing themselves for the country, the people and the
This is also a priceless fruit of the vitality of the comrades. The leader Kim Jong Il named the spirit
Songun idea and Songun politics. displayed by the soldier-builders the revolutionary
Fifthly, they find expression in the fact that the soldier spirit, and saw to it that all society actively
international prestige of Korea has risen higher and followed their example.
that enthusiasm of the progressive people of the
world for independence is running very high. A 54. What is the feature of the revolutionary
change has taken place in the foreign relations of soldier spirit?
Korea, with West European and many other coun- It is the do-or-die spirit of soldiers devoting their
tries that were indifferent or hostile to her in the youth and lives totally to the struggle for the sake of
past coming to establish diplomatic relations with the Party and the leader, the country and the revo-
her while the world public recognizes the invinci- lution. And also it is the invincible revolutionary

54 31
spirit of the army fighting off whatever formidable 99. Where do the validity and vitality of the
enemy forces and fearlessly pulling through any Songun idea find expression?
hardships and trials. First, they find expression in the fact that the
Korean people have crushed the aggression and war
55. What are the position and role of the moves of the United States and its followers and
revolutionary soldier spirit in the revolution and defended their country and nation and socialism. It
construction? is a valuable fruit of the Songun idea that the Korean
The Songun idea has clarified that the revolu- people have defended and glorified their country
tionary soldier spirit is the highest manifestation of and nation and socialism in a showdown with the
the class consciousness and revolutionary spirit of United States for more than half a century.
the working class and is a powerful ideological- Secondly, they find expression in the fact that the
spiritual weapon of the revolution and construction revolutionary ranks have been more firmly united
and their main driving force, and thereby shed light and that the single-hearted unity of the whole
on its position and role in the development of the society has been further strengthened. The army and
times and revolution. people of Korea have been more firmly united in a
genuine comradely relationship and the political
56. What does it mean that the revolutionary and ideological might of the Korean revolution has
soldier spirit is the highest manifestation of the increased incomparably under the guidance of the
class consciousness and revolutionary spirit of leader Kim Jong Il. This is a precious fruit of the
the working class? exertions to imbue the whole society with the
It means that the revolutionary soldier spirit per- Songun idea.
fectly embodies the ideological firmness and will of Thirdly, they find expression in the fact that a
the working class who have the deepest hatred and new turn has come about in the endeavours to build
fight irreconcilably against the class enemies and a powerful socialist nation. The Peoples Army took

32 53
and the system of state administration with the ardently love and strive with all devotion for the
main stress on national defence. sake of their class, people and social system.

97. What is the Supreme Commanders 57. How is it that the revolutionary soldier
monolithic system of leadership? spirit is the highest manifestation of the class
It is a system of leadership under which all consciousness and revolutionary spirit of the
problems arising in the revolution and construction working class?
are solved in conformity with the Supreme It is because the revolutionary soldier spirit pul-
sates with the consistent working-class principle.
Commanders thought and purpose, and all the
Class consciousness of the working class is inten-
Party, army and people act like one organism under
sively expressed in the working-class principle of
his monolithic guidance and unconditionally accept
resolutely defending their class needs and interests.
and thoroughly carry out his intentions, orders and
The revolutionary soldier spirit characterized by do-
instructions.
or-die courage embodies the consistent working-
class principle which is entirely alien to compro-
98. What is the system of state administration mise and concession. Further, it connotes burning
with the main stress on national defence? hostility and hatred against the imperialists and the
It is a state machinery and a state control system class enemy and a relentless determination to wipe
under which a state apparatus is set up with the them out.
National Defence Commission as its core to direct
state and social life as a whole on the principle of 58. How is it that the revolutionary soldier
setting down military affairs as the most important spirit is a powerful ideological-spiritual weapon
of all affairs in state administration and subordinat- for propelling the revolution and construction?
ing everything to them. It is because the revolutionary soldier spirit is a

52 33
revolutionary spirit giving a sure guarantee for ideas and fighting ardour of the army and the
successfully remodelling people and, on this basis, people based on the revolutionary soldier spirit.
securing victory consecutively in the confrontation
with imperialism and in socialist construction for 95. What should be done to adhere to the
national prosperity and peoples welfare. principle of putting up the army as the main
force of the revolution?
59. How does the revolutionary soldier spirit The army should be built up solidly into a
ensure and promote the successful remodelling revolutionary force equipped well with qualities
of people? and traits worthy of the main force of the revolu-
The remodelling of people is a prerequisite for tion. And also, the army should be actively
the development of the times and the revolution, and
engaged and encouraged to set fine examples in
what is essential in it is to arm the people with the
the practical work of socialist construction. Fur-
revolutionary ideas and spirit. The revolutionary
ther, the consensus of ideas and fighting ardour
soldier spirit perfectly embodies the spirit of loyalty
of the army and the people should be firmly main-
to the Party and the leader and, with it as the nu-
tained.
cleus, all the ideological-spiritual traits proper to
revolutionaries, including a high collective spirit, a
strong sense of organization and discipline, an un- 96. What is clarified by the Songun leadership
compromising revolutionary principle and a staunch system?
spirit of class struggle against imperialism. And The Songun idea newly sheds light on the
also, it embodies the loftiest traits of moral obliga- idea and theory of the Songun leadership system
tion indispensable to revolutionaries. Further, it which embodies the principle of Songun. The
completely incarnates the cultural and emotional Songun leadership system contains the Supreme
traits essential for people. Commanders monolithic system of leadership

34 51
and innovations not only on the anti-imperialist 60. How does the revolutionary soldier spirit
military front but also in economic and cultural make it possible to win ultimate victory in the
construction. The revolution and construction, confrontation with imperialism?
therefore, can emerge victorious only by putting Confrontation with imperialism is a showdown
up the army as the pillar and fully depending of strength, a military showdown and, at the same
on it in all fields of the revolution and construc- time, a showdown of ideology, faith and will. For
tion. victory in this confrontation, great military strength
is needed, but more essential than that is great
93. Why should the army be put in the ideological-spiritual power. The revolutionary sol-
van and the revolution and construction be dier spirit makes the army and people stand up
propelled by concerted efforts of the army and against imperialism with a do-or-die spirit and will.
the people? The imperialists who chant Power is everything
Putting up the army as the main force of fear most the do-or-die spirit of the army and people
the revolution never means dependence only on rather than any modern weapons. The revolutionary
the army. The army is only the vanguard and soldier spirit also enables the army and people to
shock force that makes a breach for advance at the display an undaunted offensive spirit of meeting and
head of the people and arouses the masses to a repulsing any formidable enemy.
heroic struggle. The revolution and construction
can successfully advance only when all the people 61. What makes the revolutionary soldier
turn out with the army in the lead in army-people spirit a powerful driving force of socialist con-
unity. struction?
The revolution for the independence of the
94. What is army-people unity? masses of people develops and comes to comple-
Army-people unity means the consensus of tion through socialist construction. The revolution-

50 35
ary soldier spirit encourages people to turn out 90. What does it mean that the army is put up
as one in socialist construction for national pros- as the main force of the revolution?
perity and their own well-being. It also makes peo- It means that the army is the main force for
ple overcome any trials and hardships in socialist promoting the revolution and construction and
construction free from defeatism and brings them everything is done by relying on it as the pace-
to display the spirit of working miracles and maker.
performing feats by their own exertions and hard
work. 91. What are the contents of the principle of
putting up the army as the main force of the
62. What is elucidated in the theory on the revolution?
building of a powerful socialist nation? The principle has two main contents. The first is
In the theory on the building of a powerful to regard the army as the most potent force and
socialist nation, the Songun idea illuminates the entirely depend on it in all affairs of the revolution
essence and features of such a nation and gives a and construction, and the second is to put the army
comprehensive explanation to the theory. in the van and push forward the revolution and
. construction by concerted efforts of the army and
63. What is the essence of a powerful socialist the people.
nation?
A powerful socialist nation means a country with 92. Why should the army be regarded as the
great national power where everything thrives and most potent force and be depended on entirely?
the people live happily in plenty. In other words, it Because the army is a political force with a
is a country where everything has come into full higher revolutionary spirit, organizational sense
bloom by reaching its goal of a political, a military and combat capacity than any social class, stratum
and an economic power. or group, it is the main force making miracles

36 49
military affairs in the leadership of the Party over 64. What is a political power?
the revolution and construction. A political power means a country with a most
solid socio-political foundation laid through secur-
88. Why is it that all matters arising in the ing the single-hearted unity of whole society by
revolution and construction should be settled in fully realizing political independence and success-
subordination to military affairs? fully applying the politics of unity and patriotism.
The revolutionary struggle and construction
work to transform nature, society and people entail 65. Why is the building of a political power
heaps of urgent and important matters. How to cope important in the building of a powerful socialist
with them successfully depends largely on whether nation?
priority is given to military affairs or not. Therefore, The reason is that politics represents a field of
everything in the revolution and construction should decisive significance in social life. The building of a
be viewed from the angle of military precedence political power is imperative for laying the firm
and all problems be solved on the principle of sub- foundation for the realization of independence
ordinating and orienting them to military buildup. which is the life and soul of man, the social being,
and of the country and the people. Another reason is
89. What should be done to live up to the that the leading role of politics is indispensable for
principle of giving priority to military affairs? uninterruptedly promoting socialist construction as
The army should be strengthened into an invin- a whole including defence upbuilding and economic
cible revolutionary force. Further, priority should be and cultural construction.
given to the development of the defence industry. It
is also important to pervade the whole society with 66. What is the import of the building of a
the spirit of giving preference to arms and military political power based on the Songun idea?
affairs. The Songun idea makes it possible to curb the

48 37
imperialistswho behave haughtily on the strength 85. What does it mean to give priority to mili-
of their military capacityby means of the huge tary affairs?
national power and conduct independent politics It means putting military affairs before all other
meeting the needs and interests of the people and affairs and laying the greatest emphasis on them in
suited to the actual conditions of the country in advancing the revolution and construction.
defiance of the imperialists appeasement policy
and blackmail. 86. What are the contents of the principle of
giving priority to military affairs?
67. What is a military power? The principle of giving priority to military affairs
A military power is an impregnably fortressed comprises two contents. One is to put the greatest
country whose army is politico-ideologically well emphasis on military affairs and the other is to solve
prepared, highly modernized in military technique all problems arising in the revolution and construc-
and permeated through with the tone of officer-man tion in subordination to military affairs.
unity and military-politics concord, and where the
ethos of army-people unity and military precedence 87. Why should the greatest emphasis be put
prevails in the whole society, with the entire people on military affairs?
placed under arms and the whole land fortified. In the revolution and construction, military af-
fairs are a very important problem directly con-
68. Why is the building of a military power nected with the realization of independence of the
important in the establishment of a powerful people and the country. Apart from military affairs,
socialist nation? it is impossible to win in the revolution, defend the
Building a military power is important because victorious revolution or guarantee the future secu-
socialism will always face military threats and rity of the country and nation. Therefore, priority
challenges of the imperialists as long as they remain should be given and the greatest attention be paid to

38 47
ety, the socialist political modes include the politics on earth. It is also because building a military power
of benevolence, that is, of love for and trust in the is essential for boosting the national strength as a
people, and socialist democratic politics that com- whole. Only when the army is strong will it be pos-
prehensively expresses their will. Songun politics is sible to channel everything into augmenting na-
the prerequisite for fully guaranteeing the applica- tional power in a stable and peaceful environment
tion of these socialist political modes. Without and develop all fields of life in the country.
Songun politics, it is impossible to defend socialist
society or speak about any kind of love for and trust 69. What is meant by building a military
in the people or about democracy. The politics of power according to the Songun idea?
benevolence and socialist democratic politics pro- The Songun idea enables the army to develop
vide the possibility of meeting the demands of into an invincible force impeccable in politico-
Songun politics still better. Benevolence politics ideological and military-technical terms by arming
promotes in every way the single-hearted unity of the soldiers with the revolutionary soldier spirit.
the whole society with love for and trust in the peo- Moreover, the idea makes it possible to build a
ple and socialist democratic politics enables the powerful defence industry and an iron-clad defence
wishes and demands of the people to be fully met. setup by giving top priority to military affairs.

84. What is clarified by the principle of 70. What is an economic power?


Songun leadership? An economic power means a country where the
The principle of Songun leadership clarifies economy keeps developing with vigour by virtue of
matters of principle arising in practising the Songun the independent economic foundation never af-
political mode. It comprises the principle of giving fected by any global economic upheaval and of
priority to military affairs and the principle of put- modern science and technology and where the
ting up the army as the main force of the revolution. people enjoy material and cultural life to the full

46 39
according to their preference and wishes. basic principle of socialism. The basic idea of so-
cialism is to realize the independence of the popu-
71. Why is the building of an economic power lace and its basic principle is to meet the demands
important in the establishment of a powerful and wishes of the working class to the full. Songun
socialist nation? politics gives the possibility of defending socialism
The reason is that the economy constitutes the against all challenges and aggression of imperialism,
material basis for guaranteeing the general strength realizing the independence of the masses completely
of the country. Another reason is that a developed and bringing the socialist cause to a victorious com-
economy is prerequisite for fully meeting the mate- pletion according to the principle of the working
rial demands of the people and providing a happy class in any circumstances. Another reason is that
civilized life to them. Yet another reason is that the Songun politics is a mode of politics that must be
economy must be mighty to jail the attempts of the consistently adhered to in the whole process of pur-
imperialists to economically isolate and stifle so- suance of the socialist cause. The socialist cause is a
cialism. process of creation and construction to be carried on
in fierce confrontation with imperialism. Songun
72. What is meant by building an economic politics is a strategic political mode to build up
power according to the Songun idea? massive military strength in keeping with the char-
The Songun idea puts up the army not only as an acteristics of the pursuance of the socialist cause
armed force defending the country but as the main and, by relying on it, firmly ensure and push forward
force of the revolution to accelerate overall socialist overall socialist construction.
construction by dint of their leading role. And the
idea guarantees, on the strength of the powerful 83. How is Songun politics related to other
defence industry, the development of economic and political modes?
technological potentials and high productivity Owing to the essential features of socialist soci-

40 45
80. Why is Songun politics a lofty politics of meeting the contemporary demands of the IT
love of the country, nation and people? industry.
It is because Songun politics makes it possible to
exalt the dignity, honour, authority and prestige of 73. What is clarified by the mode of Songun
the country and nation with the help of arms and politics?
build a powerful socialist country where the people The mode of Songun politics throws full light on
will live in abundance. the principle and system of Songun leadership for
conducting Songun politics, by explaining the
81. What is the position of Songun politics in essence, foundation and character of Songun
accomplishing the socialist cause? politics and its position and role in socialist politics.
In a word, the position of Songun politics is
clarified by the fact that it is the basic mode of so- 74. What is the essence of Songun politics?
cialist politics. As it has originated from the destiny Songun politics is a mode of revolutionary
of socialism and the vital demand of the accom- leadership to defend the country, revolution and
plishment of the socialist cause, Songun politics socialism and push ahead with overall socialist
regulates the functions and roles of other political construction by giving priority to military affairs
modes. Songun politics is the basic political mode and relying on the revolutionary spirit and combat
that should always be placed first and adhered to as strength of the Peoples Army.
the cardinal factor in socialist politics.
75. What is meant by priority of military
82. What is the reason that Songun politics is affairs over all other state affairs?
the basic mode of socialist politics? It means regarding military affairs as the foun-
The reason is that Songun politics makes possible dation of politics and putting all ones back into it.
the complete materialization of the basic idea and This shows what Songun politics considers funda-

44 41
mental in the administration of socialist politics and and enriched the Presidents idea and line of
where to concentrate on. attaching importance to arms, and newly formulated
the theory on the mode of Songun politics and laid
76. What is the meaning of defending the down Songun politics as the basic political mode of
country and revolution and socialism and push- socialism.
ing ahead with overall socialist construction by
relying on the revolutionary spirit and combat 78. What is the character of Songun politics?
strength of the army? The character of Songun politics is that it is the
It means defending national security and most principled and righteous politics of inde-
revolutionary gains at all costs by strengthening pendence opposed to imperialism and a lofty
the army into an invincible revolutionary armed politics of love of ones country, nation and
force and building up the main agency of the people.
revolution solidly and carrying on all works of
socialist construction in a revolutionary and mili- 79. How is it that Songun politics is politics of
tant way with the army as the hardcore and driving independence opposed to imperialism?
force. This indicates the method adopted by It is because Songun politics makes it possible to
Songun politics in achieving the aim of socialist crush the imperialists aggression and war moves by
politics. giving priority to arms and bolstering up the mili-
tary strength and exercise national sovereignty with
77. What is the basis of Songun politics? dignity on the international political arena. Also
The basis of Songun politics lies in the idea because it makes it possible to vigorously promote
and line of attaching importance to arms put for- the cause of global independence by strengthening
ward and consistently adhered to by President the anti-imperialist independent forces on the inter-
Kim Il Sung. The leader Kim Jong Il took over national scale.

42 43
and enriched the Presidents idea and line of
attaching importance to arms, and newly formulated
the theory on the mode of Songun politics and laid
down Songun politics as the basic political mode of
socialism.

78. What is the character of Songun politics?


The character of Songun politics is that it is the
most principled and righteous politics of inde-
pendence opposed to imperialism and a lofty
politics of love of ones country, nation and
people.

79. How is it that Songun politics is politics of


independence opposed to imperialism?
It is because Songun politics makes it possible to
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS crush the imperialists aggression and war moves by
giving priority to arms and bolstering up the mili-
ON THE SONGUN IDEA
tary strength and exercise national sovereignty with
The Foreign Languages Publishing
House, DPRK dignity on the international political arena. Also
Published on March 30, Juche 101(2012) because it makes it possible to vigorously promote
- 2835029 the cause of global independence by strengthening
E-mail: flph@star-co.net.kp the anti-imperialist independent forces on the inter-
http://www.naenara.com.kp national scale.

56 43
80. Why is Songun politics a lofty politics of bility of Korea that advances under the banner of
love of the country, nation and people? Songun. The Songun idea and Songun politics deal
It is because Songun politics makes it possible to hard blows at the imperialist aggressive forces on
exalt the dignity, honour, authority and prestige of a worldwide scale, encourage the anti-imperialist
the country and nation with the help of arms and forces of independence and give a forceful impetus
build a powerful socialist country where the people to the human cause of independence.
will live in abundance.
100. What is the historical position of the
81. What is the position of Songun politics in Songun idea?
accomplishing the socialist cause? The Songun idea is a great revolutionary banner
In a word, the position of Songun politics is of the contemporary times that pioneers and guides
clarified by the fact that it is the basic mode of so- the Songun era along the road of victory under the
cialist politics. As it has originated from the destiny banner of the idea based on the Juche idea. It is a
of socialism and the vital demand of the accom- perfect revolutionary idea illuminating the revolu-
plishment of the socialist cause, Songun politics tionary theory, strategy and tactics for advancing
regulates the functions and roles of other political the peoples cause of independence successfully in
modes. Songun politics is the basic political mode any conditions and circumstances. And it is a
that should always be placed first and adhered to as revolutionary idea that gives perfect answers to all
the cardinal factor in socialist politics. theoretical and practical problems arising in de-
fending socialism and building a powerful socialist
82. What is the reason that Songun politics is nation amidst fierce confrontation with imperialism.
the basic mode of socialist politics?
The reason is that Songun politics makes possible
the complete materialization of the basic idea and

44 55
the lead and all the people paved the way in a body basic principle of socialism. The basic idea of so-
for the building of a powerful socialist nation. This cialism is to realize the independence of the popu-
proves that advancing under the banner of Songun, lace and its basic principle is to meet the demands
the Korean people can attain the lofty goal of and wishes of the working class to the full. Songun
building a powerful nation without fail. politics gives the possibility of defending socialism
Fourthly, they find expression in the fact that a against all challenges and aggression of imperialism,
turning point was marked in the struggle for realizing the independence of the masses completely
national reunification. In 2000 and 2007 historic and bringing the socialist cause to a victorious com-
inter-Korean summit meetings took place in pletion according to the principle of the working
Pyongyang, adopting the June 15 North-South Joint class in any circumstances. Another reason is that
Declaration and the October 4 Declaration, which Songun politics is a mode of politics that must be
marked a turning point in the struggle for national consistently adhered to in the whole process of pur-
reunification under the idea of by our nation itself. suance of the socialist cause. The socialist cause is a
This is also a priceless fruit of the vitality of the process of creation and construction to be carried on
Songun idea and Songun politics. in fierce confrontation with imperialism. Songun
Fifthly, they find expression in the fact that the politics is a strategic political mode to build up
international prestige of Korea has risen higher and massive military strength in keeping with the char-
that enthusiasm of the progressive people of the acteristics of the pursuance of the socialist cause
world for independence is running very high. A and, by relying on it, firmly ensure and push forward
change has taken place in the foreign relations of overall socialist construction.
Korea, with West European and many other coun-
tries that were indifferent or hostile to her in the 83. How is Songun politics related to other
past coming to establish diplomatic relations with political modes?
her while the world public recognizes the invinci- Owing to the essential features of socialist soci-

54 45
ety, the socialist political modes include the politics 99. Where do the validity and vitality of the
of benevolence, that is, of love for and trust in the Songun idea find expression?
people, and socialist democratic politics that com- First, they find expression in the fact that the
prehensively expresses their will. Songun politics is Korean people have crushed the aggression and war
the prerequisite for fully guaranteeing the applica- moves of the United States and its followers and
tion of these socialist political modes. Without defended their country and nation and socialism. It
Songun politics, it is impossible to defend socialist is a valuable fruit of the Songun idea that the Korean
society or speak about any kind of love for and trust people have defended and glorified their country
in the people or about democracy. The politics of and nation and socialism in a showdown with the
benevolence and socialist democratic politics pro- United States for more than half a century.
vide the possibility of meeting the demands of Secondly, they find expression in the fact that the
Songun politics still better. Benevolence politics revolutionary ranks have been more firmly united
promotes in every way the single-hearted unity of and that the single-hearted unity of the whole
the whole society with love for and trust in the peo- society has been further strengthened. The army and
ple and socialist democratic politics enables the people of Korea have been more firmly united in a
wishes and demands of the people to be fully met. genuine comradely relationship and the political
and ideological might of the Korean revolution has
84. What is clarified by the principle of increased incomparably under the guidance of the
Songun leadership? leader Kim Jong Il. This is a precious fruit of the
The principle of Songun leadership clarifies exertions to imbue the whole society with the
matters of principle arising in practising the Songun Songun idea.
political mode. It comprises the principle of giving Thirdly, they find expression in the fact that a
priority to military affairs and the principle of put- new turn has come about in the endeavours to build
ting up the army as the main force of the revolution. a powerful socialist nation. The Peoples Army took

46 53
and the system of state administration with the 85. What does it mean to give priority to mili-
main stress on national defence. tary affairs?
It means putting military affairs before all other
97. What is the Supreme Commanders affairs and laying the greatest emphasis on them in
monolithic system of leadership? advancing the revolution and construction.
It is a system of leadership under which all
problems arising in the revolution and construction 86. What are the contents of the principle of
are solved in conformity with the Supreme giving priority to military affairs?
The principle of giving priority to military affairs
Commanders thought and purpose, and all the
comprises two contents. One is to put the greatest
Party, army and people act like one organism under
emphasis on military affairs and the other is to solve
his monolithic guidance and unconditionally accept
all problems arising in the revolution and construc-
and thoroughly carry out his intentions, orders and
tion in subordination to military affairs.
instructions.
87. Why should the greatest emphasis be put
98. What is the system of state administration on military affairs?
with the main stress on national defence? In the revolution and construction, military af-
It is a state machinery and a state control system fairs are a very important problem directly con-
under which a state apparatus is set up with the nected with the realization of independence of the
National Defence Commission as its core to direct people and the country. Apart from military affairs,
state and social life as a whole on the principle of it is impossible to win in the revolution, defend the
setting down military affairs as the most important victorious revolution or guarantee the future secu-
of all affairs in state administration and subordinat- rity of the country and nation. Therefore, priority
ing everything to them. should be given and the greatest attention be paid to

52 47
military affairs in the leadership of the Party over ideas and fighting ardour of the army and the
the revolution and construction. people based on the revolutionary soldier spirit.

88. Why is it that all matters arising in the 95. What should be done to adhere to the
revolution and construction should be settled in principle of putting up the army as the main
subordination to military affairs? force of the revolution?
The revolutionary struggle and construction The army should be built up solidly into a
work to transform nature, society and people entail revolutionary force equipped well with qualities
heaps of urgent and important matters. How to cope and traits worthy of the main force of the revolu-
with them successfully depends largely on whether tion. And also, the army should be actively
priority is given to military affairs or not. Therefore,
engaged and encouraged to set fine examples in
everything in the revolution and construction should
the practical work of socialist construction. Fur-
be viewed from the angle of military precedence
ther, the consensus of ideas and fighting ardour
and all problems be solved on the principle of sub-
of the army and the people should be firmly main-
ordinating and orienting them to military buildup.
tained.
89. What should be done to live up to the
principle of giving priority to military affairs? 96. What is clarified by the Songun leadership
The army should be strengthened into an invin- system?
cible revolutionary force. Further, priority should be The Songun idea newly sheds light on the
given to the development of the defence industry. It idea and theory of the Songun leadership system
is also important to pervade the whole society with which embodies the principle of Songun. The
the spirit of giving preference to arms and military Songun leadership system contains the Supreme
affairs. Commanders monolithic system of leadership

48 51
and innovations not only on the anti-imperialist 90. What does it mean that the army is put up
military front but also in economic and cultural as the main force of the revolution?
construction. The revolution and construction, It means that the army is the main force for
therefore, can emerge victorious only by putting promoting the revolution and construction and
up the army as the pillar and fully depending everything is done by relying on it as the pace-
on it in all fields of the revolution and construc- maker.
tion.
91. What are the contents of the principle of
93. Why should the army be put in the putting up the army as the main force of the
van and the revolution and construction be revolution?
propelled by concerted efforts of the army and The principle has two main contents. The first is
the people? to regard the army as the most potent force and
Putting up the army as the main force of entirely depend on it in all affairs of the revolution
the revolution never means dependence only on and construction, and the second is to put the army
the army. The army is only the vanguard and in the van and push forward the revolution and
shock force that makes a breach for advance at the construction by concerted efforts of the army and
head of the people and arouses the masses to a the people.
heroic struggle. The revolution and construction
can successfully advance only when all the people 92. Why should the army be regarded as the
turn out with the army in the lead in army-people most potent force and be depended on entirely?
unity. Because the army is a political force with a
higher revolutionary spirit, organizational sense
94. What is army-people unity? and combat capacity than any social class, stratum
Army-people unity means the consensus of or group, it is the main force making miracles

50 49
and innovations not only on the anti-imperialist
military front but also in economic and cultural
construction. The revolution and construction,
therefore, can emerge victorious only by putting
up the army as the pillar and fully depending
on it in all fields of the revolution and construc-
tion.

93. Why should the army be put in the


van and the revolution and construction be
propelled by concerted efforts of the army and
the people?
Putting up the army as the main force of
the revolution never means dependence only on
the army. The army is only the vanguard and
shock force that makes a breach for advance at the
head of the people and arouses the masses to a
heroic struggle. The revolution and construction
can successfully advance only when all the people
turn out with the army in the lead in army-people
unity.

94. What is army-people unity?


Army-people unity means the consensus of

50
ideas and fighting ardour of the army and the the lead and all the people paved the way in a body
people based on the revolutionary soldier spirit. for the building of a powerful socialist nation. This
proves that advancing under the banner of Songun,
95. What should be done to adhere to the the Korean people can attain the lofty goal of
principle of putting up the army as the main building a powerful nation without fail.
force of the revolution? Fourthly, they find expression in the fact that a
The army should be built up solidly into a turning point was marked in the struggle for
revolutionary force equipped well with qualities national reunification. In 2000 and 2007 historic
and traits worthy of the main force of the revolu- inter-Korean summit meetings took place in
tion. And also, the army should be actively Pyongyang, adopting the June 15 North-South Joint
Declaration and the October 4 Declaration, which
engaged and encouraged to set fine examples in
marked a turning point in the struggle for national
the practical work of socialist construction. Fur-
reunification under the idea of by our nation itself.
ther, the consensus of ideas and fighting ardour
This is also a priceless fruit of the vitality of the
of the army and the people should be firmly main-
Songun idea and Songun politics.
tained.
Fifthly, they find expression in the fact that the
international prestige of Korea has risen higher and
96. What is clarified by the Songun leadership that enthusiasm of the progressive people of the
system? world for independence is running very high. A
The Songun idea newly sheds light on the change has taken place in the foreign relations of
idea and theory of the Songun leadership system Korea, with West European and many other coun-
which embodies the principle of Songun. The tries that were indifferent or hostile to her in the
Songun leadership system contains the Supreme past coming to establish diplomatic relations with
Commanders monolithic system of leadership her while the world public recognizes the invinci-

51 54
99. Where do the validity and vitality of the and the system of state administration with the
Songun idea find expression? main stress on national defence.
First, they find expression in the fact that the
Korean people have crushed the aggression and war 97. What is the Supreme Commanders
moves of the United States and its followers and monolithic system of leadership?
defended their country and nation and socialism. It It is a system of leadership under which all
is a valuable fruit of the Songun idea that the Korean problems arising in the revolution and construction
people have defended and glorified their country are solved in conformity with the Supreme
and nation and socialism in a showdown with the
Commanders thought and purpose, and all the
United States for more than half a century.
Party, army and people act like one organism under
Secondly, they find expression in the fact that the
his monolithic guidance and unconditionally accept
revolutionary ranks have been more firmly united
and thoroughly carry out his intentions, orders and
and that the single-hearted unity of the whole
instructions.
society has been further strengthened. The army and
people of Korea have been more firmly united in a
genuine comradely relationship and the political 98. What is the system of state administration
and ideological might of the Korean revolution has with the main stress on national defence?
increased incomparably under the guidance of the It is a state machinery and a state control system
leader Kim Jong Il. This is a precious fruit of the under which a state apparatus is set up with the
exertions to imbue the whole society with the National Defence Commission as its core to direct
Songun idea. state and social life as a whole on the principle of
Thirdly, they find expression in the fact that a setting down military affairs as the most important
new turn has come about in the endeavours to build of all affairs in state administration and subordinat-
a powerful socialist nation. The Peoples Army took ing everything to them.

53 52
99. Where do the validity and vitality of the
Songun idea find expression?
First, they find expression in the fact that the
Korean people have crushed the aggression and war
moves of the United States and its followers and
defended their country and nation and socialism. It
is a valuable fruit of the Songun idea that the Korean
people have defended and glorified their country
and nation and socialism in a showdown with the
United States for more than half a century.
Secondly, they find expression in the fact that the
revolutionary ranks have been more firmly united
and that the single-hearted unity of the whole
society has been further strengthened. The army and
people of Korea have been more firmly united in a
genuine comradely relationship and the political
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS and ideological might of the Korean revolution has
increased incomparably under the guidance of the
ON THE SONGUN IDEA
leader Kim Jong Il. This is a precious fruit of the
The Foreign Languages Publishing
House, DPRK exertions to imbue the whole society with the
Published on March 30, Juche 101(2012) Songun idea.
- 2835029 Thirdly, they find expression in the fact that a
E-mail: flph@star-co.net.kp new turn has come about in the endeavours to build
http://www.naenara.com.kp a powerful socialist nation. The Peoples Army took

56 53
the lead and all the people paved the way in a body bility of Korea that advances under the banner of
for the building of a powerful socialist nation. This Songun. The Songun idea and Songun politics deal
proves that advancing under the banner of Songun, hard blows at the imperialist aggressive forces on
the Korean people can attain the lofty goal of a worldwide scale, encourage the anti-imperialist
building a powerful nation without fail. forces of independence and give a forceful impetus
Fourthly, they find expression in the fact that a to the human cause of independence.
turning point was marked in the struggle for
national reunification. In 2000 and 2007 historic 100. What is the historical position of the
inter-Korean summit meetings took place in Songun idea?
Pyongyang, adopting the June 15 North-South Joint The Songun idea is a great revolutionary banner
Declaration and the October 4 Declaration, which of the contemporary times that pioneers and guides
marked a turning point in the struggle for national the Songun era along the road of victory under the
reunification under the idea of by our nation itself. banner of the idea based on the Juche idea. It is a
This is also a priceless fruit of the vitality of the perfect revolutionary idea illuminating the revolu-
Songun idea and Songun politics. tionary theory, strategy and tactics for advancing
Fifthly, they find expression in the fact that the the peoples cause of independence successfully in
international prestige of Korea has risen higher and any conditions and circumstances. And it is a
that enthusiasm of the progressive people of the revolutionary idea that gives perfect answers to all
world for independence is running very high. A theoretical and practical problems arising in de-
change has taken place in the foreign relations of fending socialism and building a powerful socialist
Korea, with West European and many other coun- nation amidst fierce confrontation with imperialism.
tries that were indifferent or hostile to her in the
past coming to establish diplomatic relations with
her while the world public recognizes the invinci-

54 55
bility of Korea that advances under the banner of
Songun. The Songun idea and Songun politics deal
hard blows at the imperialist aggressive forces on
a worldwide scale, encourage the anti-imperialist
forces of independence and give a forceful impetus
to the human cause of independence.

100. What is the historical position of the


Songun idea?
The Songun idea is a great revolutionary banner
of the contemporary times that pioneers and guides
the Songun era along the road of victory under the
banner of the idea based on the Juche idea. It is a
perfect revolutionary idea illuminating the revolu-
tionary theory, strategy and tactics for advancing
the peoples cause of independence successfully in
any conditions and circumstances. And it is a
revolutionary idea that gives perfect answers to all
theoretical and practical problems arising in de-
fending socialism and building a powerful socialist
nation amidst fierce confrontation with imperialism.

55
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
ON THE SONGUN IDEA
The Foreign Languages Publishing
House, DPRK
Published on March 30, Juche 101(2012)
- 2835029
E-mail: flph@star-co.net.kp
http://www.naenara.com.kp

56