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Process Control Experiment 3

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Exercise 3

2nd Quarter SY 2016-2017

Tuning of Controllers

Guillermo, Jollana Dianne A. 1

1

Student, CHE184-1P/C21, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology

INTRODUCTION

based upon the functions of their control mechanism.

Each type of controller has advantages and

disadvantages and will meet the needs of different

applications. Grouped by control mechanism function,

the three types of controllers are: discrete controllers,

multistep controllers, and continuous controllers.

Discrete controllers are controllers that have only

two modes or positions: on and off. This type of

control doesnt actually hold the variable at setpoint,

but keeps the variable within proximity of setpoint in

what is known as a dead zone.

Continuous Controllers automatically compare the

value of the PV to the SP to determine if an error

exists. If there is an error, the controller adjusts its

output according to the parameters that have been

set in the controller. The tuning parameters essentially

determine:

a. How much correction should be made? The

magnitude of the correction (change in

controller output) is determined by the

proportional mode of the controller.

b. How long should the correction be applied?

The duration of the adjustment to the

controller output is determined by the

integral mode of the controller.

c. How fast should the correction be applied?

The speed at which a correction is made is

determined by the derivative mode of the

Multistep controllers are controllers that have at controller.

least one other possible position in addition to on and

off. Multistep controllers operate similarly to discrete DISCUSSION

controllers, but as setpoint is approached, the

multistep controller takes intermediate steps. An on/off control has an acceptable behavior due to

Therefore, the oscillation around setpoint can be less the fact that the variation in this magnitude under a

dramatic when multistep controllers are employed small interference is slow. If we take small values in

than when discrete controllers are used. the performance times and in the tolerances, we can

obtain a level control close to the set value.

The proportional mode is used to set the basic gain

value of the controller. The setting for the proportional

mode may be expressed as either:

CHE184-1P Process Dynamics and Control Lab. Exercise 3

2nd Quarter SY 2016-2017

1. Proportional Gain,

(Kc) = Output% / Input %

2. Proportional Band,

PB = Input (% Span) For 100%Output

Proportional action responds only to a change in the

magnitude of the error. Proportional action will not

return the PV to setpoint. It will, however, return the

PV to a value that is within a defined span (PB)

around the PV. Its advantage is that is simple.

However, PB settings have following effects:

Small PB (%) Minimize Offset The purpose of integral action is to return the PV to

High Gain (%) Possible cycling SP. This is accomplished by repeating the action of

Large PB (%) Large Offset the proportional mode as long as an error exists. The

Low Gain Stable Loop units are in terms of repeats per minute or minutes

per repeat. With the exception of some electronic

controllers, the integral or reset mode is always used

with the proportional mode. Adding reset to the

controller adds one more gain component to the loop.

The faster the reset action, the greater the gain. Its

advantage is that it eliminates error but may result

reset windup and possible overshoot.

(Large Repeats/Min., Fast Return to SP

Small Min./Repeat) Possible Cycling

In the figure, the proportional band is high (gain is Slow Reset Low Gain

(Small Repeats/Min., Slow Return to SP

low). The loop is very stable, but an error remains

Large Min./Repeats) Stable Loop

between SP and PV.

To tune a proportional mode,r educe PB (increase

To tune, increase repeats per minute until the PV

gain) until the process cycles following a disturbance,

cycles following a disturbance, then slow the reset

then double the PB (reduce gain by 50%).

action to a value that is 1/3 of the initial setting.

Duration of Error and Integral Mode: Another

Derivative Mode Basics - Some large and/or slow

component of error is the duration of the error, i.e.,

process do not respond well to small changes in

how long has the error existed? The controller output

controller output. To improve response, a large initial

from the integral or reset mode is a function of the

change in controller output may be applied. This

duration of the error.

action is the role of the derivative mode. The

derivative action is initiated whenever there is a

change in the rate of change of the error (the slope of

the PV). The magnitude of the derivative action is

determined by the setting of the derivative. The mode

of a PID controller and the rate of change of the PV.

The Derivative setting is expressed in terms of

minutes. In operation, the controller first compares the

current PV with the last value of the PV. If there is a

CHE184-1P Process Dynamics and Control Lab. Exercise 3

2nd Quarter SY 2016-2017

change in the slope of the PV, the controller In tuning, increase the rate setting until the process

determines what its output would be at a future point cycles following a disturbance, then reduce the rate

in time (the future point in time is determined by the setting to one-third of the initial value.

value of the derivative setting, in minutes). The

Proportional, PI, and PID Control

derivative mode immediately increases the output by

that amount. By using all three control algorithms together, process

operators can:

a. Achieve rapid response to major

disturbances with derivative control

b. Hold the process near setpoint without major

fluctuations with proportional control

c. Eliminate offset with integral control

Not every process requires a full PID control strategy.

If a small offset has no impact on the process, then

proportional control alone may be sufficient.

Its advantage is that rapid output reduces the time PI control is used where no offset can be tolerated,

that is required to return PV to SP in slow process. Its where noise (temporary error readings that do not

disadvantage is that it dramstically amplifies noisy reflect the true process variable condition) may be

signals which can cause cycling in fast processes. present, and where excessive dead time (time after a

disturbance before control action takes place) is not a

Large High Gain

problem.

(Minutes) Large Output Change

Possible Cycling In processes where no offset can be tolerated, no

Small Low Gain noise is present, and where dead time is an issue,

(Minutes) Small Output Change customers can use full PID control.

Stable Loop

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