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CIRCULAR

AMSTERDAM
A vision and action agenda for the city and metropolitan area
TITLE
FOREWORD
Cities are the hotbed of innovation and
CONTENTS
MANAGEMENT SUMMARY 4
circularity is now on the agenda; politically,
1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION: MUNICIPALITY AMSTERDAM AS A PIONEER 8
socially and commercially. The ability to
City Circle Scan 12
identify and implement circular solutions at
the city level will lead to job creation, a cleaner
2. VISION OF A CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION CHAIN IN AMSTERDAM 14
environment, new or rejuvenated industries,
Strategies for a circular construction chain 20
and competitiveness in global markets. The
Smart design 22
circular economy provides solutions for many Dismantling and separation 24
environmental, economic and geo-political 2. VISION
CONSTRUCTION High quality recycling and re-use 26
challenges that cities worldwide are facing. Marketplace and resource bank 28
vision
Spatial vision 30
strategies
The first Circle City Scan was completed with Barriers 32
barriers
the city of Amsterdam, which is a pioneer in the Action points 34
action agenda
field of circular economy. This report identifies Roadmap 38
areas in which circular business models can be Potential economic and environmental impact 40
applied and highlights strategies to accomplish Scalability map 42
practical implementation of these sustainable
3. VISION 3. VISION OF A CIRCULAR ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS CHAIN 44
solutions. The Circle City Scan addresses where
ORGANIC Strategies for organic waste 50
and how to start with tangible projects, and RESIDUALS Central hub for biorefinery 52
what the impact is in terms of jobs, environment vision Waste and reverse logistics 54
and added (economic) value. strategies
Cascading of organic flows 56
barriers
Recovery of nutrients 58
action agenda
Spatial vision 60
Barriers 62
Action points 64
Roadmap 68
Potential economic and environmental impact 70
Scalability map 72
4. CURRENT
STATE 4. CURRENT STATE 74
Circularity measured 76
Flows through the metropolitan region 78
Selection of chains 82
Circular Economy indicators 84

5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS 86


5. RECOMMEN- Project team 88
DATIONS AND References 90
NEXT STEPS

2 3
TITLE
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
As a pillar of Amsterdams sustainability policy, which 47 billion is accounted for by the city of
creating a circular economy is high on the Amsterdam (2013) (CBS, 2015). The following FACILITATING STIMULATING STIMULATING
municipalitys agenda. Results from the study sections summarise the future vision and 1 RESOURCE AND
MATERIAL STORAGE
2 HIGH-VALUE
REUSE
3 MATERIAL
PASSPORTS
Circular Amsterdam: A vision and roadmap roadmap that have been developed for both
for the city and region provide guidance to the chains and the impact that the implementation of Matching demand and supply High-value reuse of building A materials passport for
municipality regarding potential steps towards these would have on the economy and the use of of building materials and materials can be encouraged buildings captures information
increased circularity. The roadmap explicitly materials. resources requires temporary by the government in two on materials and processes
storage. Two possible roles ways in the current early used, and the possibilities for
connects with and builds on the many initiatives
on which the municipality stage of development: material reuse. The municipality
that are already being implemented. Construction chain can focus are: (1) allocating (1) contributing to the can recommend or make
By organising the building chain in a circular way locations for the physical development of procurement mandatory a basic version of
storage of these materials, and guidelines and building codes material passports for new
The City Circle Scan approach consists of four while fulfilling the growth ambition to realise 70
(2) playing a facilitating role in with specific requirements for construction projects and
phases. In phase 1, the main material and energy thousand new homes by 2040, the municipality drawing up the conditions that high-value reuse, and (2) being implement material passports
flows as well as the employment levels in the can achieve a 3% productivity increase worth the materials have to meet in a launching customer for for its own properties.
economic sectors in the region were analysed, 85 million euro per year. This economic growth order to qualify for storage recycled and reused building
and reuse. materials.
creating a solid base for phase 2. In phase 2, a is realised in large part by value retention due
comprehensive analysis of the value chains that to material reuse and efficiency improvements.
connect multiple sectors within Amsterdam was However, this cannot be realised overnight. A follow-up analysis is needed The municipality could develop Involvement of the municipality
to study changes in the criteria for building regulations, and city officials is required to
conducted. Utilising macro-economic statistics,
construction material flows ensure compliance calls for determine how the materials
the study determined which chains can achieve Growth in productivity results in increased in the city both for large an increase in commitment, passport for buildings can be

INVESTMENTS
the greatest impact from a circular perspective. employment opportunities; over time, about demolition projects and new and co-invest in new embedded in policy. Input
construction. Complemented processing technologies and information on facilities
The results were discussed during a round 700 additional jobs can be created. 75 thousand
by available knowledge on through the AKEF or a Fund from the land registry are also
table discussion with representatives from the people are currently employed in the Amsterdam zoning plans and a structural for Circular Development. The required for the passport.
municipality and local stakeholders, resulting in building sector. For the most part, the additional vision, such analysis can municipalitys precondition
the decision to perform a detailed analysis of the jobs would be for low- to medium skilled identify locations for the could be that the activities
(temporary) storage of raw are based in Amsterdam and
construction chain and the organic residual flow personnel. materials. benefit the city.
chain. Phase 3 explored the two chains in an ideal
circular future. This future vision provides a view The outlined improvement of the reuse of materials
The municipality, the Port of Construction- and waste Construction-, waste- and

STAKEHOLDERS
of how the chains (and their interactions with leads to material savings of 500 thousand tonnes, Amsterdam, the Cirkel Stad companies, such as ICT companies, such as
other chains) can be set up to be more effective. which is significant when compared to the current collaborative partnership, BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van
start-up in residence, Westas Gansewinkel, Icova and Gansewinkel, IBM, Icova and
In phase 4, an action agenda and roadmap were annual import of 1.5 million tonnes of materials.
partners and AEB. Stonecycling, Circkelstad and Stonecycling, IBM and Delta
drawn to kick-start relevant circular projects, and Greenhouse gas emissions are estimated to the Dutch Green Building Development Group.
potential barriers were identified. decrease by half a million tonnes of CO2 per year Council.
- equivalent to 2.5% of the current annual CO2-
Results of the study show that Amsterdam has emissions of the city of Amsterdam.
the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas Dismantling and separation: efficient dismantling roadmap and action agenda in the study present
emissions and material consumption while, at The above impacts are based on four strategies and separation of waste streams enables high- a large number of short and long term actions that
the same time, realising economic growth and that improve the circularity of the construction value reuse. (3) High-value recycling: high value can contribute to transforming the construction
stimulating employment opportunities. The sector: (1) Smart design: commit to smart design recovery and reuse of materials and components. chain and, thus, to the realisation of the impacts.
economic activity of the Amsterdam metropolitan of buildings in order to make them more suitable (4) Marketplace and resource bank: exchanging The table on the right presents a brief overview of
region amounts to 106 billion euro annually, of for repurposing and for the reuse of materials. (2) commodities between market players. The the top 3 action points for this chain.

4 5
TITLE
Organic residual streams chain annual import of 3.9 million tonnes of biomass
High-value processing of organic residual streams for the entire metropolitan region. The material VIRTUAL CIRCULAR LAUNCHING
for the city of Amsterdam can, over a period of savings consist mainly of materials that can be 1 RESOURCE
PLATFORM
2 FREE ZONE
BIO-REFINERY
3 CUSTOMER

five to seven years, lead to an added value of 150 replaced by the higher-value processed waste
million euro per year. flows. For example, the production of high-quality The municipality can further The municipality can initiate The municipality can introduce
protein from organic waste can replace protein develop and make publicly circular free zones. This criteria in its purchasing policy
This future circular scenario is based on a variety imports such as soy for animal feed, and the accessible digital (commercial) could take away certain to stimulate locally produced
platforms for organic waste. (legislative) barriers that grass, wood (as in street
of adopted measures, including source separation production of bio-plastics could replace oil-based
Such a platform would offer currently hinder innovation, furniture) and food (catering).
of organic waste in all 430 thousand households plastic production. As a result, the expected a transparent overview of such as the ban on the use The large buying power of the
in Amsterdam. Separate collection makes it reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is in the the supply, the demand and of digestate on agricultural municipality itself can create
possible to direct the organic waste stream to order of 600 thousand tonnes of CO2, nearly the use of organic residual land. This is currently blocking an important and constant
streams in Amsterdam (and an important and essential demand that allows local
new uses, such as the production of protein for 3% of the annual CO2-emissions of the city of
beyond). In addition, it can part of the business case parties to further develop and
animal feed, biogas and building blocks for the Amsterdam. address the uncertainty in for anaerobic digestion as professionalise.
chemical sector, including the production of bio- the market by improving the current market value of
plastics. In addition, organic waste streams from The above impacts are based on four strategies the balance of supply and digestate is low.
demand.
the food processing industry in the port area that can enable the higher-value recycling of
offer opportunities for higher quality processing, organic residual streams: (1) Central hub for
The investment in setting up The designation of circular The effects of these measures
contributing to additional value creation. bio-refinery: a central hub for the valorisation
a platform consists largely of free zones can be an effective may soon be visible since there
of organic residue streams from household and the development of the IT- way to neutralise the barriers is a direct market demand for
In the long term, this scenario is estimated to industrial waste and waste streams from the infrastructure and the time described in the local barrier local products. This is expected

INVESTMENTS
create an additional 1200 jobs in Amsterdam, on industry. (2) Waste separation and return logistics: it takes for the conceptual overview. It is a measure to be quickly absorbed by the
development of a platform. that requires investment market.
top of the current total of 10 thousand jobs in the smart waste separation and return logistics to
The municipality can be the in establishing proper
agriculture and food processing industry. Some deploy the logistics hub of Amsterdam in a smart initiator; however, there are supervision and enforcement.
of the jobs created will arise from the required way and to increase the value of residual flows. many market participants, The measures to be taken
adjustments to the waste infrastructure, including (3) Cascading of organic flows: to deploy organic including large IT parties, fall completely within the
which develop such platforms. perspective of the Municipality
the installation of underground containers, pick residual streams in the smartest way possible. (4)
Act.
up services for the separate waste streams and Retrieving nutrients: retrieve essential nutrients
the more complex processing of waste flows. to close the nutrient cycle. AMS, Floow2, Oogstkaart, Orgaworld, SkyNRG, Municipality, Caterers
In addition to direct employment effects in the TNO, Municipality Schiphol Group, KLM, Port of and suppliers of facility

STAKEHOLDERS
agricultural and food industry, there are chances The roadmap and action agenda in the study Wageningen UR Amsterdam and Sita management, Local producers,
for indirect increases in the number of jobs in present a large number of short and long term Exter, Kromkommer, Provalor,
GRO, Holland, Taste Before
areas such as engineering and logistics. actions that can contribute to transforming the
You Waste, Instock, Food
chain and, thus, to the realisation of the impacts. banks, Meerlanden and
The material savings that can be achieved may The table on the right presents a brief overview of Fruityourworld
add up to nearly 900 thousand tonnes per year, the top 3 action points for improved processing of
a significant amount compared to the current organic residual streams.

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TITLE
1. INTRODUCTION: MUNICIPALITY
OF AMSTERDAM AS A PIONEER The urgency of the transition to a circular
economy Our linear way of producing and
7. Human activities positively contribute to
ecosystems, ecosystem services and the
consuming is under pressure. The worlds reconstruction of natural capital.
population will grow to nine billion people by
2050, and, as the city of Amsterdam urbanises Circular economy as a pillar for Amsterdam
and grows by 10 thousand inhabitants per year, The municipality of Amsterdam has committed
the demand on resources rises. This demand, to the circular economy as an important pillar
combined with the finite supply of resources, of its sustainability policy, as apparent in its
will lead to scarcity and strong price fluctuations. sustainability agenda (Amsterdam, 2014a),
More and more companies are, therefore, opting adopted on 11 March 2015. Within the existing
for the transition to a circular economy, which policy, there is already space to accelerate the
offers opportunities for innovation and export transition, through the development of circular
of new production techniques and business free zones, for example. This is a good starting
models, while reducing dependency on imports. position, as confirmed in the national Green Deal,
For citizens, a more circular city will improve their The Netherlands as circular hotspot.
quality of life, create new jobs and form new
business models for entrepreneurs. Lately, the region has experimented with pilot
programmes in the transition to a circular
Amsterdam wants to be the front-runner in economy; however, the municipality wants to
circularity, and the Amsterdam region is in a good commit to a real transition in the coming period,
starting position for transitioning to a circular and the efficient recovery of natural resources
economy. The region has many entrepreneurial and materials, within the construction sector is an
and innovative businesses, citizens, start-ups, important area of focus. As the municipality would
organisations and knowledge institutions that also like to stimulate economic activity, research
are already working within the framework of a and innovation, it is important to get a picture of
circular economy. the entire system, which is why Circle Economy,
TNO and Fabric were hired to do a Circle Scan for
The city of Amsterdam works according to the the city.
following seven principles of the circular economy:
1. All materials enter into an infinite technical or The changing role of Governments Circular
biological cycle. business models are increasingly seen as
2. All energy comes from renewable sources. promising by businesses (Accenture, 2014). As a
3. Resources are used to generate (financial or result, the transition to a circular economy is mainly
other) value. driven by companies at the moment. These front-
4. Modular and flexible design of products and runners still experience many barriers (regulation,
production chains increase adaptability of for example), which slow down the speed of the
systems. transition. Governments play a crucial role in
5. New business models for production, facilitating and guiding the transition to a circular
distribution and consumption enable the shift economy (EMF, 2015a). Especially at the city and
from possession of goods to (use of) services. regional levels, the circular economy is taking
6. Logistics systems shift to a more region- shape and groups of citizens and businesses
oriented service with reverse-logistics are starting all kinds of circular initiatives (RLI,
capabilities.

8 9
TITLE 2015). These developments show that a great more circular - Construction and Organic Residual
deal of interest and commitment currently exists Streams. For both value chains, we explored what
to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the a circular future may look like. To make the vision
circular economy. To scale up these initiatives more concrete, four strategies were developed
support from the government is essential. and translated into a specific roadmap for the
city and region with concrete action points. The
The government of the future does not direct, report concludes with recommendations and next
but brings parties together. To play that role, the steps. A key recommendation and follow-up step
government ought to remove barriers resulting involves making circularity more measurable in
from existing policy and actively encourage order to monitor progress. The circular indicators
and challenge the market. One can think of, for framework applied in this study offers a good
example, the development of inspiring goals for a starting point.
circular city, such as adjusting the private purchase
and tender conditions, stimulating innovative Jump start: build on momentum The ambition
research and start-ups that contribute to circular to be a circular hotspot is widely supported
solutions, and implementing financial incentives. in Amsterdam. Not only is the municipality
This last point, for example, can be fulfilled by progressive, but citizens and businesses are
differentiating tax rates and investing in good equally enthusiastic and energetic about the
infrastructure to increase exchange of resources. transition to a circular economy. The city is
A close cooperation between the government buzzing with circular initiatives, and this was
and the market offers a great opportunity to once again made clear during conversations
accelerate the transition to a circular economy. held in the region to gather input for the future
visions and action points in this document. With
Amsterdam Circle Scan: from vision to the action points presented in this report, we
action This document describes the results want to contribute to and build on the growing
of the Amsterdam Circle Scan and analyses momentum for the circular economy in this
the opportunities and challenges of creating a region. In the action agenda, we connected and
circular city. The results contribute to the further built on, as much as possible, the many initiatives
development of the municipal ambitions and already underway. Internationally, Amsterdam is
agenda on the theme of a circular economy. The a pioneer and is being followed by other cities in
roadmap outlines steps towards stimulating the Europe and beyond.
circular economy in the city. To create a circular
economy, we must first understand what is not
circular in our current economy. This document
provides insight into the commodity flows in the
city and metropolitan region. It shows where the
processing of resources adds value to the local
economy and how they can be reused in a smart
way while highlighting where resources are being
wasted. The report focuses on two value chains
with a significant impact, their contribution to
the regional economy and their potential to be

10 11
MAPPING OF MATERIAL FLOWS AND ADDED VALUE
To get a better picture of how circular Amsterdam currently is, the main material
and energy flows as well as employment in the economic sectors in the region
were analysed. The analysis employed data from (regional and national)
statistics and sources, and was supplemented by interviews. It provides insights
into material flows in and around the city. Simultaneously, activities and places
in the region were assessed for their ecological impact. In addition, the analysis
provides insights on where and how value can be created in the region and
where there are opportunities for job growth and economic development.

EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF CHAINS


In phase 2, a comprehensive analysis was conducted of the value chains that
connect multiple sectors within Amsterdam. The results of phase 1 were
the starting point of this analysis. Based on macro-economic statistics, we
established in which chains the greatest circular impact can be achieved. The
result is a list of chains that have been prioritised on the basis of the following
indicators: ecological impact, economic importance, value preservation and
transition potential. These indicators were also used in the Dutch national
government program, Nederland Circulair!.

THE CITY CIRCLE


SCAN METHOD VISIONING
Then, in phase 3, we developed a future vision, exploring how the two chains can
The City Circle Scan is a method that gives direction function in an ideal circular future. This future vision gives a view on how the
to cities through the development of a roadmap and chains (and their interactions with other chains) can be set up differently. For
action agenda for the practical implementation of each of the two chains, we formulated four strategies for a circular economy.
the circular economy in their city and region. The The future vision was tested in feedback sessions and in interviews with
method consists of four phases. various experts and stakeholders in Amsterdam. The feedback was used to
further refine the vision for the future.

PROJECT SELECTION AND FORMULATION OF ACTION POINTS


In phase 4, an action agenda with a planning and implementation strategy for
starting relevant circular projects was drawn up. All are projects in which
governments, research institutes, companies, entrepreneurs and citizens
work together to make the two chains circular. Time paths for the actions
and policy interventions were formulated, indicating which stakeholders are
essential for a successful transition. The actions have also been assessed on
four main effects: (1) value creation, (2) CO2-reduction, (3) material savingsstraatmeubilair teruggewonnen plas

and (4) job growth.

Mobiele 3Dprint faciliteit

12 13
2. VISION OF A CIRCULAR
CONSTRUCTION CHAIN IN
AMSTERDAM
To get a picture of how the construction chain in Amsterdam can
make better, higher-value and longer lasting use of material flows, we
explored a potential future of the construction industry in Amsterdam.
This vision of the future was partly based on interviews with experts
and stakeholders. Their feedback was used to further refine the vision
of the future. The starting point of this exploration was to retain the
highest possible value in the construction chain by means of circular
solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes four strategies that can be
followed. These strategies are then placed in the context of the region
(by linking with local initiatives and a selection of innovative market
parties). Furthermore, a link is made with trading opportunities for
the municipality, areas where the market is active and ways that the
government can facilitate this. The roadmap describes concrete action
points for the municipality, links this to timelines, and highlights which
parties can play a role in the implementation. In addition, the impacts
of implementing the strategies are calculated for: (1) value creation, (2)
CO2-reduction, (3) material savings and (4) job growth.

14 15
TITLE
VISION OF A CIRCULAR
CONSTRUCTION CHAIN
In an ideal circular construction chain, the Buildings can be constructed in a modular
buildings are designed in such a way that way. The flexibility of multifunctional buildings
materials will have the longest possible lifespan ensures that buildings have a longer life span
through reuse or repurposing. The introduction despite the varying demands of residents and
of a material passport is a concrete measure users. This underlines the role of architects and
that can be of great help in stimulating reuse by property developers in the design of buildings
increasing transparency to develop a business that are suitable for re-development. Modular
case and enabling reallocation of materials. construction can contribute to rapid and cost
Furthermore, chain cooperation and supply effective adaptation of different building functions,
chain financing is especially important since it reducing vacancy and optimising unused building
contributes to a longer term maintenance and space.
use that does justice to the useful life of buildings.
As a result, the economic, environmental and In a circular Amsterdam, more focus will fall
social performance improves. on smarter demolition. During the demolition
of buildings, re-usable products and materials
Integrated planning is essential for the realisation are separated, while maintaining their physical
of a circular future. Construction and demolition of characteristics and economic value. During the
buildings in Amsterdam should be coordinated so separation, there is a special location (unused
that the construction materials from demolished land close to construction sites, for example) for
buildings may be used again in new construction storing materials that will be used directly in the
projects and renovation projects. That way, the use construction of new buildings and renovation of
of new materials in new construction projects will existing buildings. To support this, a materials
be reduced to a minimum. Bio-based construction database is required, which is linked to an online
materials can also play a role. Locally produced marketplace, where buyers can easily exchange
biomass, such as the production of elephant grass these materials on the basis of quality and
around Schiphol Airport or on wastelands of the quantity.
port, can serve as part of this market. In addition,
it is important that, next to local sources, national The described vision is illustrated in a visual (see
and international sources and production opposite and enlarged on the next page) that
methods for sustainable bio-based materials are depicts the flows in the city. In the next section,
used. New production methods, including the use this vision is translated into strategies and action
of 3D printers, can realise the local production items that use market, technical, technological
of buildings. This can also increase the demand and administrative instruments to realise these
for bio-based plastic and, thus, stimulate the circular opportunities in the construction chain.
production of bio-composites.

16 17
VISION OF A CIRCULAR
CONSTRUCTION CHAIN
CONSTRUCTIO
MODULE A

STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING A


SMART DESIGN
VALUE JOB
VALUE JOB
CREATION MATERIAL
GROWTH
Explanation of the indicators The effects ofCREATION GROWTH
the circular strategies on the environment SAVINGS

CIRCULAR CHAIN VALUE


and the economy are calculated
CREATION
JOB of 70 thousand MATERIAL
for the construction
GROWTH
25
Here, the impact will be realised over a period MILLION
homes
SAVINGS
MILLION
CO
23 in Amsterdam. 200
of five to seven years. Four indicators were
200 x
0x
2
REDUCTION

KTONS

used in determining impact:12(1) net added value100


in millions of euro, (2) net0 job growth in FTE, 300
MILLION x KTONS
(3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) KTONS

CONSTRUCTION
reduction in CO2-emissions. These are further described below.
From the vision described for the construction
1
chain, we developed strategies and action items
which enable the municipality to close the MODULE A
SMART DESIGN
material cycles in the construction chain. VALUE JOB MATERIAL
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
CREATION
GROWTH
MATERIAL
GROWTH
VALUE
SAVINGS CO
SAVINGS
JOB2
GROWTH
NET ADDED VALUE IN EURO CREATION REDUCTION

(1) Smart design


CREATION
JOB
VALUE The circular strategies MATERIAL
directly enable a number
GROWTH of sectors
23
SAVINGS CO2
200
500
street furniture salvaged plastics
25 MILLION 0x
REDUCTION
25
.. 100
KTONS
Smart design of buildings so that they are better in Amsterdam to realise added value: more200
MILLION sales
x and KTONS
MILLION 200 x
KTONS
more profit. Net means that any decreases in added
equipped when their purpose changes and so 12 0 300
MILLION value are calculated100
and
x that the indirect effects
KTONS of all KTONS
that materials can be reused. Mobile 3Dprint facility

CONSTRUCTION
other sectors are taken into account.

(2) Dismantling and separation


Efficient dismantling and separation of waste
2
streams to enable high-value reuse. JOB
NET JOBS GROWTH IN FTE VALUE
CO
Deconstruction
VALUE JOB MATERIAL GROWTH
CO
CREATION 2
VALUE One of the social CREATIONJOB of an increase inMATERIAL
aspects GROWTH
circularity
VALUE is SAVINGS
JOB2 MATERIAL
REDUCTION

CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS


CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS
represented, among other things, by the realisation of
REDUCTION

(3) High-value recycling 30


jobs (FTE, Full Time Equivalent).
23 Job growth is estimated 500 75x
400
The high-value recovery and reuse of materials 25 on the basis of the increase 200 0x MILLION
100 0
MILLION
MILLION
200 x 25
of added value, of KTONS
salaries in KTONS
200 .. x
KTONS
MILLION KTONS KTONS
and components. that sector and of the demand for low, medium and highly
skilled workforces. Net jobs growth refers to job growth
that results in a direct reduction of unemployment.
(4) Marketplace and resource bank
Separation
The exchange of resources between market Reuse

players to enable the reuse of materials in new Storage


materials &
components
buildings. MATERIAL SAVINGS VALUE JOB MATERIAL
3
Repurposing VALUE JOB MATERIAL
CREATION CO
GROWTH 2 SAVINGS
existing building
CREATION Use of materialsGROWTH
is
VALUEexpressed in Domestic
CREATION
Consumption (DMC)*,
JOB
which, in addition GROWTH
Material
SAVINGS
to the use
MATERIAL
REDUCTION
SAVINGS CO2
These circular strategies are explained on the REDUCTION

23 of materials in an area, also looks at materials


30 that
500 25
basis of relevant existing activities that currently 75x
400
MILLION are imported and 200
starters & MILLION KTONS
25 x
exported. Apart from COKTONS
-missions 0
..
students
200
2 x
KTONS 25
take place in Amsterdam. In addition, four new facade MILLION
(which already is explicitly included), DMC makes all
KTONS KTONS

strategies are displayed in a spatial view, similar environmental impact factors related to the circular
to the spatial vision map. Even though the
office
projects quantifiable.
Construction
strategies are formulated separately, they are industry

partially intertwined. Successful implementation


new interior

of high-value reuse, for example, is dependent on old facade


& interior

efficient dismantling and separation techniques.


CO2-REDUCTION VALUE
The most well-known
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
JOBimpact of economicMATERIAL
CREATION activities is
CO2
Upcycling plant REDUCTION
VALUE
CREATION CO2-emissions. The impact of the strategies on
GROWTH emissions
SAVINGS REDUCTION

The following section lists the four strategies 4 is expressed in Global 30 Warming Potential400 (GWP), a 25 100
MILLION x KTONS
25 globally adopted measure that expresses the 0avoided KTONS
translated into a concrete roadmap and action 200coming
x
25
..
MILLION CO -emissions in the years, by an increase in
KTONS KTONS
2
agenda. The action agenda further explains circularity, over a period of 100 years. To make the impact
Open platform Materials database
where the municipality can be of influence, what comparable with the annual emissions in the region, the
other market parties can be involved and in what choice was made to convert the indicators to annual CO2-
emissions.
timeframe the transitions can take place. The
roadmap and action agenda are formulated on MODULE B
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION
Materials storage
the basis of the previously described research and VALUE JOB MATERIAL CO 2
M
R
Deconstruction Construction
CREATION GROWTHabbreviated as DMC, is aSAVINGS
analysis, as well as interviews with stakeholders *Domestic Material Consumption, commonly used statistic that measures
REDUCTION
the total amount
of materials that are used directly by an economy. It measures the annual amount of materials that are extracted in
VALUE
and experts. the30
geographical area, including all physical imports and minus25
all physical exports. CREATION
400 x KTONS
100
MILLION KTONS

1,7
MILLION

20
21

MODULE B
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION
SMART DESIGN
Smart design of buildings is important in the printing, can play a pioneering role in reducing cost
transition to a regional construction circular chain and material use (EMF, 2015b). Such technologies
(EMF, 2015a). Inhabitants move more frequently, lead to less waste and offer the possibility of new
so work areas should be regularly adapted to (e.g. bio-based) materials. The Amsterdam firm
meet changing work patterns such as mobile of architects, SO Architects, has, in collaboration
working and flexible working hours. In addition, with Hager and Henkel, started the project 3D
it has been found that companies tend to move Print Canal House to investigate the possibilities
to another building rather than renovating the of 3D printing for the construction industry.
current one. These factors lead to an increasing The research project looks at different building
demand for flexible and customisable areas materials, such as recycled construction materials
that meet the changing demands of tenants and and stone waste (SO, 2015).
owners. To illustrate the concept, we will focus on
four categories of smart design, namely, modular Bio-based materials New, sustainable building street furniture salvaged plastics
and flexible design, 3D printing, bio-based materials with a biological origin can contribute
materials and experimental construction areas. to designing smarter buildings. More than 3
million tonnes of biomass and organic residual
Modular and flexible design One of the aspects streams are released from agricultural activities
of smart design is a modular and flexible approach, in the Amsterdam metropolitan area, from which
street furniture Mobile 3Dprint facility salvaged plastics
whereby buildings can be updated to new users significant amounts of bio-composite materials MODULE A
SMART DESIGN
and other applications without sacrificing the can be produced. This would, at least, be sufficient
current safety guidelines (Schoenborn, 2012). to supply the materials needed for the planned
These designs lead to real estate that is more housing expansion of 70 thousand homes (CBS, VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

functional and more durable, thus, offering 2014). An interesting example of sustainable
street furniture Mobile 3Dprint facility salvaged plastics
a better revenue model during the utilisation building materials is the work of Waternet, who, 12 0 300
MILLION 100 x KTONS KTONS

CONSTRUCTION
period. Examples of integral modular designs are together with stakeholders such as NPSP and
Solid in Amsterdam by housing association Het Cityblob, develop composite components. The
Oostent, TempoHousing student accommodation municipality of Almere has already commenced
by Keetwonen in Amsterdam and Park 20 | 20 by projects involving bio-waste, which is used to Mobile 3Dprint facility
Delta Development Group in Hoofddorp. generate bio-composite for the building sector. Visual display of smart design: Recovered bio-plastics are used by a 3D printer to produce new products such as
VALUE
street furniture. JOBenable on-site production.
In addition, mobile stations
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO
The effects of circular strategies
2 on the
The 60 thousand m2 of buildings planned for environmentCREATION
and the economy have been calculated for the construction of 70 thousand new homes
REDUCTION
in Amsterdam.
It is expected to take five to seven years to achieve circular design within the construction industry. The impact will
Flexibly designed houses are often more attractive the 2022 Floriade can be built as circularly as also manifest itself
25after a similar time-frame.
200in
Four indicators have been 0 used in determining impact:
100 (1) net added
to users because they can adapt to changing possible through the use of biomaterials. Another value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth
MILLION x FTE, (3) material savings
KTONScalculated by value retention
KTONS in domestic
material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions.
lifestyles. For example, Hubbell in Amsterdam interesting example is the trajectory of Waternet
builds modular spaces for individuals. Companies in which waste streams such as water plants are
also prefer flexible offices because they do not converted into (building) products.
need to move as their business situation changes.
Start-ups and other fast-growing companies in Experimental construction areas Laws and put their clever designs into practice. The success developments. These free zones offer a great
particular can benefit from such offices. Rent or regulations can be adjusted to make it possible of Park 20 | VALUE
CREATION
JOB
20 is partly due to theGROWTH
municipality MATERIAL
opportunity
SAVINGS CO
for start-ups that work on innovative
2
REDUCTION

purchase of flexible office space can even result in to develop bio-based, modular buildings with of Haarlemmermeer, which created flexible rules concepts, contributing to the vision of Amsterdam
cost savings (Cushman & Wakefield, 2013). flexible applications (Acceleratio, 2015). By 23
for the area inMILLION
which innovative building
200 xdesigns
500 hub.
as a start-up 75
KTONS KTONS
modifying the building codes, developers get could be tested. In IJburg, plans are already in
3D-printing New technologies, such as 3D more room to experiment and more freedom to place to create an experimental area for new

22 23

VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

25 0 25
DISMANTLING & SEPARATION
By dismantling existing buildings in more efficient 2013). Such contracts allow the components
ways and by separating their waste streams, and materials in the building to be used again.
materials and components of old buildings can These components and materials can then be
be better reused. An important but often ignored sold to compensate for the demolition costs.
phase in the life cycle of a building is its end-of-life In Amsterdam, there are companies already
(Acceleratio, 2015). These days, a maintenance specialising in decommissioning- and demolition Deconstruction
clause is sometimes included in contracts for methods. Examples of these companies are
real estate development; however, this almost VSM demolition works, Demolition Company
never includes end-of-life costs. Therefore, Concurrant, Demolition Support Netherlands,
destruction currently seems the cheapest option Orange BV and Bentvelzen Jacobs.
with a cost of only 20 to 30 per square metre
(Circle Economy, 2015). By handling demolition of Waste separation By separating construction and
buildings in a smarter way, high-quality materials demolition waste, materials can be retrieved in a
can be separated to avoid them from being high-value manner without cross-contamination.
contaminated by other resources. From a circular Hybrid waste management systems, which
approach it, is necessary to take decommissioning combine individual and central sorting methods,
into account early on in the design of buildings. can lead to better business cases. Companies
Efficient separation of the waste streams can like Icova and Waltec BV offer processes and
facilitate high-value recycling and reuse of these technologies to separate construction and
MODULE A
materials. This is especially the case in small-scale demolition waste. New technologies, such as SMART DESIGN

construction projects such as renovations where the Smart breaker of SmartCrusher BV, make it
Separation
little attention is spent on this due to financial un- possible to separate concrete in sand, gravel and Reuse
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

viability. However, by dismantling smarter on a cement. As a result, the value of the individual
regional scale, and by separating materials and materials increases due to higher value recycling 12 0 300
Storage
MILLION 100 x KTONS KTONS
materials &

CONSTRUCTION
components in a better way, more mono-streams possibilities.
of materials are made available, which makes components
reuse worthwhile.

Decommissioning In the circular construction VALUE


CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

sector, the entire lifespan of a building is taken


into account through close cooperation. The costs 25 0 100
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS

and benefits of a longer life span are divided in


a fair way among the cooperating partners. The
cost and time for each partner are monitored
during all DBFMO-D (design, build, finance,
Visual representation of dismantling and separation: Buildings are separated in a smart and efficient way so that
maintain, operate and demolish) phases in which high-value resources are recovered and saved. In addition, components can be reused. The effects of circular
strategies on the environment and the economy have been calculated for the construction of 70 thousand new
clauses for not only design, building, financing, VALUE
homes in Amsterdam.
CREATIONIt is expected to take
JOB MATERIAL
five to seven years to achieve
GROWTH SAVINGS CO
circular dismantling within 2
REDUCTION the construction

industry. Four indicators have been used to determine impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job
maintenance and use of buildings are contained, growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction
in CO -emission.23 500 75
but also demolition (Netherlands Court of audit, 2 MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS

street furniture salvaged plastics


24 25

VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION
HIGH-VALUE RECYCLING AND REUSE
The construction chain is responsible for 40% of thousand tonnes worth of building materials
the total waste stream of Amsterdam (CBS, 2014). in which eight kilotons of CO2 are permanently
Repurposing
Although more than 90% is recycled, the vast stored (AEB, 2015).
existing building
majority of these materials are used as gravel for
roads, a low-value application (Circle Economy, Retrieving materials from street furniture and
2014) leaving a chance for higher-value reuse paving materials The city of Amsterdam aims to
options. Office spaces also offer opportunities retrieve more materials from street furniture by
from a circular perspective. At the moment, about introducing certain procurement criteria (such starters &
one-fifth of the office spaces in Amsterdam are as in the project The Street of the Future in
students
vacant, which is inefficient when you look at the Amsterdam). Struyk Verwo recycles old concrete new facade
MODULE A
SMART DESIGN
(financial) resources and raw materials used (DTZ, pavements into new products that consist of 70%
2015). At the same time, the buildings present recycled or reused concrete (Struyk Verwo, 2015).
considerable financial potential. The challenge is Such technologies can bring companies together,
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

office
to take advantage of the opportunities for high- enabling them to experiment and to extend their
12 0 300
value reuse of components and materials in knowledge. Almere is working on the construction MILLION 100 x KTONS KTONS

CONSTRUCTION
buildings and the redevelopment of the buildings of a plant meant to recycle building materials in a Constructio
themselves in Amsterdam. high-value manner. industry

Better reuse Building- and waste materials can Repurposing existing buildings Excessive and new interior
be reworked into new products. In Amsterdam, vacant buildings in Amsterdam have a large share
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

a special installation can be built that enables in the material and energy costs in the region. It is old facade
25 0 100
high-value recycling of building materials. This recommended that these buildings are optimised 200 x
MILLION
& interior KTONS KTONS

installation allows different companies to process and are given a new purpose. Major renovation
and recycle varying streams of construction waste. projects, such as Stroomversnelling, show
A number of companies, such as Stonecycling, that high-value renovation of existing housing Upcycling plant
who work together with construction waste can form a solid business case. Expansion and
companies to recycle stone and ceramic waste to renovation projects lead to a significant energy
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
bricks, have already settled in Amsterdam. consumption reduction during the remaining REDUCTION

lifespan. Redevelopment projects in Amsterdam 23 500 75


MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
Demo clean building materials Another are also attractive for the inhabitants due to an
example is AEB Amsterdam. They use the inert increase in housing possibilities.
group-ash that is left behind when burning
residual waste to produce building materials.
Next year, a demo-scale pilot will start in which
clean building materials will be created through Visual representation of high-value recycling: Repurposing existing buildings for new applications. In addition,
components (such as interior) are retrieved so that they can be reused by an upcycling plant. The effects of circular
a process in which CO2 is permanently captured. strategies on theVALUE
environment and the economy
Amsterdam. ItCREATION
JOB have been calculated
GROWTH
is expected to take five to seven SAVINGS
years to achieve high-value
CO
for the construction of 70.000
MATERIAL 2
new homes in
recycling within the construction
REDUCTION industry.
Currently, this fraction is down cycled for use in Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) Net added value in millions of euros (2) Net job growth in
FTE (3) Material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) Reduction in CO2-
road construction, but, in the future, that material emissions. 25 200 x
0
KTONS
25
MILLION KTONS
can be recycled into building material. The pilot
presents an opportunity to create a total of 300

street furniture salvaged plastics


26 VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION
27

30 25 100
MILLION 400 x KTONS KTONS
MARKETPLACE AND RESOURCE BANK
Each building can be seen as a material bank full Logistics for collection An online marketplace MODULE A
SMART DESIGN

of valuable materials. A building could be seen alone does not necessarily make the collection and
as a modern take on traditional mines (United transportation of construction- and demolition
Nations University, 2014). However, after the waste easier or cheaper as the material is very
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

dismantling, separation and recycling of building diverse and voluminous. Therefore, there is a
12 0 300
materials, a gap between the demand and supply need for an advanced collection system and MILLION 100 x KTONS KTONS

CONSTRUCTION
of these resources remains. Demolition and for intelligent logistics, which would make the
decommissioning projects provide opportunities exchange of building materials easier. Because
for processing and direct reuse of recovered many developing locations are located near
materials in nearby construction projects. waterways, the port of Amsterdam can be a central Open platform Materials database
However, it is often unclear which materials are point in that logistical system. Shipping companies VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

present in existing or decommissioned buildings could play an important role in transport. Many
and of what quality they are. High-value reuse logistics companies such as DHL and PostNL have 25 0 100
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
is, therefore, a major challenge. There is a need considered offering reverse logistics for a wide
for a comprehensive online marketplace and range of material flows. In reverse logistics, an
a supporting logistics system that facilitates empty truck would be used for retrieving waste
the exchange of building materials between after it has delivered its products.
demolition, construction and recycling companies
in Amsterdam. In addition, a physical location is Commodity bank Currently, there are challenges VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
required where these materials can be stored in the temporary storage of construction waste at
REDUCTION

temporarily, a so called resource bank. companies, mainly because this requires space Materials storage
23 500 75
MILLION 200 x KTONS
and, thus, investment. A solution could be to KTONS

Online Marketplace Via an online marketplace, arrange a centrally located physical storage for Deconstruction Construction
supply and demand of building materials for local materials (commodity bank) - materials that are
construction projects can be aligned (by means of then traded in the online commodity market
GIS data) (Zhu, 2014). Besides information on the place. Vacant plots around Amsterdam, such as in
building, an information management system, the port and in Westpoort, Zaanstad and Almere,
building passports, and information on the are ideal locations for the temporary storage of
quality and quantity of materials used in a specific construction waste before it is traded through
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

building can be documented and made accessible. the online marketplace. Designers and architects
25 0 25
This provides opportunities for trading and the are invited to view a catalogue with materials to MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS

exchange of building materials between parties, see if they can come up with new applications for
and encourages reuse and high-value recycling. these materials. Several companies, such as Brink
Enviromate has developed an online marketplace Industrial, Repurpose, Turntoo and Icova, are
where construction companies can exchange and working on their own resources banks.
trade waste materials of construction projects in
the United Kingdom. Such a system can also be
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO 2
REDUCTION
Visual representation of market place and commodity bank: Raw materials are traded between disassembly of old
used in Amsterdam. For new buildings in Park buildings and new construction by means of a physical repository and online marketplace. The effects of circular
strategies on the 30environment and the economy 25 for the construction 100
have been calculated of 70 thousand new
20|20, material passports are already being MILLION 400 x KTONS KTONS
homes in Amsterdam. It is expected to take five to seven years to achieve a marketplace and resource bank within
developed. These can also be applied for buildings the construction industry. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of
euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption
in the rest of the region. and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions.

MODULE B
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION

street furniture salvaged plastics


28 29
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
CREATION

1,7 8x
MILLION
SPATIAL VISION
The spatial vision map indicates how circular
strategies for the building chain in Amsterdam
can be applied and how they are interlinked in
a spatial context. The following strategies are
described: (1) smart design, (2) dismantling and
separation, (3) high-value reuse and (4) market Material market
Upcycling facility
place and commodity bank.

Material showroom
3D-printed street
furniture

Showcase
Resource bank

Multiple
functions

Dismantle

Material showroom
Sort waste streams

30 Reuse of material 31
streams
Bio-based materials
BARRIERS

St

Ba
ra

rr
te

ie
Description

gy

rs
Many of the ways to achieve a circular economy secondary resource flows. The lack of externality There are limited opportunities in making 3D-printed buildings or components comply with
may already be profitable but often barriers pricing, including that of CO2, can also have a current building regulations. The Building Act contains no guidelines enforcing cooperation
between developers and the city, its current residents and future residents in developing a flexible
present themselves when up-scaling a solution. significant effect on the market. The last barrier design plan (National Government, 2011).
Policy can play an important role in removing these that we want to mention in this category is the
Modular homes are, in most cases, only acceptable for social housing. These are difficult to finance
barriers. We distinguish four types of barriers: limited access to financing for circular initiatives. because the income of the tenant is modest compared to that of tenants of more expensive types
of housing (Tempohousing, 2015).
Laws and regulations Existing policy often Technology Technological development has Financing is difficult and it can be more expensive to implement new systems or sustainable
leads to unforeseen consequences of changing two important challenges: the up-scaling of materials. This approach requires a shift from cost-oriented thinking to a life-cycle approach
(Buildings, 2009)
market conditions. An example of this is the a small pilot to commercial scale, and the
Environmental Management Act (art. 1.1), which The speed with which technological innovation in the construction sector takes place - especially
interdependency and complexity of technologies the development and application of new materials - is high (Sinopoli, 2010). 3D printing is such a
describes what is classified by law as waste and that require simultaneous development. recent innovation: its use is still very limited in the construction sector. The challenge for upscaling
what is not (Government, 2015). is mainly to achieve economies of scale.

These barriers have important implications for Green building materials are currently seen as a niche product. This is because of a lack of
economies of scale: there is not yet enough demand for the technologies, which is necessary in
Culture The circular economy requires close the extent to which some of the strategies can order to be able to reduce the cost of production (Remodelling, 2008).
cooperation between sectors and chains. A lack of be implemented successfully, especially in the
The building/construction industry is a conservative sector that has not embraced new methods
inter-sector networks and a conservative culture short term. In some instances, governments can and smart design for buildings have not yet (Barkkume, 2008).
can be obstacles to quickly forming successful co- overcome these barriers or the market may break
operations. Vested interests in sectors can add to Costs for dismantling and collection can be 2.5 to 3 times higher than demolition costs. The costs
down barriers; but, in many cases, the solution
for dismantling and collection form a barrier when the added value of the recovered building
this barrier. requires cooperation, experimentation and materials is not yet fully understood (Chini, 2002).
iteration. Below, an impact assessment per barrier Fast and economical cost effective techniques are essential to accept dismantling and collection
Market The existence of split incentives is a is made for each of the four circular strategies. The as the default application (Big House, 2014).
barrier; the investments must be done by one assessment of the severity of the barrier comes
There is a lack of information, experience and resources to design for both decommissioning and
stakeholder in the chain while the income is from insights obtained from the interviews and is collection.
earned by another. Another market-related barrier further based on estimates of the research team.
is knowledge asymmetry, for example, knowledge For the top 3 proposed actions, the roadmap will Many buildings are designed for a lifespan of several decades. There is too little account of what
happens with the building after this time.
with regards to the availability and quality of address options to overcome these barriers.
High taxation on labour and low tax on resources discourages using recycled resources. Besides,
labour-intensive processing methods are relatively expensive (national Government, 2011).
LAWS &
STRATEGY TECHNOLOGY MARKET REGULATION CULTURE The Building Act contains no reuse and high-value recycling of building materials over downcycling
or burning (National Government, 2011).

Recovery of valuable materials from buildings is often not economically viable because conventional
SMART DESIGN building methods often mix materials making recovery difficult or impossible. (Buildings, 2009).

Building constructions often have unique dimensions and are build for specific purposes, making
DISMANTLING & it difficult to use them for other purposes (Phys, 2015).
SEPARATION

In some cases, reconstruction and reuse of a building is more expensive and the impact on nature
HIGH-VALUE REUSE is bigger than demolishing it and building anew (Tempohousing, 2015).

There is no transparency and alignment in the market on the supply and demand of (regained)
MARKETPLACE & building materials, resulting in high transaction costs. It is essential that all information in the field
RESOURCE BANK of building production and the assembly process remains available (National Government, 2011).

There is a lack of market for reclaimed building materials (Remodeling, 2008).


This table indicates how high the barrier to a circular economy is for SMALL MODERATE LARGE
each of the strategies. (Source: Insights from interviews, literature BARRIER BARRIER BARRIER
((Acceleratio, 2015; EMF, 2015) and assessment of the research team.) Overview of barriers in the construction sector, based on research, literature, interviews and insights from the research team.

32 33
ACTION POINTS
To create a circular construction chain, the lifespan of buildings, and make the end-of-life 3. Encourage local companies in the 4. Aim for high-value reuse in waste processing
following key interventions have been formulated value as large as possible through material and processing and the reverse logistics of waste contracts Waste disposal contracts can specify
for the municipality of Amsterdam. The actions component recovery. It should take into account The municipality can encourage local companies the method of processing in order to stimulate
stem from the vision and the underlying strategies the lowest impact on the environment in the long to be more self-steering with regards to waste high-value processing and to create market
and are linked to the previously described barriers. term. An example of a similar set of instruments collection so that retailers can take the initiative to demand.
is the CO2-performance ladder (SKAO, 2015). use their waste streams. A materials map where
SMART DESIGN The municipality can start with the circular local demand and supply for waste streams can MARKET PLACE AND RESOURCE BANK
1: Assigning pilot projects in new areas New procurement of new soils and road- and water be found could stimulate this further. This way, 1: Initiating a materials showroom for
districts are ideally suited for testing new concepts construction projects. the municipality is also partially relieved of its own construction waste A large proportion of
such as smart design. The new developments processing of waste. construction projects and initiatives for urban
in Centrumeiland in IJburg offer a chance to 4. Challenge startups to develop solutions for development are located near water, and the port
test alternative building codes. The municipality smart design The city of Amsterdam can build HIGH-VALUE RECYCLING AND REUSE of Amsterdam aims to become a hub for circularity.
has already prepared an exploratory document on the newly launched Startup in residence 1: Adjust zoning plans to allow for It is therefore conceivable that undeveloped areas
entitled Dromen over Centrumeiland (City of programme where startups and companies seek multifunctional buildings The municipality of the port can be used for (temporary) storage of
Amsterdam, 2014b). These include DIY plots solutions to local problems (SIR, 2015). Here, a could assign areas like the ArenaPoort and construction waste. The municipality could work
(where residents have more control over the possible solution could be to use local recycled or Oosterdokseiland in Amsterdam with multiple together with stakeholders to make temporary
construction of their house) for which the new written off materials in the city through the use of permissions. This provides flexibility for buildings storage of construction waste possible. The
building codes are tested. In allocating land, the smart design. Knowledge from AEB may be used to be given a new destination at the end of their municipality can also stimulate innovation in the
municipality may make requirements regarding in the waste processing and design implications. life cycle. logistics and marketing of secondary materials by
the degree of circularity of the new building. writing out innovation contests or projects such
A specific ceiling height could, for example, be DISMANTLING AND SEPARATION 2. Innovation projects offer renovation and as startup in residence.
recorded as a criterion, making repurposing 1: Establishing procurement criteria of possible redevelopment projects for existing
easier. separation at demolition projects from the buildings The municipality can ask market 2. Facilitate the exchange and use of high-
second half of 2015 to 2016, the Bijlmerbajes in participants to redesign existing buildings (in value building materials The municipality can
2. Land allocation can be scored to the degree Amsterdam has been tendered by the national creative ways) through innovation projects. This facilitate the exchange of building materials
of circularity High-value recycled products, parts government. The municipality can use this could start with empty school buildings or other between construction companies and waste
and materials hereby form an important selection demolition project as a pilot for the separate buildings that the city administers. To speed up companies by taking the initiative for setting up
criterion. Rebates on land prices can be given to collection, reuse and high-value recycling of this process, the municipality can create guidelines an online marketplace.
projects that have a maximum score on circularity. construction waste. Selection criteria can be that encourage companies to renovate or find a
This may include the use of bio-based insulation drawn up to encourage local use of construction new purpose for similar or new applications. For 3. Encourage companies to use a material
materials, 3D printers applied in construction, and demolition waste. This way, dismantling example, renovation is already being applied to passport The municipality can encourage
and modular and flexible design for foundations is stimulated and more value is created from convert buildings to energy neutral conditions construction companies in future construction
and construction elements. construction and demolition waste. (LALOG, 2014). and development projects to register and
report material volumes and types. This could
3. Tender criteria for smart design principles 2. Initiate dialogue for better dismantling 3. Establishing guidelines and goals for high- be incentivised by providing discounts on plots
in soil, road- and water construction Based on and waste separation in demolition projects value recycling of construction waste To once the stakeholder decides to adopt a material
the results of pilot projects with smart design, in The municipality can enter into dialogue with ensure that construction waste is being reused in passport. Then, at the end of the useful life of a
IJburg, for example, and based on feedback from stakeholders on future demolition projects to a high-value manner, the municipality can issue project, the information in the passport can be
local stakeholders, the municipality can define discuss, for example, the removal of buildings in guidelines and targets with respect to the amount made available before demolition. This provides
tender criteria, construction requirements and stages to maximise the recovery of materials and of recycled or reused building materials used in waste management companies with relevant
rules for future developments in Amsterdam. components. new construction projects. information regarding which materials will be
The goal here is to request the longest possible available.

34 35
ACTION POINTS TOP 3
Three action points, as shown in the table, have been selected from the interviews and discussions with locations for temporary storage of materials (action 1). The municipality can act as a launching customer
stakeholders. In selecting these three action points, four major effects have been taken into account: (1) via its purchasing policy, for example, when developing or renovating the municipal building portfolio
value creation, (2) CO2-reduction, (3) material savings and (4) job growth. The barriers that have been (action 2). Lastly, the municipality can contribute to the development of a building passport and apply it
identified for the construction chain and the role that the municipality can fulfil has also been taken into to its own portfolio (action point 3).
account. The municipality can play an important role in directing the land allocation and the definition of

FACILITATING RESOURCE STIMULATING HIGH-VALUE REUSE BY BEING A BOOSTING MATERIAL PASSPORTS

1 AND MATERIAL STORAGE


2 LAUNCHING CUSTOMER AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE
DEVELOPMENT OF PROCUREMENT GUIDELINES. 3 AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE
DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES.

Matching demand to the supply of building materials and resources requires In the early stages of development, high-value reuse of building materials A materials passport for buildings captures information on materials used,
temporary storage, especially since the availability of large volumes of can be encouraged by the government in two ways. The government can processes and possibilities for reuse. The Government can make sure a
materials often does not synchronise with demand. A possible role for the contribute to the development of procurement guidelines and building codes (minimal version of a) material passport is recommended or made mandatory
government could be twofold. On the one hand, there is a need for physical in which specific requirements have been formulated aimed at high-value for new construction projects. Also, the municipality could implement material
storage facilities, for which the municipality can play a role in allocating reuse. Also, the government can play a role as launching customer for the use passports for its own property portfolio. Besides this, the municipality can
locations. Given the expected volumes, locations near waterways are ideal of recycled materials. Every year, 1.5 billion is tendered by the municipality contribute to the development of guidelines for passports. An example of this
for replacing road transport with water transport. On the other hand, the for roads, waterways and construction. In addition to contributing to physical could be exploring how the use of passports can be made mandatory in real
government can play a facilitating role in drawing up conditions that materials locations for the storage of resources, an online platform for the trading of estate development and the issue of plots of land.
will need to meet in order to qualify for storage and reuse. building materials to match supply and demand is under development.

Initiatives to establish physical resources banks have sprouted up throughout The municipalitys material department plays an important role, and parties Some construction companies in The Netherlands are currently experimenting
the country. Individual companies are now starting to set up their own that innovate by reclaiming high-quality materials, such as Stonecycling, are with material passports. In the vicinity of Amsterdam, Park 20/20, realised by
resources banks in collaboration with up- and downstream companies. also key players. Struyk, for example, uses end-of-life concrete pavement. Delta Development, Reggeborgh and VolkerWessels, is a great example. In
FOR PROJECTS
CONNECTION

Amsterdam can facilitate innovation by creating a material repository that is The municipality can bring these like-minded parties together and encourage addition, these principles are most likely implemented in the Buiksloterham
backed by a wide range of stakeholders. This ambitions logistical challenges them to experiment in extending their technologies. Furthermore, this links area as well.
align with the initiative to the give the Westas an important logistical role in to CO Green in Slotervaart, an ongoing project where 95% of high-quality
the circular economy. (ALB, 2015) material is reused locally after demolition. In addition, it is connected to Cirkel
Stad Amsterdam where local projects in the field of circular construction,
renovation and demolition are realised and, where possible, additional jobs
are created (Cirkel Stad, 2015).

A follow-up analysis is needed to study changes in the construction material Developing criteria for building regulations and ensuring compliance calls Involvement from the municipality and city officials is required to determine
flows in the city, both for large demolition projects and new construction. for an increase in commitment. The municipality could possibly co-invest in how the materials passport for buildings can be embedded in policy. Services
INVESTMENTS
AND RESULTS

Complemented by city planning expertise, this analysis forms the input new processing technologies via the AKEF or a circular development fund. A like those offered by the Kadaster are needed in registering passports. The
required for assigning locations for the (temporary) storage of resources. possible condition for this contribution could be that the activities are based introduction of the passport also requires investment into the expansion of
The actual operation and organisation of these sites can be organised by in the city of Amsterdam so that any employment gains are realised in the registration systems.
both market participants and the municipality - or through public-private city.
partnerships. Depending on the direction taken, the precise role of the
municipality is to be determined.
HOLDERS

The municipality, the Port of Amsterdam, the Cirkel Stad collaborative Construction and waste companies like BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van Gansewinkel, Construction, waste and ICT companies like BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van
STAKE-

partnership, start-up in residence, Westas partners and AEB. Icova en Stonecycling, Cirkelstad and Dutch Green Building Councel. Gansewinkel, Icova en Stonecycling, IBM and Delta Development Group.

36 37
ROADMAP CONSTRUCTION
SHORT TERM (1YEAR) LONG TERM (20+YEARS)

1. FACILITATION RESOURCE AND MATERIALS STORAGE


TOP 3

2. STIMULATING HIGH-VALUE REUSE BY BEING A


LAUNCHING CUSTOMER

3. STIMULATING MATERIAL PASSPORTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCUREMENT GUIDELINES

ASSIGNING PILOT PROJECTS IN NEW AREAS

LAND ALLOCATION CAN BE SCORED TO THE DEGREE OF CIRCULARITY


DESIGN

TENDER CRITERIA FOR SMART DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN SOIL, ROAD- AND WATER CONSTRUCTION
SMART

CHALLENGE STARTUPS TO DEVELOP SOLUTIONS FOR


SMART DESIGN

ESTABLISHING PROCUREMENT CRITERIA OF SEPARATION AT DEMOLITION PROJECTS


DISMANT LING AND

INITIATE DIALOGUE FOR BETTER DISMANTLING AND


WASTE SEPARATION IN DEMOLITION PROJECTS
SEPARATION

ENCOURAGE LOCAL COMPANIES IN THE PROCESSING


AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE

ADJUST ZONING PLANS TO ALLOW MULTIFUNCTIONAL BUILDINGS


HIGH VALUE REUSE

INNOVATION PROJECTS OFFER RENOVATION AND POSSIBLE REDEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR


EXISTING BUILDINGS
ESTABLISHING GUIDELINES AND GOALS FOR HIGH-VALUE
RECYCLING OF CONSTRUCTION WASTE
AIM FOR HIGH-VALUE REUSE IN WASTE PROCESSING
CONTRACTS

INITIATING A MATERIALS SHOWROOM FOR CONSTRUCTION WASTE


MARKET PLACE AND
RESOURCE BANK

FACILITATE THE EXCHANGE AND THE USE OF HIGH-VALUE BUILDING MATERIALS

ENCOURAGE COMPANIES TO USE A MATERIAL PASSPORT

ARROWS BARRIERS
The arrows indicate when a certain action can be applied and when impact is expected. This Technology Market Regulations Culture
is dependent on many aspects such as speed of market implementation and market scalability.

38 39
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION

23 500 75
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS 30 75 300
MILLION 450 x KTONS KTONS

ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A


CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION CHAIN COMPARED
TO A LINEAR SCENARIO IN AMSTERDAM
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
COThe
REDUCTION
The total economic activity of the Amsterdam in productivity growth, representing a value of 85 the reuse of materials JOB
Improving VALUE leads to a MATERIAL
can be characterised as significant. 2 expected
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION

metropolitan region amounts


25 to 106 billion euro million euro per year
0 for the city of Amsterdam.
25 saving of 500 thousand tonnes of materials reduction in greenhouse gas emissions rounds
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
annually, of which 47 billion is accounted for by Compared to the 2.8% decline over 2005-2012, this required for
150the 70 thousand new houses to 900a million tonnes of CO
off to half 600, equivalent to
MILLION 1200 x KTONS 2
KTONS
the city of Amsterdam (2013) (CBS, 2015)* and 1.7 is highly significant. This added value, however, be built in Amsterdam alone. Set against the 2,5% of the annual CO2-emissions of the city of
billion euro by the construction industry per year. cannot be realised overnight. Depending on the current annual import of 1.5 million tonnes of Amsterdam.
Amsterdam has plans to realise 70 thousand diligence with which companies adopt circular biomass for the entire metropolitan region, this
new homes by 2040 (Amsterdam, 2011). Part methods and depending on the speed with which
of this new construction
VALUE is replacing existing
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
stimulating policy
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO
is implemented, the economic 2
REDUCTION

homes that have been demolished and another decline could be redirected to a 3% growth per
part is accommodating
30the growth of the city. A
MILLION 400 x
year over a period25of five to seven years.
KTONS
This
100
KTONS
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

macro-economic analysis has been carried out economic growth is realised for the most part by
based on the circular strategies that can reshape greater value retention due to material reuse and 85 500 500
MILLION 700 x KTONS KTONS
Amsterdams construction activities. The results efficiency gains.
provide insight into the effects of implementing
these strategies on economic growth, Productivity growth means increased employment
MODULE B
employment, material savings and reduction in opportunities; for example, increased
SEPARATIONdemand
AND COLLECTION

greenhouse gas emissions. for targeted demolition activities requires more


STRATEGY VALUE
manpower. On top of this,
VALUEreturn logistics
CREATION
JOB
CREATION
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION
This circular scenario can be compared to will become more complex. From a logistical
SMART 15%
linear growth paths in Amsterdam and takes standpoint, it is not the disposal
1,7of just a container 85 499 492
MILLION 8x DESIGN
MILLION 714 x KTONS KTONS
both the direct and indirect effects of circular of demolition waste but the transport of different
2418
strategies into account. Efficiency gains from waste fractions to various processing locations and
DISMANTLING 29%
high-value reuse in cement production could, then back to new construction after processing. A AND SEPARATION
for example, lead to cost savings that, in turn, total of about 700 additional jobs can be realised
lead to an increase in spending on machines for in the city - a structural expansion
MATERIAL of the number HIGH-VALUE
REDUCTION
CO2 27%
REUSE
REDUCTION
which cement is an input. The net effect of the of jobs. For the most part, these are jobs for
efficiency improvement can, therefore, be lower low- to medium skilled personnel. Set against
than the direct effect. In contrast to other sectors, the current 75 thousand jobs in the Amsterdam MARKETPLACE AND 29%
productivity in Amsterdams construction industry building sector, the approximately 1% gain would RESOURCE BANK
declined 2.8% over the 2005 to 2012 period. be a significant contribution, resulting in a 10%
drop in unemployment in the construction sector
TOTAL VALUE 100% = 85 million
A circular building chain can lead to a 3% increase (averaging 8.1% in Amsterdam).

In this study, the value creation of circular initiatives is compared to the total added value at basic prices, NOT The potential economic and environmental impact of a circular construction chain compared to a linear scenario is
to the Gross Regional Product. In this chapter, a TNO-analysis is applied, and the assumptions used stem from calculated for Amsterdam. The impact will be realised over a period of five to seven years. Four indicators have been
the following sources: (2014) Macro-level indicators to monitor the environmental impact of innovation. EMInInn used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings
(Environmental Macro-indicators of Innovation) THEME [ENV. 2011.3.1.9-3], FP7 project for the EU; O. Ivanova, M. calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions. The values for
Chahim. (2015) CBS. the four indicators are shown in the four circles. The bar chart shows the distribution of added value.

40 41
SCALABILITY MAP
The scalability map shows locations where opportunities exist to apply the four circular
construction strategies for the construction chain. The strategies are dismantling and
separation, high-value reuse, smart design, and the creation of a marketplace and
resource depots. The red areas indicate future real estate projects. Blue represents
areas where circular strategies on existing buildings can be applied. The white circles
represent locations currently not in use, which can be considered as possible locations
for the storage of materials or for developing new circular building projects.
3. VISION OF HIGH-VALUE
RECYCLING OF ORGANIC
RESIDUAL STREAMS IN
AMSTERDAM
In order to achieve high-value recycling of organic residual streams in
Amsterdam, we established a circular vision. The vision and roadmap
were supplemented and refined based on conversations with
experts and stakeholders. The starting point for the analysis was the
realisation that there are many initiatives in the city and in the region
that are focused on higher value processing of organic streams. At the
same time, there is an opportunity to develop a strong cluster that
focuses on further value retention and optimised cascading of organic
residual streams in Amsterdam and the surrounding region. This
chapter describes four strategies that are tailored to the region and
link with local initiatives and innovative market parties. Furthermore,
the chapter considers trading opportunities for the municipality,
areas where the market is active and the role of the government is
that of a facilitator. The roadmap describes concrete action points for
the municipality to link to time lines, and highlights which parties can
play a role in the implementation. The impacts of implementing the
strategies are calculated for (1) value creation, (2) CO2-reduction, (3)
material savings and (4) job growth.

45
TITLE
VISION OF ORGANIC
RESIDUAL STREAMS
In the ideal circular future of organic residual
streams in Amsterdam, organic flows such
as food and water of the highest quality are
smarter systems that provide information about
the quality and shelf-life trajectories of their food
supply, allowing them to optimise their sales
delivered to consumers. Organic residues are before the expiry date of their food and before it
recovered in a high-value manner and reused in needs to be discarded.
innovative applications. Core to this circular vision
is integrated food production, food processing Food that can still be used but needs to be
and biological processes, where nutrients and discarded due to its shape for marketing or other
water flows are efficiently directed and residual reasons can be offered on a virtual marketplace
flows are valorised. This leads to a more varied where food producers, retailers and restaurants
chain for organic residual streams that requires can buy and sell food waste. This enables a
less energy, nutrients, water and resources and growth of innovative companies that can take
achieves significant economic, environmental and advantage of this food waste stream.
social benefits.
In a circular future, Amsterdam becomes a bio-
In a circular future, consumers have easy access refinery hub, processing organic residual streams
to local food sources. Local, cooperative farms that can no longer be reused in a high-value
and breeders in the vicinity of cities will ensure manner. Separation and processing of mixed
the direct supply of fresh seasonal produce to and homogeneous waste streams by producers,
consumers. The food chain will, therefore, be consumers and retailers offers opportunities to
shorter, with more interaction between local recover important nutrients that can be used in
growers and citizens resulting in a greater sense the agricultural sector. Processing these streams
of community. By using underutilised city, roof also provides opportunities for new packaging
and community spaces in a smart way for urban solutions, biochemicals, biofuels and biogas
agriculture and city gardens, consumers get much products, which can either be exported or used
easier and closer access to fresh food. in Amsterdam.

Innovative technologies for the distribution and The described vision is illustrated in a visual
storage of food also offer better opportunities representation (see opposite and enlarged
for documentation and management of food on the next page) that depicts the chain and
products. Smart logistic solutions will continuously stakeholders in the city. In the next section, the
monitor food quality and ensure that food vision is translated into strategies and action
is transported within the correct time frame items that use market, technical, technological
from producers to retailers and restaurants. At and administrative instruments to realise circular
the same time, retailers and restaurants have opportunities in the chain.

46 47
VISION OF ORGANIC
RESIDUAL STREAMS
12 100 x
MILLION KTONS

CONSTRUCTION
STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIC MODULE A
SMART DESIGN

Explanation of the indicators The effects of circular


VALUEstrategies on the environment
CREATION
JOB
VALUE
and the GROWTH
MATERIAL
JOB

RESIDUAL STREAMS VALUE


CREATION
CREATION

GROWTH
GROWTH
economy are calculated for the organic residual flow chain in Amsterdam. Here, the impact will
JOB MATERIAL
23
SAVINGS
SAVINGS
COx 2
200
be realised over a period of five to seven years. Four
25indicators have been used in determining REDUCTION
MILLION
200 x
0
MILLION KTONS
impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, 0(3) material savings
12 100 x 300
MILLION KTONS
calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2- KTONS

CONSTRUCTION
From the described vision for high-value recycling
1 emissions.
of organic residual streams, we developed
strategies and action items, such as land allocation
Net added
MODULE A
value in euro The circular strategies
and purchasing, to close material cycles in the Biohub
SMART DESIGN
refinery
Pharma directly enable a number of sectors in Amsterdam
VALUE JOB MATERIAL
organic residual streams chain. The strategies industry Food
industry
Fodder
industry Biofuel
to realise added value
VALUE
through more sales and
CREATION
JOB
CREATION
more
GROWTH
VALUE
MATERIAL
GROWTH
CREATION
SAVINGS CO
JOB
SAVINGS
GROWTH 2
REDUCTION
production
are:
profit. Net means JOB
VALUE
CREATION
that any decrease in
GROWTH
25
added
MATERIAL
23
SAVINGS
MILLION
CO
200
25
..
0x
2
100
500
KTONS
200
REDUCTION
200 x
medicines
food value is calculated and that the indirect effects of
MILLION x all MILLION
KTONS KTONS

(1) Central bio-refinery hub


products
Retail animal feed biofuels
other sectors are taken xinto account.
12 0 300
Retail
MILLION 100 KTONS KTONS
(2) Waste separation and return logistics
Agro gas stations

CONSTRUCTION
(3) Cascading of organic flows Net jobs growth in FTE One of the social aspects
Coded bags

(4) Recovering nutrients 2 of an increase in circularity is represented, among


other things, by the realisation of jobs (FTE, Full Time JOB
VALUE
CO
Households
VALUE
Equivalent). Job growth JOB of
is estimated on theGROWTH
basis MATERIAL
CREATION GROWTH
These circular strategies are explained on the 2
VALUE
CREATION
the sectoral increase
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
VALUE
MATERIAL
CREATION
SAVINGS
of added value, salaries and
CO
SAVINGS
JOB2
GROWTH
MATERIAL
REDUCTION

SAVINGS
basis of relevant existing activities that currently
REDUCTION

collection system 30 400


the demand for low, 23medium and highly200 skilled 500
MILLION 75x
take place in the city and region. In addition, the sewage
25 MILLION
0x
25 KTONS
100 0
KTONS
200 x 200 .. x
four strategies are displayed in a spatial view, workforces. Net jobs growth refers to job growth
MILLION MILLION
KTONS KTONS KTONS

groceries that results in a direct reduction of unemployment.


similar to the spatial vision map. Even though the
GFT

strategies are described separately in order to


Material savings Use of materials is expressed in
distinguish action points that can accelerate the Smart street containers Pick-up and delivery service
Domestic Material Consumption (DMC)*, which,
circular economy, they are partly intertwined with
3 Household in addition to the use of materials in an area,VALUE
also JOB MATERIAL
each other and should, therefore, be considered VALUE looks at materials that
CREATION
JOB MATERIAL
CREATION
are imported and exported.
VALUE
GROWTH JOB
SAVINGS CO
GROWTH
MATERIAL 2
REDUCTION
SAVINGS
CO2
as a total package. CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION
Urban food
Apart from CO2-emissions (which is already explicitly 25
composting production
30 400
23 included), DMC makes 500 75x KTONS
x all environmental impact
MILLION
Supermarket
MILLION 200
25 KTONS 0
..
KTONS 25
MILLION 200 x KTONS
The following section lists the four strategies near-due-date food factors related to the circular projects quantifiable.
KTONS
ugly vegetables

translated into a concrete roadmap and action Oyster mushroom farming


Restaurant
agenda. The action agenda further explains CO2-reduction The most well-known impact of
coffee residu
where the municipality of Amsterdam can be of separate sales
reduced prices
economic activities is CO2-emissions. The impact of
influence, what other market parties can become the strategies on emissions is expressed in Global
involved and in what timeframe the transitions Household
Warming Potential VALUE(GWP), a globally adopted
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
CO2
REDUCTION

can take place. The roadmap and action agenda 4 VALUE measure that expressesJOBthe avoided CO2-emissions
MATERIAL
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION V
are formulated on the basis of the previously
GFT in the coming years, 30
by an increase of circularity, 25 100 C
MILLION 400 x KTONS KTONS
Decentral
25 over a period of 100 years. To make the impact
0 25
..
described research and analysis, as well as Nutrient hub
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
comparable with the annual emissions in the region,
interviews with stakeholders and experts. Public urinal
or event sanitary
urine the choice was made to convert the indicators to
Agriculture

compost
annual CO2-emissions.
Household Cattle farming
proteins MODULE B
algae SEPARATION AND COLLECTION
waste water WKK
M
biogas VALUE
Domestic Material Consumption,
CREATION
JOB MATERIAL
abbreviated as DMC, is a commonly
GROWTH CO
SAVINGS used statistic that measures 2
REDUCTION the total amount of
RE

materials that are used directly by an economy. It measures the annual amount of materials that are extracted in the
geographical area, including all physical import and minus the physical export. VALUE
CREATION
30 25 100
MILLION 400 x KTONS KTONS

1,7
MILLION
50
51

MODULE B
MODULE A
SMART DESIGN

CENTRAL BIO-REFINERY HUB VALUE


CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

12 0 300
MILLION 100 x KTONS KTONS
Through cascading, the highest possible value and 5000 tonnes of fertiliser. Chaincraft develops Bio-based materials The use of bio-based building using conversion technologies for the production

CONSTRUCTION
can be extracted from organic residual streams a technology on-site to distil components for the materials is an important opportunity to reduce of renewable fuels and bio-based plastics (PEF)
(Bio-based Economy, 2015). These activities food and chemical industry from organic residual the impact of scarce building materials (Ecorys, that can serve as an alternative to PET. At this
will be bundled into a central bio-refinery hub streams (Port of Amsterdam, 2014). 2014; EMF, 2015). Locally sourced biomass can time, Port of Amsterdam, Orgaworld and AEB
and a logistics hub where bulk products can be (partly) be used for the production ofJOB
VALUE
CREATION
bio-based
GROWTH
are working CO2Attero and the
MATERIALtogether with TNO,
SAVINGS REDUCTION

transported on a large scale, and where local small Close cooperation between AEB Amsterdam and materials, reducing the impact of transport. Association of Waste Companies on a project to
flows can come together. The port is an important Waternet has resulted in a joint industrial cluster 25 200 x replace KTONS
0petrochemical polymers
100 and coatings
MILLION KTONS
node in the global trade of agricultural and in which AEB is burning 80 thousand tonnes of dry In Amsterdam, there are several companies active with bio-chemical components (for example, bio-
energy products because of its strategic location sewage sludge per year. The 11 million cubic metres in this area. For example, Avantium is a pioneer in aromatics).
and logistic connections. Processed materials of biogas that is produced from the fermentation
from all over the world are traded here, and a of sewage sludge is burned in the CHP (combined
processing cluster will enable the local marketing heat and power) plants of AEB. Some of the energy
of organic residual streams. To realise a hub for and heat is delivered back to Waternet to use for VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

the processing of organic waste and the optimal their own processes and 10% is used by OrangeGas Biohub
reuse of organic residual streams, a certain scale to produce green biogas (City of Amsterdam, 23 500 75
refinery
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS

is required, which is possible for Amsterdam to 2015b). Plans are in place to increase production to Pharma
industry Food
achieve (Green Raw Materials, 2014). Such a hub around 22 million cubic metres. AEB has plans to Fodder
industry Biofuel
will be able to produce a variety of bio-products, extract fruit and vegetable fractions from waste - a industry
production
such as biomaterials, building blocks for the first step towards further processing these waste
chemical industry, food, feed, biodiesel, biogas, streams to make products such as proteins, bio-
lubricants, bio-based paint and oil, fertilisers, algae oil and hydrogen. The production of sustainable
and bio-aromas. steams and CO2 by AEB will further improve the
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

medicines
circularity. food
25 0 25
Optimised cascading of organic residual MILLION 200 x products KTONS KTONS

Retail animal feed biofuels


streams To enable optimised cascading of organic Similar activities are planned for Schiphol Airport,
Retail
residual streams, it is necessary to link and upscale such as an anaerobic digester plant. This facility,
Agro gas stations
existing initiatives so that the resulting volume which, in the future, will be responsible for 6% of
is greater. Existing pioneering activities in the the energy supply of Schiphol (Croes, 2015), will
region include the Greenmills-cluster, an alliance make use of grass clippings from surrounding VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

between six companies (Noba Vetveredeling BV, areas and from organic residues from the region,
Rotie BV, Biodiesel Amsterdam, Tank Storage such as the nearby flower auction and Greenport 30 400 x
25
KTONS
100
MILLION KTONS
Amsterdam BV, Chaincraft BV and Orgaworld Aalsmeer. Another project is Bioport Holland,
BV) that is active in the further development of a consortium between SkyNRG, the Dutch
bio-refinery concepts and the optimal reuse of Government, KLM, Neste Oil, Schiphol Airport
organic residual streams. On-site organic residual and the Port of Rotterdam that produces jet bio-
streams (including finished edible fat, animal fats fuels. With its direct airplane fuel pipeline (60% of Visual display of bio-refinery: Organic residual streams are processed and used as raw MODULE material Bin, for instance,
medication, food producers, feed and biofuel. The effects of circular strategies on the environment
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION and the
and supermarket waste) are processed for the the jet fuel consumption of Schiphol stems from economy are calculated for the organic residual streams in Amsterdam. It is assumed that it will take five to seven
years to achieve a circular arrangement of the processing of organic residual streams coming from all 430,000
production of almost 300 million litres of biodiesel, the port of Amsterdam), the port area has the Amsterdam households in the long term. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added
25 million cubic metres of biogas through infrastructure, utilities and resources to produce
VALUEby value retention in domestic
value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated
CREATION
JOB
material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions.
CREATION

anaerobic digestion (City of Amsterdam, 2015b) jet bio-fuel.


1,7 8x
MILLION

52 53

MATERIAL
REDUCTION
CO2
REDUCTION
WASTE SEPARATION AND
RETURN LOGISTICS
Good waste separation and smart reverse The underground containers can be equipped Coded bags
logistics are important in the optimal valorisation with smart sensors for the measurement of
of organic residual streams (Consonni, 2015). At waste streams. This enables superior processing
this time, the waste separation rate in Amsterdam of waste streams, increased information on
is far below the Dutch average (CBS, 2015c) and the composition of the waste and improved
organic waste in particular is rarely separated logistics to match supply and demand. Where Households
at the source. Finding solutions for the effective no underground waste containers are available,
separation of domestic waste at the source separate collection can be realised via alternate
in densely populated urban areas requires a systems, such as the use of specific bags for
complex technological approach, particularly for the separation of different waste materials. A
existing homes. pilot for this is taking place in Reigersbos, where collection system
inhabitants receive coloured bags to separate
AEB is considering building a waste separation and dispose of wastes in special containers (City sewage
installation that can extract plastics, fruit and of Amsterdam, 2015c).
vegetable waste (organic waste) from the
collected residual waste. The fruit and vegetable Smart reverse logistics The market for meal
waste will initially be used for the production of boxes such as the BeeBox is growing fast, and
groceries
green gas as a transportation fuel. At a later stage, other large retailers like Albert Heijn have recently
this can serve as raw material for the production entered this market. It is expected that the market
GFT
of biochemicals such as bio-aromas. It is expected for meal boxes will grow significantly over the next
that this technology will mature in about five to few years (Keuning, 2015). The meal box trend, in
ten years (AEB, 2015). The separation installation combination with the growing interest in reverse
will serve as an interim solution until source logistics among logistics service providers such as
separation by means of collection systems is PostNL, offers opportunities for the development Smart street containers Pick-up and delivery service
MODULE A
SMART DESIGN
introduced and widely adopted. of solutions for the reverse logistics of organic
waste. Once food boxes are delivered, the same
VALUE solution for
Street smart containers A possible
CREATION
JOB
carriers
GROWTH
MATERIAL
can be used to CO
collect organic waste, and
SAVINGS 2
REDUCTION
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

existing buildings is to place waste separators in organic residual streams can then be transported
12 0 300 50 300 100
existing underground waste collection
MILLION systems to to the
100 x bio-refinery hub for high-value processing.
KTONS KTONS MILLION 200x KTONS KTONS
CONSTRUCTION

enable separation of organic and mixed waste. 774 891

VUILNIS AUTOs
WAGENS

FOOD
VALUE JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2 Visual display of waste separation and return logistics: Organic residual streams are processed and used as raw
material in, forVALUE
instance, medication, foodJOB producers, feed and MATERIAL
biofuel. The effects of circular strategies on the
streams in Amsterdam.CO
CREATION REDUCTION

environment CREATION
and the economy are calculated
GROWTH for the organic residual
SAVINGS It is2assumed that it
REDUCTION

will take five to seven years to achieve a circular arrangement of the processing of organic residual streams coming
25 0 100 from all 430,000 Amsterdam households in the long term. Four indicators have been used in determining impact:
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
(1) net added value30in millions of euro, (2)150 500
netxjob growth in FTE, (3) material 100value retention in
savings calculated KTONS
by
MILLION KTONS
domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions.

54
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION VALUE JOB MATERIAL CO2 55
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION

23 500 75
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS 30 75 300
MILLION 450 x KTONS KTONS
CASCADING OF ORGANIC FLOWS
Although there are a variety of options for the algae growth projects (Loftus, 2013). GRO Holland
recovery and reuse of organic waste for other uses discarded coffee grounds from cafes and
purposes, 97% of the household organic waste restaurants in which to grow oyster mushrooms,
in Amsterdam is burned for energy recovery and which are then immediately sold or used as
Household
only 3% is reused or recycled for other purposes ingredients for food.
(Circle Economy, 2014). Incineration currently
provides valuable energy and heat, but several Production of high-quality protein The
new technologies and business models can now emergence of insects as a source for both animal Urban food
be applied to these waste streams to create more feed and human consumption has led to the composting production
value (Bio-based Economy, 2015). growth of insect farming using organic residues,
Supermarket
as seen in companies like Amsterdam-based
The recovery of foods In the Amsterdam Protix Biosystems, which uses food waste to grow
metropolitan area, new restaurant and catering insects. In addition, algae grown from organic near-due-date food
concepts aim to preserve edible food scraps from wastes are rich in high-quality protein and can ugly vegetables
warehouses and shops. Many of these companies, be processed into a wide range of products such
such as InStock, are well set up with permanent as animal feed, fertilisers, fuels, chemicals and Oyster mushroom farming
shops and a neat shop front. There are also pharmaceuticals. Algae can be used to improve Restaurant
MODULE
bottom-up community initiatives, such as Guerilla A plant production, reduce sensitivity to diseases
SMART DESIGN

Kitchen, and companies like Kromkommer and act as a natural pesticide.


coffee residu
process edible but deformed VALUE
or damaged foods, separateVALUE
sales
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2 CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
which are not suitable for retail, to make soups Biomass in public spaces Public areas and
REDUCTION
reduced prices REDUCTION

and other food products, giving


12them a second unused spaces, such as port
0 areas or the berms
300 50 300 100
MILLION 100 x KTONS KTONS MILLION 200x KTONS KTONS
life that is in line with their original purpose. of highways, can be used in a smart way for the
CONSTRUCTION

774 891
production of biomass. Different grass types are
VUILNIS AUTOs

Cascading of organic residual streams Organic suitable for the production of fibre and protein
WAGENS

residual streams that cannot be directly reused can and can be used locally as raw material for the

FOOD
be cascaded to high-value applications (Wahab, production of cardboard or as an alternative to
VALUE JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO 2
CREATION
2015). Companies like Exter can extract additives soy. Organisations such as Meerlanden have
REDUCTION
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

for the food processing industry;


25 an example of experimented with alternative
0 uses of public
100
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
30 500 100
this is the extraction of bio-aromatics and reactive green areas. Initiatives such as Fruityourworld MILLION 150x KTONS KTONS

flavours from vegetable proteins as a replacement show that it is possible to share public spaces with
for chemical flavourings. Waste water and organic others and to grow fruit there for and by local
waste from a variety of municipal, industrial and residents.
agricultural sources can be treated in large-scale
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2 Visual display of cascading: Organic residual streams that cannot be directly reused can be cascaded to high-value
VALUE JOB on the environment MATERIAL CO
REDUCTION
applications.CREATION
The effects of circular strategies
GROWTH and the economy are calculated
SAVINGS 2 for the organic
REDUCTION
residual streams in Amsterdam. It is assumed that it will take five to seven years to achieve a circular arrangement of
23 500 75 the processing of organic residual streams coming from all 430,000 Amsterdam households in the long term. Four
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS indicators have 30
been used in determining450 impact: (1) net added value75
in millions of euro, (2) net300
job growth in FTE, (3)
material savings calculated by value retentionx in domestic material consumption
MILLION KTONS
and (4) reduction
KTONSin CO -emissions.
2

56 VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2 57

CO2
REDUCTION
VALUE JOB MATERIAL
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION

25 0 25
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
150 900 600
RECOVERING NUTRIENTS
Across the whole food chain from field to fork are being processed. Residues from these
only 5% of the nutrients placed in the soil are companies can be used in the production of Household
actually used to provide us with nutritional value fertilisers through a process in which phosphates
(Circle Economy, 2014a). The remaining 95% of can be recycled. An example of a company in the
the nutrients are lost somewhere in the cycle. Amsterdam port area that recycles nutrients from
For example: crops absorb only 30 to 50% of the waste streams of Cargill is ICL Fertilizers Europe, GFT
applied fertiliser and use almost 25% of that for the which uses residual flows with a high phosphate
growth of non-edible parts, which, in the current content. ICL Fertilizers strives to replace 15% of Decentral
model, are disposed of as waste; in Amsterdam, the phosphate ore in 2015 and 100% in 2025 Nutrient hub
large quantities of nutrients, such as minerals,
MODULE A (Langefeld, 2015). The first tests show promising
SMART DESIGN

fertilisers, foodstuffs or animal food that, at some results for the use of secondary phosphates, but Public urinal
point, end up in the environment, are imported; additional research is needed to further extend or event sanitary
and the sewer drainage system
VALUE
is a valuable
CREATION
JOB
this approach.
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2 VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION
urine REDUCTION

resource for nutrient retrieval. Mankind produces,


12 100 x
0 300 50 200x
300 100 Agriculture
on average, 500 litres of urine and faeces in a year.
MILLION
Decentralised processing The municipality could
KTONS KTONS MILLION KTONS KTONS
CONSTRUCTION

Because the human body does not absorb all the develop local pilots in order to recover nutrients 774 891
compost
nutrients from the food we consume, this waste from the food system through anaerobic digestion VUILNIS
WAGENS
AUTOs

is full of nutrients. An important opportunity to plants and develop techniques to convert urine
Household Cattle farming

FOOD
improve the nutrient cycle in Amsterdam is in the into valuable nutrients such as nitrogen and
VALUE JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO 2 proteins
application of decentralised,CREATION
local processes to phosphate. A disadvantage of these techniquesREDUCTION
is VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
algae
REDUCTION

recover these nutrients. that they are often not financially profitable (AEB,
25 0 100 waste water
MILLION 200 x KTONS
2015). Decentralised management of waste water
KTONS
30 500 100
WKK
MILLION 150x KTONS KTONS
Fertiliser manufacturing Globalisation can be beneficial in areas linked to excessive
biogas
of the food production system has led to water through-flow, such as densely populated
the concentration of many large-scale food urban areas. Further investment in the cascading
processors in the Amsterdam port area, such as of waste water and process technologies could
soy processing companies likeVALUE
Cargill, and Ahold, lead
JOB to improvementsMATERIAL
in the recovery of energy,
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS CO 2
VALUE JOB MATERIAL CO2
Coffee Company, Starbucks, Olam International heat and nutrients.
REDUCTION
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION

and ADM Netherlands, where 23


coffee and cocoa 500 75
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS 30 75 300
MILLION 450 x KTONS KTONS

Visual display of recovery of nutrients: Organic residual streams are processed through decentralised, local
processes to recover nutrients. The effects of circular strategies on the environment and the economy are calculated
for the organic residual streams in Amsterdam. It is assumed that it will take five to seven years to achieve a circular
arrangement of the processing of organic residual streams coming from all 430,000 Amsterdam households in the
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2 long term. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job
growth in VALUE
FTE, (3) material savings calculated
JOBby value retention in domestic CO
material consumption and (4) reduction
REDUCTION
MATERIAL 2
in CO2-emissions.
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION

25 0 25
MILLION 200 x KTONS KTONS
150 900 600
MILLION 1200 x KTONS KTONS

58 VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION
59

30
MILLION 400 x
25
KTONS
100
KTONS
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION
Smart street containers

Supply and delivery


Coded bags service

Algae facade Out-of-date


products

Waste reuse
Protein hub

Insect farming
Circular restaurant

Logistics hub Festival testing


ground

SPATIAL VISION
The spatial vision map indicates how circular
strategies for the organic residual streams in
Amsterdam can be applied and how they are
interwoven in a spatial context. The following
strategies are described: (1) central bio-
refinery hub, (2) waste separation and return
logistics, (3) cascading of organic flows and (4)

Bio-refinery recovering nutrients.


hub

61
BARRIERS

St

Ba
ra

rr
te
Description

ie
gy

r
Many of the ways to achieve a circular economy pricing, including that of CO2, can also impact the The flow of organic residual streams is highly varied, both geographically and across time (impacted,
may already be profitable but, when up-scaling market. The last barrier that we want to mention among other things, by seasonal variations in green waste such as roadside grass), which forms an
obstacle when trying to complete the business case.
a solution, barriers often emerge. Policy can play in this category is the limited access to financing
an important role in removing these barriers. We for circular initiatives. High-value bio-refinery technologies are in the early stages of development. For up-scaling and
commercial viability, significant investment into additional research and development (R&D)
distinguish four types of barriers: is required. A lack of funding for this can make both the speed of and the chances for success
Technology Technological development has two uncertain.
Laws and regulations Existing policy often leads important challenges. Up-scaling a small pilot to Market demand for end products of bio-refining is currently low due to factors such as ignorance
to unforeseen consequences in changing market a commercial scale is often challenging, and the of market players, a limited ability to realise significant supply and a lack of clear quality criteria.
conditions. An example is the Environmental interdependency and complexity of technologies
The production of high-quality protein by growing insects (larvae) on organic residual streams
Management Act (art. 1.1), which describes what that must be developed together can also be a must comply with the current laws and regulations regarding slaughter of live animals, which
is legally classified as waste and what is not barrier. raises practical and, thus, financial barriers.

(Government, 2015). Policies that aim to increase the share of green gas into the natural gas network give too little
consideration to the interests of importers and more to the interests of (traditional) network
These barriers have important implications for operators.
Culture The circular economy requires close the extent to which some of the strategies can be
Recovered nutrients, such as phosphates (by processing of struvite, for example) from waste
cooperation between sectors and chains. A lack of implemented successfully - especially in the short water may, under current laws and regulations, not be applied as fertiliser on agricultural land
inter-sector networks, a conservative culture and term. In some cases, governments can overcome and can, therefore, not be capitalised on, which makes the business case more difficult. A recently
signed green deal provides an adjustment in the classification of waste under VANG and REACH
vested interests in sectors can be obstacles to the these barriers, and the market may break down (Sloover, 2014).
efficient formation of successful cooperation. barriers in others, but, in many cases, the solution
According to current legislation, digestate from anaerobic digestion cannot be used as fertiliser
requires cooperation, experimentation and on agricultural land (to replace artificial fertilisers), which complicates the profitability of digester
Market The existence of split incentives is a iteration. For each of the four circular strategies, plants.

barrier; the investments must be done by one an impact assessment per barrier is made below. For waste substances, a waiver on the legislation is required per waste substance and per
installation. This is an intensive and lengthy process that has been undertaken for struvite in
stakeholder in the chain while the income is earned The assessment of the severity of the barrier Amsterdam.
by another. Another market-related barrier is comes from insights obtained from the interviews
European regulations concerning the 'expiry date' and food hygiene create uncertainty for the
knowledge asymmetry, such as knowledge with and is further based on estimates of the research high-value reuse of food.
regard to the availability of secondary resource team. For the top three actions, the roadmap will
flows and its quality. The lack of externality address options to overcome these barriers. Various technological possibilities to enable greater source separation rates of organic residual
streams are being examined. The technological complexity of these solutions (such as the link between
technological installations in households and the necessary infrastructure) raises challenges that
require both further technological development and the planning of underground installations and
infrastructures.
LAWS &
STRATEGY TECHNOLOGY MARKET REGULATIONS CULTURE
The above table is a summary of the most relevant and significant barriers that apply to this chain in achieving a transition towards
a circular economy. This is based on research, literature, interviews and insights from the research team.)

CENTRAL BIO-REFINERY
HUB

WASTE SEPARATION AND


RETURN LOGISTICS

CASCADING ORGANIC
FLOWS

RECOVERING
NUTRIENTS

This table indicates how high the barrier to a circular economy is for SMALL MODERATE LARGE
each of the strategies. (Source: Insights from interviews, literature and BARRIER BARRIER BARRIER
assessment of the research team.)

62 63
ACTION POINTS
CENTRAL BIO-REFINERY HUB by uncertainty around quality specifications for 2. Rebuilding waste hubs into centres for the area in which agriculture is fully integrated
1. Expanding and designating new free zones bio-based products. The lack of clear criteria is circular economy Current waste hubs can be (Jansma, 2015).
and circular field labs In a number of industrial currently a problem for two projects involving transformed into recycling activity hives similar
clusters, such as the harbour area, policies can be the breeding of insects using organic waste with to the municipal recycling platforms in Almere, 2. Stimulating locally produced products,
temporarily eased to support the development of the aim to produce proteins that can be used where high-value recycling is applied locally biomass and nutrition through purchasing
bio-refining activities. Legislation that currently as fodder in, for example, aquaculture. Growing (Municipality of Almere, 2015). This would increase policy Local production of biomass and food
stands in the way of the development of bio- insects now falls under the complex regulations the local level of circular activities. In addition, it reduces the need for transport, benefitting the
refinery concepts includes the ban on the use of the Slaughter Act. The establishment of clear would increase the knowledge of local residents environment (PBL, 2014). One of the sources for
of digestate, which is rich in nutrients (especially criteria can give clarity to this underdeveloped by involving them in recycling and other circular wood is green areas of the city (City of Amsterdam,
phosphate), on agricultural land. This is currently market. activities. 2014a). To increase the production of biomass
blocking an important and essential part of the at the municipal green facilities, a more holistic
business case for anaerobic digester plants 4. Differentiating Amsterdam as an 3. Equipping street containers and waste approach to the management of municipal green
because the current market value of digestate (innovative) hub for bio-refinery A infrastructure with smart IT systems This and waste is required. Public green spaces can be
is low. This legislation also affects Waternet, communication strategy is required to strongly optimises reverse logistics and the share of used for the growing of special species of plants
which recovers phosphate from waste water (by distinguish Amsterdam from other port cities separated waste collection at source (Amsterdam (e.g. shrubs) (Urgenda, 2015) that are specially
the precipitation of struvite crystals through the in the field of circular economy and bio-refining Connecting Trade, 2014). This can lead to a bred to grow quickly, produce more biomass, take
addition of magnesium) but cannot currently activities. The municipality can invite leading decrease in the amount of transport needed. By in more CO2, save more rain water and absorb
sell the reclaimed nutrients nor apply them to companies to establish and further develop connecting information about the composition more particulates.
agricultural land. A Green Deal, recently signed their activities in Amsterdam. This can build on of waste, the residual flows may be worth more.
between the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and existing initiatives, such as Startup Amsterdam, The system can be tested on ease of use and RECOVERING NUTRIENTS
the Environment and the water boards, should, with a focus on bio-refining, and be deployed (financial) feasibility through small-scale pilots 1. Realising an integrated phosphate strategy
however, lead to changes in the classification of as an innovation hub. The port of Amsterdam, in cooperation with companies, suppliers and The municipality can help realise a closed
recovered substances under VANG and REACH together with the surrounding cities, can develop households. phosphate cycle. The municipality ought to
(Sloover, 2014). a stimulus package and match-making services to encourage industrial symbiosis and technological
entice companies to locate in the region. 4. Creating variable tax rates for different waste innovation in order to achieve this. Residual
2. Further developing of a sustainability fund categories (in the so-called Diftar-system) In streams containing phosphate should be matched
specified for the circular economy A circularity WASTE SEPARATION AND RETURN LOGISTICS very densely populated residential areas of urban up with parties with a demand for phosphate. First
fund should be financed by public and private 1. Renovating underground waste containers regions, it is more difficult to separate household steps in this direction have already been taken
parties with the aim of financially supporting The renovation of waste containers, in waste. By taxing grey household waste more in projects that involve AEB, ICL and Waternet,
innovative projects before the market provides Amsterdam-West, for example, can lead to an heavily through a differentiated tax system (Diftar) among others.
starting capital, private equity and bank financing. improvement in the share of source separated (Drift, 2014), source separation of domestic waste
The circularity fund can build on the experiences waste. The suggestion is to equip existing and will be (financially) stimulated. 2. Promoting decentralised waste-water
of the Amsterdam climate & energy fund (AKEF) new containers with the ability to separate fruit management systems This enables the local
Sustainability Fund, which provided financing and vegetable waste in addition to the current CASCADING ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS recovery of heat, energy and resources. Research
and investments in the form of loans, guarantees separation of paper and glass. A container 1. Creating breeding grounds to promote done in Buiksloterham has shown how the urban
and capital shares (AKEF, 2015). The fund should replacement campaign is being rolled out in urban agriculture This increases local food environment can be set up at a neighbourhood
provide a solution to the financing of early stage Amsterdam West over the next three years. This production and biomass production. In addition, level to allow decentralised reception of waste
(usually lab- or pilot scale) projects that want to modernisation could act as an incentive for local empty buildings can be used to produce food. and water (Amsterdam Smart City, 2015). It should
upscale to a commercial level. SMEs and for metal- and installation companies in Examples of and initiatives in urban agriculture include, for instance, the separation of waste
particular. New requirements for separate waste are expanding rapidly. An example in Almere is water types (grey, yellow and black water) and the
3. Establishing criteria for new bio-based collection can also be included in procurement Agromere, which aims to put a process in motion local valorisation these streams. The municipality
products Currently, the market is being hampered criteria for the municipal waste infrastructure. that should eventually lead to a new residential can build on this research.

64 65
ACTION POINTS TOP 3
Three action points, as shown in the table, have been selected from the interviews and discussions with By making (open) data available, the municipality can stimulate innovation in the city (action point 1), play
stakeholders. In selecting these, four major effects have been taken into account: (1) value creation, (2) an important role in settling the high barriers around laws and regulations and for bio-refining technology
CO2-reduction, (3) material savings and (4) job growth. These measures have also taken into account the (action point 2), and can increase the demand for circular products by altering its own purchasing policy
barriers that have been identified for the construction chain, and the role that the municipality can fulfil. (action line 3).

1 2 3
VIRTUAL RESOURCE PLATFORM TO FURTHER CIRCULAR BIO-REFINERY FREE ZONE LAUNCHING CUSTOMER TO DEVELOP
DEVELOP AND MAKE PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE TO IDENTIFY SPECIFIC LOCATIONS INTENDED AS PURCHASE CRITERIA FOR THE USE OF
SPECIFIC GEO-DATA WITH REGARD TO DEMAND CIRCULAR FREE ZONES AND DRAW UP RULES FOR LOCALLY PRODUCED GRASS, WOOD AND FOOD
AND SUPPLY OF ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
IN THE CITY AND REGION

The municipality can further develop and make publicly accessible a The municipality can initiate circular free zones. This could take away certain The municipality can introduce criteria in its purchasing policy to stimulate
digital (commercial) platform for organic waste. Such a platform can offer (legislative) barriers that currently hinder innovation, such as the ban on the locally produced grass, wood (as in street furniture) and food (catering).
a transparent overview of the supply, demand and use of organic residual use of nutrient-rich digestate (especially phosphate) on agricultural land. This The large buying power of the municipality itself can create an important
streams in Amsterdam (and beyond). In addition, it can address the uncertainty is currently blocking an important and essential part of the business case for and constant demand that allows local parties to further develop and
in the market by improving the matching of supply and demand. This may be anaerobic digester plants because the current market value of digestate is professionalise. With the local production of biomass and food, the need for
a response to the current uncertainty in market participants about supply low. transport and its associated environmental impact is reduced (PBL, 2013). The
and demand of flows. The lack of understanding has been mentioned as local production of wood can take place in the municipal green facilities of the
an obstacle to planning by many of the regional stakeholders, which, in city (Municipality of Amsterdam, 2014a). To increase the production of biomass
turn, affects the financing due to supply risks. The platform would provide in the municipal green facilities, a more holistic approach to the management
insight into fluctuations in supply and demand on the basis of, for example, of municipal green and waste materials is required. Public green spaces can be
seasonal variations in the availability of green waste. The municipality can used for the planting of special species of plants (e.g. shrubs) (Urgenda, 2015)
also stimulate innovation concepts, linking small and large businesses. that are specially bred to grow rapidly, deliver more biomass, take in more CO2
and absorb particulates.

The AMS-run program Urban Pulse has initiated planned activities around It is important that new projects build upon and are linked with pre-existing There are several companies and initiatives in Amsterdam that produce
the mapping of resource streams such as organic residual streams into spatial pioneering activities in the region. One such example is the Greenmills site, a local biomass such as food as well as fibres for products. In order to achieve
FOR PROJECTS
CONNECTION

maps. There are also activities within the municipality around providing consortium of six companies active in the further development of bio-refinery higher volumes of these local products, the municipality needs to redirect its
insight into waste streams associated with geo-data. In addition to this, the concepts and the optimal reuse of organic residual streams. Furthermore, purchasing policy. The municipality is already a signatory of the green deal
municipality can engage with organisations that use big data and have great Waternet and AEB are involved in and well informed about local initiatives circular purchases (Geet, 2013). The theme of circular purchases for the
potential for the circular economy (Lacy, 2015), such as Wageningen UR and including the processing of sewage sludge for biogas production. purpose of local production and consumption is also a major topic at Cirkel
AMS, who conduct research into the use of big data (Top, 2015). Stad (Cirkel Stad, 2013).

The investment required to set up a platform is largely for the development The designation of circular free zones could be an effective way to neutralise The effects of these measures may soon be visible since there is a direct market
of the IT-infrastructure and for the conceptual development of the platform. the barriers described in the local barrier overview. It is a measure that demand for local products.
INVESTMENTS
AND RESULTS

Although there are many market participants, including large IT parties, that requires investment, especially in organisation, supervision and enforcement.
deal with the development of such platforms, the municipality can play the The measures to be taken fall completely within the terms of the Municipality
role of initiator. The out-of-pocket development costs for a platform can be Act.
financed by private and public parties. The effects and impact on the actual
volume of processing organic flows through the deployment of the platform
will probably take several years before it is of significant size. This is because
the development, buy-in and critical mass required by market parties will
take time.
HOLDERS

AMS, Floow2, Oogstkaart, TNO, The municipality and Wageningen UR Orgaworld, SkyNRG, Schiphol Group, KLM, Amsterdam port, Sita, Awakenings, Municipality, caterers and suppliers of facility management, local producers,
STAKE-

Loveland and Air Exter, Kromkommer, Provalor, GRO, Holland, Taste Before You Waste, Instock,
Food banks, Meerlanden and Fruityourworld

66 67
ROADMAP ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS
SHORT TERM (1YEAR) LONG TERM (20+YEARS)

1. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND ENSURING PUBLIC ACCESS TO GEODATA FOR SUPPLY AND
TOP 3

DEMAND OF ORGANIC WASTE IN THE CITY


2. TO IDENTIFY SPECIFIC LOCATIONS INTENDED AS CIRCULAR FREE ZONES AND DRAWING UP
RULES FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
3. TO DEVELOP PURCHASE CRITERIA FOR THE USE OF
LOCALLY PRODUCED GRASS, WOOD AND FOOD

EXPANDING AND DESIGNATING NEW FREE ZONES AND CIRCULAR FIELD LABS
CENTRAL HUB FOR

FURTHER DEVELOPING OF A SUSTAINABILITY FUND SPECIFIED FOR THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY


BIOREFINERY

ESTABLISHING CRITERIA FOR NEW BIO-BASED PRODUCTS

DIFFERENTIATING AMSTERDAM AS AN (INNOVATIVE) HUB FOR BIO-REFINERY

RENOVATING UNDERGROUND WASTE CONTAINERS


RETURN LOGISTICS
SEPERATION AND

REBUILDING WASTE HUBS INTO CENTRES FOR THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY

EQUIPPING STREET CONTAINERS AND WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE WITH SMART IT SYSTEMS

CREATING VARIABLE TAX RATES FOR DIFFERENT WASTE CATEGORIES


CASCADING OF ORGANIC

CREATING BREEDING GROUNDS TO PROMOTE URBAN AGRICULTURE

STIMULATING LOCALLY PRODUCED PRODUCTS, BIOMASS AND


NUTRITION THROUGH PURCHASING POLICY
STREAMS

REALISING AN INTEGRATED PHOSPHATE STRATEGY

PROMOTING DECENTRALISED WASTE-WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


RECOVERY OF
NUTRIENTS

ARROWS
BARRIERS
The arrows indicate when a certain action can be applied and when impact is expected. This Technology Market Regulations Culture
is dependent on many aspects such as speed of market implementation and market scalability.

68 69
CONST

FOOD
VALUE JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
CREATION REDUCTION
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

25 0 100
200 x which has various bio-refinery factories with as soy 500
for animal feed. The production of bio-
ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF
MILLION KTONS KTONS
30 150x 100
KTONS
MILLION
private operators, compared to a facility where based building blocks for theKTONS
chemical industry
A CIRCULAR ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS all large-scale and unsorted waste is processed. enables the production of bio-plastics to replace

COMPARED TO A LINEAR SCENARIO In addition to the direct employment effects in


the agricultural and food industries, there is the
oil-based products. The material savings that can
be achieved may add up to 900 thousand tonnes
potential for the creation of additional jobs in the per year. This is significant when compared to

The total economic activity of


VALUE
the Amsterdam
CREATION
JOB MATERIAL
period between 2005 and
GROWTH CO
2012, the agricultural
SAVINGS 2
REDUCTION
supply industry in activities such as engineering
VALUE JOB the current
MATERIALannual import of 3.9 million tonnes of
CO2
CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS
and logistics. biomass for the entire metropolitan region. The
REDUCTION

metropolitan region amounts to 106 billion euro sector and food industry in the metropolitan
23 500 75 expected
annually, of which 47 billion is accounted
MILLION for by 200 x showed a productivity
region KTONS growth of 5.7% and
KTONS 30 75 reduction in greenhouse
300
gas emissions
MILLION 450 x KTONS
The material savings consists mainly of materials is in the order of 600 thousand tonnes of CO2,
KTONS
the city of Amsterdam (2013) (CBS, 2015)*. The 13.6% respectively.
that can be replaced by higher-value processed equivalent to a small 3% of the annual CO2-
contribution of the agricultural sector to the city
flows. An example of this is the production of high- emissions of the city of Amsterdam.
of Amsterdam amounts to 248 million euro and In our calculations for a circular scenario for
the contribution of the food sector amounts to the processing of organic residual streams, value protein to replace imported protein such
593 million euro. The current recycling of organic we adopted source separation of the organic
residual streams in Amsterdam provides a lot of fraction over time in all 430 thousand households
room for optimisation. The city VALUE
of Amsterdam
CREATION
JOB
in Amsterdam. In 2015,
GROWTH
MATERIAL
every inhabitant of
SAVINGS CO2
CO2
REDUCTION
VALUE JOB MATERIAL
has ambitions to increase the source separation Amsterdam generated an average of 92 kilograms CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION

25 0 25
percentage to generate more MILLIONvalue from the of vegetable-,
200 x fruit- and garden
KTONS waste (Amsterdam, KTONS
150 900 600
organic residual streams in household and 2015d). This separate collection makes it possible MILLION 1200 x KTONS KTONS

industrial waste. Moreover, organic wastes from to use the organic fraction for new uses such as
the food processing industry in the port area offer the production of protein for animal feed, biogas
opportunities for higher quality processing and and building blocks for the chemical industry. A
can, thus, contribute to additional value creation. fully circular organic residual stream chain can
VALUE
A macro-economic analysis CREATION
has been carried
JOB MATERIAL
result in an increase in productivity
GROWTH SAVINGS of 14% for the
CO2 REDUCTION STRATEGY VALUE
out based on the circular strategies that can agricultural sector and 7% for the food sector in
30 400city
25 100 VALUE JOB MATERIAL CO2
contribute to an optimised processing
MILLION (cascading) the x of Amsterdam over a period of five to seven
KTONS KTONS
CENTRAL
CREATION BIO-REFINERY
GROWTH
11%
SAVINGS REDUCTION

of organic residual streams in Amsterdam. The years. This is on top of the linear growth scenario. HUB
85 500 500
results provide insight into the effects of the The resulting added value to the economy could MILLION 700 x KTONS KTONS

implementation of these circular strategies on amount to 150 million euro per year. WASTE SEPARATION AND 37%
economic growth, employment, the saving of RETURN LOGISTICS
material use and the reduction in greenhouse gas In addition, this transition could create 1200 local B
MODULE
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION

emissions. jobs in the long term, nearly 8% of the current CASCADING OF 24%
10 thousand jobs in the agriculture and food ORGANIC FLOWS
The circular scenario can contribute to industry. Jobs created would include
VALUE
employment
CREATION
JOB
CREATION
VALUE
CREATION
JOB
GROWTH
MATERIAL
SAVINGS CO2
REDUCTION

autonomous (linear) growth in Amsterdam for the adjustment of waste infrastructure such RECOVERING
1,7 85 499 492 28%
through both the direct and indirect effects of as underground containers due toMILLION an increased 8x NUTRIENTS
MILLION 714 x KTONS KTONS

circular strategies. Reprocessing organic material need for pick up services for the separate 2418

flows to raw material for bio-plastic could, for waste streams, as well as for the more complex TOTAL 100% = 150 million
example, result in cost savings that enable processing of these flows. There is a greater labour VALUE
investment in additional improvements. In the requirement for a facility such as Greenmills,
MATERIAL
REDUCTION
CO2
REDUCTION

In this study, value creation of circular initiatives is compared to the total added value at basic prices, NOT to the The potential economic and environmental impact of a circular construction chain in Amsterdam compared to a
Gross Regional Product. In this chapter, a TNO-analysis is applied, and the assumptions used are from the following linear scenario is calculated for Amsterdam. Here, the impact will be realised over a period of five to seven years.
sources: Chiewa, et al. (2014) Environmental impact of recycling digested food waste as a fertilizer in agricultureA Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in
case study, Resources, Conservation and Recycling; Vandermeersch, et al. (2012) Environmental sustainability FTE, (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2
assessment or food waste valorisation options, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology; emissions. The values for the four indicators are shown in the four circles. The distribution in added value is shown
Leceta, et al. (2015) Bio-based films prepared with by-products and wastes: environmental assessment, Journal of in the bar chart.
Cleaner Production.

70 71
SCALABILITY MAP
The scalability map shows the organic residual
streams chain where opportunities lie for four
circular strategies: (1) waste separation and
return logistics, (2) cascading of organic flows,
(3) recovery of nutrients and (4) bio-refinery hub.
Green markings show places where household
waste is released and, thus, where the potential
lies for separation and return logistics. Green
and yellow points indicate supermarkets and
street markets and reflect the potential for
cascading in retail and industry. In addition,
large multinationals and food processors are
displayed on the map to indicate opportunities
for the industry.
4. CURRENT STATE
To create a circular economy, we must first understand what is not circular in our current
economy. This chapter provides insight into how resources move through the city, where they
will be processed to add value to the local economy and where resources are wasted or cascade
back into the system to be reused. To reach this understanding, the region was looked at in
terms of material flows, energy consumption and employment. The various streams were then
examined in order to identify which areas of circularity, quality of life and economic vitality can
be improved in the city. For example, where is waste created? And where are the short and long
term opportunities to convert these into opportunities for the city and the region? To get a more
detailed picture of the non-circular situation at present, we conducted an analysis based on
regional and national statistics supplemented with specific organisational data.

75
CIRCULARITY MEASURED

impact
One of the challenges in determining a strategy

impact
ECOLOGICAL IMPACT
to create a circular economy is measuring

Ecological
circularity and gaining a good understanding of

Ecological
Metal exhaustion
the status quo. For measuring the circularity of
Fossil exhaustion
the city, region and sectors, the circular indicators Energy supply Construction industry
Abiotic depletion
framework was developed by Circle Economy
Acidification
and TNO. The framework describes four main
Eutrophication
indicators that provide insight into the essential
Global warming
aspects of circularity. The first three indicators
Ozone layer depletion
were evaluated using quantitative data provided
Human toxicity
by CBS and TNO. The indicator for transition
Fresh-water aquatic toxicity
potential was investigated by means of interviews Electrical and Specialised business
Maritime aquatic toxicity electronic industry services
and qualitative reviews of specific companies,
Terrestrial toxicity
organisations and other stakeholders within their Financial services
Photochemical Oxidation Agriculture
Food and
respective chains. This framework was also used beverage industry
Land use ICT
by Circle Economy and TNO for establishing the
Others industries Retail industry
priority chains for a national project with the
ECONOMIC INTEREST Paper and printing
Renting and business
Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. services
industry
Real estate trading
The four key indicators, with each specific sub- Metal products industry
Added value Chemical industry
indicator, are represented on the right. Mining industry
Wholesale

POTENTIAL FOR
In the figure opposite is an overview of the results Metal industry
VALUE RETENTION Culture, sport and recreation
of the framework applied to the thirty sectors Hospitality industry
Health and social care

that CBS differentiates in the macro-economic Transport industry


Resource efficiency Storage industry
statistics of the region. Per sector, the figure Machinery industry
Valuable waste generation
indicates how big the economic added value is to Public administration
Dispersion factor and services
the regional economy (y-axis), what the ecological
Recycling rate
impact is (x-axis) and how big the potential is for
Other services
value retention (size of the bubble).
TRANSITION POTENTIAL
Petroleum industry

Transition readiness
Education
Organisation and culture
Households goods
Visibility and impact and services
Economic Interest
Economic importance

The above figure shows how the 30 sectors in the Amsterdam metropolitan area score on economy, ecology and
value retention, the three main indicators in the circular indicators framework. (Source: based on CBS-data with
analysis of TNO and Circle Economy team)

76 77
TITLE
FLOWS THROUGH THE
METROPOLITAN REGION The material flows for Amsterdam are analysed and visualised in the following diagram. This figure
provides insight into how resources move through the metropolitan region and city, where they will be
processed to add value to the local economy and where resources are wasted, or, ideally, cascaded back
into the system to be reused. From this review, three important aspects - which are largely linear but
which have the potential to create a circular economy in the region - appear to determine the current
status.

The current state of materials and energy per sector


used in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam. Further,
the waste flows are shown by sector in the metropolitan
region of Amsterdam (Megatonnes stands for millions
of tonnes) (Source: based on CBS data with analysis of
TNO and Circle Economy team).

78 79
ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE Use of materials and processing of by-products
3500
The import, processing and transport of Use of materials in the making and processing
materials and goods is an important economic industry is dominated by biomass and minerals In

Raw material import and (local) extraction


3000
activity in the metropolitan region The the metropolitan area, more than 10 megatonnes
Amsterdam metropolitan area has the largest of materials of which 40% is biomass and 40% is 2500
seaport and airport in Europe. Through these two fossil fuels are consumed annually (CBS, 2015b). Figure 4.1: Extraction and
ports combined, more than 100 million tonnes Biomass is used mainly by industry (70%) and the 2000 import of materials in the

(kiloton)
Import metropolitan region of
of goods are imported and 30 million tonnes are agricultural and food sector (20%). A large part of Amsterdam in 2014 (source:
1500 Extraction
exported annually (Port of Amsterdam, 2013). The the biomass use is allocated to the extensive food based on CBS and port of
Amsterdam data with analysis
gross added value of the seaport amounted to 3.5 and beverage industry. Minerals such as coal are 1000 by TNO and Circle Economy)
billion euro in 2012, which was derived mainly from mainly used in the utility sector (74%) and industry
business and industry, including the metal industry, (17%) (CBS, 2015b). Metals are mainly used in 500

and the transport and logistics sector. For Schiphol industry (90%).
0
Airport, the gross added value in 2012 amounted Metal Non-metallic Fossil Biomass
to 5 billion euro (Ministry of I and M, 2015). The Large flows of organic and mineral waste mineral

total direct employment of the Amsterdam seaport originate from industrial waste Of the waste
is 34 thousand jobs; for Schiphol it is 65 thousand that is produced in the MRA, only a small part
(Port of Amsterdam, 2013). is collected through the municipal system as
household waste - see Figure 4.3 for further details.
25000
The food and construction sectors have a (CBS, 2015b). One-sixth of the 6 million tonnes per
relatively low use of circular services Circular year is municipal solid waste, consisting mainly of
services are sectors that are focused on product minerals and organic waste (in Amsterdam 14%

Matrerial import and export (kiloton)


20000
design, rental, repair and recycling. The average use is household waste and 86% is industrial waste).
of circular services in the Amsterdam metropolitan Non-municipal waste amounts to about 5 million
15000 Figure 4.2: Import and
area is 14%. The construction- and food chain is tonnes a year and consists mostly of organic export of materials in the
slightly below the average, making use of only 12% waste. This offers opportunities for bio-refinery Import metropolitan region of
Amsterdam (source: based on
and 13% of circular services respectively. applications for high-value use of both municipal 10000
Export
CBS and port of Amsterdam
and non-municipal residual streams. data with analysis by TNO and
Circle Economy)
LOGISTICS HUB
5000
The metropolitan region is highly dependent Waste in Amsterdam is, to a large extent,
on imports of resources In the metropolitan processed in a relatively low grade One third of
region, 10 million tonnes of material are consumed the total waste is incinerated to generate electricity 0
annually, of which 60% is imported from abroad, and heat. This creates less value compared

s
gy

al
de

tle
ne

il

li
s
er

er
oa

re
O

rti
e
er

th

th
at
ru

er

Fe
C
En
Re

O
C
see Figure 4.1 and 4.2 for further details (CBS, to recycling or reuse. For domestic waste, the

C
2015b). More than 50% of the import consists of rate for useful reuse as defined by the CBS is
fossil fuels, used mainly in the petroleum industry 85%. This includes activities such as the use of
25000
for the production of plastic. granulated demolition and construction waste for
road foundations, which, in a circular economy,

Import en export van materialen (kiloton)


The supply of materials is vulnerable to strong can be regarded as a low-value application of Chemical
20000 waste
price fluctuations and distortions in the recycling. Through high-value reuse, recycling and
Mineral
geopolitical context The high trading volume in composting, more value can be extracted from
15000
the MRA offers economic opportunities but, at these waste streams. Rest Figure 4.3: Residual streams
in the metropolitan region of
the same time, exposes the MRA to disruptions Import
Amsterdam (source: based
Organic
in supply. In addition, the import of biomass from 10000
Export on CBS and AEB data with
analysis by TNO and Circle
abroad has significant negative consequences for Plastics Economy)
the environment, due to non-sustainable land
5000 Paper
use and agriculture in South America and other
regions. Metal
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
de

ea

tle
e

il

li
s
g

er

er
oa

re
fin

rti
er

th

th
at
ru

er

Fe
C
En
Re

O
Residual stream (megaton)

C
C

80 81
SELECTION OF CHAINS MINERALS
STONE
CONCRETE
VALUE PRESERVATION
Slimbreker
VSM Sloopwerken
PRIORITISATION OF CONNECTING FACTORS IN A CIRCULAR ECONOMY Neighbo
AEB
ur com
muniti
es

Loon op Zand
Struyk Verwo infra Nijssen
To understand the extent to which various transition potential. The ten value chains are shown
Holderfin BV Bellen
chains contribute to the economic and ecological in the table below, with shades of blue indicating the
impact in Amsterdam, a chain analysis has been
conducted. This chain analysis provides insight
potential impact. Of the ten chains, six are included in
the final analysis.
Decostone-natuursteen
PORT
Petrol

Redstone OF AM
STERD
Transs
cluste
r
hi and ag pmen
ribulk t + ARCHITECTURE
AND DESIGN
Tourism
Paro

Van Gansewinkel
AM
A.E.B
Icova
into the connections between sectors in an Cortlever
economy, such as the connection between the After consultation with the municipality and local waste
water
treatm
Putman WASTE PROCESSING
Langhout Betonfabriek ent

materials (physical flows) and economic value stakeholders, the decision was made to focus on AMST
ERDAM

Miscanthusgroep
(monetary flows). An example of this can be seen the construction chain and organic residual streams,
CONSTRUCTION REAL ESTATE
in the production of oil, which is linked to the as these have the highest economic and ecological Stonecycling
shop
wink
el
Creatie
NK clus
BA ter

production of plastic from this oil, which is then impact, as well as the highest value retention and Anci

linked to the use of plastic packaging material transition potential. Cebo Arup Engineering
BAM Group Delta Development
in the food chain, and later linked to the waste Omnya PLP Architecture
Group
treatment of plastic packaging. Exploring which The analysis of the value chains serves not only to Mondo Minerals N3O G&S Bouw
OVG
of the chains between sectors result in large achieve a transparent selection of important chains SCHIP
HOL A
IRPOR VolkerWessels ZUID
AS Fluor BV
Eggerding T

impacts is a starting point for prioritising possible at which circular initiatives should be focused, but ENZO Architectuur AW Groep
Rabo Real Estate Group

interventions. The four indicators used to measure also provides an overview of economic sectors and UBA Alliantie
Turntoo
impacts from the circular indicators framework actors that are associated with that particular chain.
RHDHV Heijmans SADC
have been explained in the beginning of this These actors can be a source of inspiration in the
Timpaan
chapter. For the economical and ecological impact development of concrete projects in the Amsterdam Gemeente Almere
Overview of a select and non-exhaustive group 3D Canal House
and value retention, a comprehensive analysis was metropolitan area. of stakeholders in the construction chain. The Ballast Nedam Eigenhaard
size of the circle indicates the importance of the
conducted, linking hundreds of value chains and organisation. (Insights from interviews, literature
sectors together. The ten chains with the highest Opposite is a representation of a non-exhaustive and and assessment by the research team)
impact or the greatest potential were selected. select group of actors for the construction chain and
Stakeholder interviews were used to assess the organic residual streams chain. VALUE PRESERVATION

AEB

FOOD AND Meerlanden


Voedselbanken
ECONOMIC ECOLOGICAL CONSERVATION TRANSITION BEVERAGE
IMPACT IMPACT POTENTIAL POTENTIAL PRODUCTION eerlanden
Neighbo
ur com
munitie

GREAT
s
Waste transformers
CONCRETE AND MINERAL STREAMS
POTENTIAL
CONSTRUCTION

ADM Cocoa Nijssen Recycling


CHAIN

ARCHITECTURE, AND DESIGN SERVICES MODERATE Cargill Cocoa


POTENTIAL
AAK
REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT AND LOW Buteressence TRANSPORT
Tourism
REALLOCATION OF BUILDINGS POTENTIAL Petrol
Transs
and ag hipm
ribulk ent AND STORAGE Agricult
Looije
POR Tomaten
cluste
r
ure and
flowers
T OF
AMST
ER
FOOD PRODUCTION AND WASTE GRO Holland DAM

Overview of ten chains


A.E.B

PROCESSING
in the MRA. Analysis Orgaworld CATERING
developed by TNO and waste
CHAIN
FOOD

water
treatm RETAIL NK

PACKAGING Circle Economy.


ent BA

Biodiesel Amsterdam ACULTURE


MSTER AND
wink DAM
el LEISURE
Albert Keijzer HOUSEHOLDS
NOBA
AGRICULTURAL INPUT
Rotie Greenery Albert Heijn shop
wink
el
Creatie
Exter Spar clus ter
Groenveld Vlees
METAL TRANSPORTATION STREAMS
Frigo Jumbo ID&T Instock
Beebox Meerlive Vork & Mes
METAL
CHAIN

LOGISTICS IN THE FOOD SECTOR Aldi BinBang


Vokomokum Haarlemmermeer Qunis
FoodSharing
Koole Amsterdam New York Pizza Meerjazz
SCRAP METAL PROCESSING Food Surplus
SCHIP
HOL A Pieter Bon Lidl ZUIDA Westeinder
IRPOR
T S Entrepreneurs
Marqt Waterweek Network

Ekoplaza BuurtBuik

Overview of a selective and non-exhaustive group of


stakeholders in the organic residual streams chain.
82 The size of the circle indicates the importance of the 83
organisation. (Insights from interviews, literature
and assessment by the research team)
INDICATORS CIRCULAR ECONOMY
This page represents how the city of Amsterdam, and Circle Economy calculated these indicators at
the metropolitan region and The Netherlands score the national level. The value retention is estimated
on three indicators: value retention, economic according to resource efficiency: the amount of
impact and ecological impact. Together, these waste that is produced to generate an added value
three indicators give an initial idea of how, on a of 1000 euro. The economic impact is measured
city-level, circularity could be measured. The three in added value per person and the percentage of
indicators were developed in the context of RACE circular services in the economy: the proportion of
(Realisation or Acceleration towards a Circular the added value in an economy that is generated by
Economy), a program initiated by the Ministry of services focused on product design, rental, repair
Infrastructure and the Environment. A summary of and recycling. The ecological impact is measured
the indicators is presented later. Previously, TNO by environmental costs and CO2-emissions.

VALUE PRESERVATION ECONOMIC IMPACT ECOLOGICAL IMPACT


RAW MATERIAL EFFICIENCY GROSS VALUE ADDED ENVIRONMENTAL
Raw material efficiency indicates possible waste reduction in production of Gross Value Added per person is Environmental costs are the costs of exhaustion, water pollution,
goods, measured in kilograms of waste per 1,000 output the economic value in per person CO2-emissions, toxicity and land use in per kilogram

AMSTERDAM MRA NEDERLAND AMSTERDAM MRA NEDERLAND AMSTERDAM MRA NEDERLAND

N/A 39 N/A 61295 33616 31256 N/A 52 63


/kg kg /kg /kg /kg /kg

USE OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES CIRCULAR SERVICES CO2-EMISSIONS


The use of renewable resources is the percentage of imports (net and Circular Services is the percentage of services - related to the CO2 emission is the amount of carbon dioxide which is
domestic) consisting of biomass compared to total imports circular economy - compared with the Gross Value Added released into the atmosphere in kilograms of CO2 per person

AMSTERDAM MRA NEDERLAND AMSTERDAM MRA NEDERLAND AMSTERDAM MRA NEDERLAND

66%
kg CO2
27% N/A 14% N/A 5345
kg CO2
8575
kg CO2
9343
kg CO2
/kg

N/A

84 85
TITLE
5. RECOMMENDATIONS
AND NEXT STEPS
The roadmap and action agenda presented in this
Quick Scan offer a starting point, giving concrete
direction to the ambition, vision and agenda
on the theme of a circular economy for two
To come to a detailed feasibility of the proposed
actions, more analysis is needed. This analysis
can include, for example, a detailed (social)
cost-benefit assessment for the various parties
specific value chains construction and organic needed for implementation. Next steps in the
residual streams. The municipality can focus on investigation of opportunities for the city and
expanding the details of these plans as a next region are part of the program Urban Pulse,
step. Stakeholders, both within the government which is led by Amsterdam Metropolitan Solutions
and in the market, will need to be engaged to (AMS) and Circulaire Stad.
actually take action on the proposed directions.
Listed below are some next steps advised for the The need for greater transparency and a better
municipality. understanding of the demand of (secondary)
resource flows in the region and beyond is
Further development and selection of indicators mentioned by many stakeholders as a condition
that provide insight into the level of circularity in for a circular economy, particularly for an optimal
the city of Amsterdam can be undertaken. This exchange and high-value processing of streams.
basic set of indicators can be used, among other Further development of (geographically explicit)
things, to measure progress. The applied circular digital material platforms would be crucial to
indicators framework in this study (Chapter 4) connecting the supply and demand of residual
can give direction to the next steps. streams and materials.

The indicators can be applied in an interactive Related to the previous point, there is also a
circularity dashboard that displays the progress need for active coordination to match supply
of the most important indicators. The dashboard and demand. The municipality could potentially
can be used internally, but can also involve explore the appointment of chain directors who
inhabitants of the city more actively on the subject would be responsible for active matchmaking.
of a circular economy. In addition, Amsterdam
can (in the future) benchmark against other cities
on their circular performance.

86 87
TITLE
PROJECT TEAM
Circle Economy Raymond Groot Lipman, Senior Account Circle Economy is a cooperative whose mission is FABRIC is a knowledge-intensive design studio
Klaske Kruk, Director of Programs manager Grootbedrijf, Rabobank Almere to globally accelerate the practical implementation led by Eric Frijters and Olv Klijn. The involvement
Marc de Wit, Director of Strategic Alliances Peter van Heerde, Account manager MKB, of a circular economy. To accelerate the worldwide of the two founders in architecture, urban
Shyaam Ramkumar, Lead Tool Development Rabobank Schiphol transition towards a circular economy, we use planning and research led to the creation of
Jurn de Winter, Lead Circle Cities Angeline Kierkels, Director Public Sector, two main levers: FABRICations. Our motto is: Think while you do.
Merve Gvendik, Project Manager Circle Market Meerlanden 1) Practical action, aimed at developing practical The motto expresses the thorough approach that
Kay van t Hof, Designer Fokke Kroesen, Environmental Manager, KLM solutions; characterises FABRIC. Our innovative solutions
Jeroen Lubbers, Deputy head Economic Affairs 2) Campaigns, communication and engagement, are rooted in a huge technical, historical and
TNO municipality of Almere aimed at spreading our message. We focus on cultural knowledge. With each project, we invest
Ton Bastein, Program Manager Resource Kees van der Lugt, Strategic advisor & projects and activities that are both practical and in research to further increase the available
Efficiency and Circular Economy innovation manager, Waternet scalable. knowledge and to further improve the quality of
Jacco Verstraeten-Jochemsen, Project Manager, Ward Massa, Co-owner, Stonecycling our proposals. We want to be the best knowledge
Sustainable Cities Dominique van Ratingen, Program manager TNO is a non-profit organisation that applies provider and the most innovative solution creator.
Elmer Rietveld, Researcher sustainability, Amsterdam Economic Board thorough scientific principles to a wide range That is why we often form partnerships with other
Mara Hauck, Scientist Specialist on life-cycle Jan Willem Reuchlin, Consultant Strategy & of disciplines. TNO is active within five key similar knowledge-intensive companies.
assessment, Climate, Air and Sustainability. Innovation, Port of Amsterdam sustainability themes: industry, healthy living,
Rene van Schaijk, Senior Account manager energy, the environment and defence and security.
FABRIC Grootzakelijk, Rabobank Amstel en Vecht TNO is one of the most internationally oriented
Eric Frijters, Co-founder Wouter Schrier, Advisor on mobility and electric research and technology organisations in Europe
Olv Klijn, Co-founder mobility and has an unparalleled knowledgebase full of
Bas Driessen, Co-founder Jeroen Slot, Head of research, employee information about innovation, sustainability and
research and statistics, municipality of policy making. Maintaining and improving this
CONSULTED EXPERTS Amsterdam knowledgebase is a high priority as we continue to
We would like to express our gratitude to the Marc Spiller, Waste water treatment, Advanced develop within international knowledge networks.
following for sharing their expert knowledge Metropolitan Solutions
and specific data about the various streams in Sven Stremke, Principal Investigator for Energy,
Amsterdam with us: Advanced Metropolitan Solutions
Sabrine Strijbos, Sector Specialist Economic
Sietse Agema, Strategic Advisor, Amsterdam Sustainability and Fashion, municipality of
Energie Bedrijf Almere
Olaf Blauw, Director, Delta Development Andre Struker, Strategic Advisor, Waternet
Martijn Bovee, Manager Strategic Accounts, Philippe Vorst, Founder & Director, New York
Orgaworld Pizza
Bart Brink, Director Business Unit, RHDHV Ad van Vught, Strategic Purchasing Manager,
Marc Brito, Senior Relationship Manager Public Exter
Sector, Rabobank Amsterdam Bart de Wit, Manager SMEs, Companies,
Jeremy Croes, Programme Coordinator Raw Rabobank Zaanstreek
Materials & Waste Streams, Schiphol Airport
Pieter Goudwaard, CSR advisor, Sustainable
business development, Jumbo

88 89
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CBS (2013). Leegstand in Nederland. http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/E5CDDD84-6EDD-40B5-8B43- EMF (2015a). Delivering the circular economy, a toolkit for policymakers. http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.
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*The photographs used in this report were obtained via Shutterstock.

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