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CoalGrindingTechnology(3rdPart)

9 Dryingproblems
9.1 Preliminaryconsideraons:
Asmenonedintherstpartofthispresentaon,coalhas2typesofmoisture(inherentandfree)andcoalhasalwaysa
moisturecontentatmillplantinlet.
Almostallgrindingcoalsystemsincorporatemoistureremovalfromthecoalaspartofthecircuit.
VRMhaveabeerdryingeciencythanballmills.VRMcandrymaterialwithamoisturehigherthan20%.
Atthecontrary,ballmillscandryupto1215%maximum.
Thedryingporonofthesystemrequiresseriousaenonindesignsincethepossibilityofresandexplosions
increasesasthecoalbecomesner,dryerandhoer.
Highmoisturecoalsrequiremoreairfordrying,orthemillmustbeoperatedatahighinlettemperature.
Thissecondalternaveisdangerousandmustbeavoided.
Indirectringsystemismorebenecialforplantsusingverywetcoal.
9.2 Moisturecontentlimit:
Itisrecommendedthatcoaldustmoisturebenolessthan11,5%atanypointinthe"grindingdryingtransportring"circuit.
This11,5%leveldoesnotapplytosubbituminousandlignitecoalswithhighinherentmoisturecontent.
Theseareoendriedwith48%retainedmoisture.
Someguresofmoisturecontentlimit:


9.3 Temperatureatmillinlet:
Thedryingairshouldnotbetoohottocauseprematureignionofcoalnes(Reacvecoalignitesatalowertemperature).
Itisfurtherrecommendedthatthedryinggasinlettemperaturebenohigherthan250300Cifthedryinggasoxygen
contentis21%byvolume.
Someguresofinletgastemperatures:


Systemsoperangatlowdewpoints(0Cto10Caboveambient)canavoidcondensaonbyoperangat10Cabove
dewpoints.
Systemsoperangathigherdewpoints(greaterthan10Caboveambient)shouldbeoperatedat1520Cabovedewpoint.
9.4 Temperatureatmilloutlet:
Itisrecommendedthatthetemperatureofdustcoal/gasmixturebelimitedto65Cforindirectsystemsand80Cfor
directringsystems.Thesetemperaturesdonotapplyforinertsituaons(seelaterforinertsystems).
Theoutlettemperatureisalsodependingofthetypeofcoal.Seethediagramherebelow:

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9.5 Calculaonofthedryingcapacies:
Thesecalculaonsmusttakeintoaccountthelimitsdescribedhereabove.
Methodspresentedonthefollowinglinkcanbeappliedforcoaldryingprocess:
hp://www.thecementgrindingoce.com/dryingcapaciescalculaons.html
Asummaryofcoaldryingcalculaonsispresentedonthenextpageinformofgraphics.

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10 Finenessofthedustcoal
Finenessdependsofthetypeofcoalandtheareawherecoalhastobeburned.
Abadcoalnenesscanbringproblems:
*FormaonofCO
*Increaseofthevolalityofsulfur
Residueson90(#170Mesh)and200(#70Mesh)aregenerallyconsideredforgengthenenesstarget.
Herebelow,adiagramofthenenessinfunconofthecoaltype(%ofvolales):


Anothersinplewaytodenethenenessinfunconofthecoaltypeispresentedinthefollowingtable:


Theresidueon200mustbeassmallaspossiblebecausecoarserparcleswillignitelater.
Parclesizehasaninverserelaonshiptospontaneousheangofcoal.Thesmallerthecoalparclethegreateris
theexposedsurfaceareaandthegreateristhetendencytowardspontaneousheang.
Thisisverycricalforanthraciteandpetcokegrinding.
Itisthereasonthatcoalgrindingplantsmustbedesignedwithhighsafetylevels.

11 Safetyconsideraons
11.1 Introducon:
Thereisalwaysapotenalriskofresandexplosionswhenoperangwithcoal.
Somereminders:
Theretriangle

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Theexplosionpentagon


Inaddiontotradionalsafetyequipments,inertoperangsystemsareagoodsoluontodiminishtheproblemofres
andexplosions.
11.2 Inertsystems:
Inertsystemscanavoiddustexplosionsandsmoulderingresinsilos,coalmillsandlterequipmentbycreanganinert
atmosphere.
Itiswellknownthatexplosionsoccurincaseofoxygencontenthigherthan1214%.
Theoxygenconcentraonbelowwhichadeagraoncanoccuristhelimingoxygenconcentraon(LOC).
Asystemisinertiftheoxygenconcentraon<LOC.
LOCforcoaldustis12%accordingNFPA(USA).
Gasqualityforinertcondionsshouldbelowmoisture,containsucientheattodrythecoalandsourceshouldbe
reasonablyclose.
Preheaterandprecalcinercementkilngas(300350Cand4%O2)aregoodqualitygases.
Inaninertsystem,Iftheoxygencontentexceeds10%,anoxygenanalyzercausesanacouscalarm.
At12%O,thegrindingplantwillstopoperaonautomacally.
Beforethemillstart,itisnecessarytodecreasetheoxygencontentaertheltertolessthan10%.
Intheclosedloopsystem,thegasfromthelterispartlyrecirculatedtotheinletofthemill.Thiscreatesaninert
condionwhichminimizestheoxygencontentinthesystemandreducesthechancesofcoaldustexplosions.
Evenwithinertoperangcondions,thecycloneanddustcollectorshouldbeequippedwithpressurereliefvalves.
11.3 Noninertsystems:
Oxygencontentofmillsweepgasisusuallyabove12%
Inthiscase,oxygenanalyzersnotneeded
Noninertsystemsallowusingexcessairfromtheclinkercoolerorfromthehotgasgenerator.

12 Dustcollectors
Thecombiningphenomenaofcomminuon,handlingandprocessingofthecoalleadstothegeneraonoflargevolumes
ofdustloadedgases.
Topreventthedustfromescapingintotheenvironmenttwotypesofdustcollectorsareusedincementplants:
*Baglters
*ElectrostacPrecipitators
Baglterisoenselectedforcoalgrindingplantsduetothefollowingreasons:
*Lowerinialinvestment
*Loweroperangcosts
*Lessspacerequirement
*Goodforgastemperatureanddustcolleconeciency

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