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Chapter 6

1. A radiator on a solar-powered satellite must dissipate heat being generated


with the satellite by radiating the heat into space. The radiator surface has a solar
absorptivity of 0.5 and an emissivity of 0.95. What is the surface temperature when the
required dissipation is 1500 W/m2 for the following two conditions:
(a) The radiator is facing the sun, and the solar irradiation is 1353 W/m2.
(b) The radiator is shielded from the sun, and the solar irradiation is
negligible.
8 W m
Origin 1 := 5.67 10 m :=
2 4 6
m K 10

For part (a), the total energy that must be dissipated is 1500 W/m 2 + 1353 W/m 2 . An energy
balance then becomes on a per unit area basis
4
Ts = Isun + Qdis

:= 0.50 := 0.95

4
W W
1353 + 1500
2 2
m m
Ts := Ts = 448.346 K

For part (b), only 1500 W/m2 must be dissipated.


4
W
1500
2
m
Ts := Ts = 408.504 K

2. A contractor must select a roof covering material from the two diffuse ( = )
roof coatings whose spectral characteristics are presented in Figure P6.2.
(a) Which of the materials would result in a lower roof temperature?
(b) Which is preferred for summer use?
(c) Which is preferred for winter use?
(d) Sketch a spectral distribution that would be ideal for summer.
(e) Sketch a spectral distribution that would be ideal for winter.

1
0.9
SPECTRAL EMISSIVIT Y

0.8
0.7 Coating A
0.6
i,0
0.5

i,1 0.4
0.3 Coating B
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
i , 0 , i , 1
WAVELENGTH (microns)
8 W m
:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1
2 4 6
m K 10
4
8 m 4
C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K
2
m

20 e n 6
2
F( ) :=
C2

15 3
+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of
4 n 3 2 n T
n = 1 n n
From an energy balance on the surface of the roof
4
4 s Gs
Ts = s Gs or Ts =

(a) Which of the materials would result in a lower roof temperature?

C2 C2
s.A := 0.8 s.B := 0.6 F + 0.2 1 F s.B = 0.596
4 m 5800 K 4 m 5800 K
C2 C2
A := 0.8 B := 0.6 F + 0.2 1 F B = 0.208
4 m 400 K 4 m 400 K
s.A s.B
ratioA := ratioA = 1 ratioB := ratioB = 2.868
A B
Thus, coating A would result in a lower temperature since ratioA < ratioB.
(b) Which is preferred for summer use?
In the summer, the roof needs to be as cool as possible. So coating A is desired since its
ratio is smaller than that of coating B.
(c) Which is preferred for winter use?
In the winter, the roof needs to be as warm as possible. So coating B is desired since its
ratio is larger than that of coating A.
(d) Sketch a spectral distrubtion that would be ideal for summer.
(e) Sketch a spectral distrubiton that would be ideal for winter.

T T i := 0 .. 5
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0 1.5 3.8 4.2 10 15
:= :=
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0 2 3.8 4.2 11 15 j := 0 .. 1

1
SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY

0.9
0.8
Summer
0.7

i , 00.6
0.5

i , 10.4 Winter
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
i, 0, i, 1

WAVELENGTH (microns)
3. Two special coatings are available for use on an absorber plate for a flat-plate
solar collector. Each coating is diffuse ( = ) and is characterized by the spectral
distributions illustrated in Figure P6.3.
(a) If the irradiation incident on the plate is G = 1000 W/m2, what is the
radiant energy absorbed per m2 for each surface?
(b) Which coating would you select for the absorber plate? Explain.

1
0.9
SPECTRAL EMISSIVI TY

0.8
0.7
Coating B

i , 0 0.6
0.5

i , 1 0.4
0.3
0.2 Coating A
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
i , 0 , i , 1
WAVELENGTH (microns)

Radiation Band Emission Function Evaluation .


8 W m
:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1
2 4 6
m K 10
4
8 m 4
C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K
2
m

20 e n 6
2
F( ) :=
C2

15 3
+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of
4 n 3 2 n T
n = 1 n n

W
G := 1000
2
m
C2 C2
s.B := 0.05 F + 0.85 1 F s.B = 0.058
4 m 5800 K 4 m 5800 K
C2 C2
s.A := 0.85 F + 0.05 1 F s.A = 0.842
4 m 5800 K 4 m 5800 K
W W
Gabs.A := s.A G Gabs.A = 842.293 Gabs.B := s.B G Gabs.B = 57.707
2 2
m m

Thus, A is the better surface for the absorber plate of a solar collector.
If the surface of the absorber is maintained at 330 K.
Tsur := 350 K

C2 C2
s.B := 0.05 F + 0.85 1 F s.B = 0.846
4 m 330 K 4 m 330 K
C2 C2
s.A := 0.85 F + 0.05 1 F s.A = 0.054
4 m 330 K 4 m 330 K
4 W
qradB := s.B Tsur qradB = 719.897
2
m
4 W
qradA := s.A Tsur qradA = 45.872
2
m
W
qnetB := Gabs.B qradB qnetB = 662.189 Surface B loses energy ,
2
m so surface A is the better
choice for an absorber
W
qnetA := Gabs.A qradA qnetA = 796.42 surface.
2
m
4. The spectral absorptivity, , and the spectral reflectivity, , for a spectrally-selective
diffuse surface are as shown in Figure P6.4.

1
0.9
SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY 0.8
0.7

i 0.6
0.5
0.4
i
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1.38
i
WAVELENGTH (microns)

(a) Sketch the spectral transmissivity, .


(b) If solar irradiation with G = 750 W/m2 and the spectral distribution of a
blackbody at 5800 K is incident on the surface, determine the fractions of
the irradiation that are transmitted, reflected, and absorbed by the surface.
(c) If the temperature of the surface is 350 K, determine the emissivity, .
(d) Determine the net heat flux by radiation at the surface of the material.
For a diffuse surface
1 = + + = 1

1
0.9
SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY

0.8

i 0.7
0.6

i 0.5
0.4

i 0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
i
WAVELENGTH (microns)

8 W m
:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1
2 4 6
m K 10
4
8 m 4
C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K
2
m

20 e n 6
2
F( ) := C2

15 3
+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of
4 n 3 2 n T
n = 1 n n
W
G := 750
2
m

C2 C2
:= 0.20 F + 0.80 1 F = 0.286
1.38 m 5800 K 1.38 m 5800 K
C2 C2
:= 0.10 F + 0.0 1 F = 0.086
1.38 m 5800 K 1.38 m 5800 K

C2 C2
:= 0.70 F + 0.20 1 F = 0.628
1.38 m 5800 K 1.38 m 5800 K
+ +=1
W
Gabsorbed := G Gabsorbed = 214.638
2
m
W
Gtran := G Gtran = 471.135
2
m
W W
Gref := G Gref = 64.227 Gabsorbed + Gtran + Gref = 750
2 2
m m

C2 C2
:= 0.20 F + 0.80 1 F = 0.8 Ts := 350 K
1.38 m 350 K 1.38 m 350 K
4 W
E := Ts E = 680.683
2
m
W
net := Gref + E net = 744.911
2
m
5. An opaque solar collector surface is 3 m by 1 m and is maintained at 425 K.
The surface is exposed to solar irradiation with G = 800 W/m2. The surface is diffuse
and its spectral absorptivity is
= 0 0 < < 0.5 m
= 0.8 0.5 m < < 1.0 m
= 0.5 1.0 m < < 2.0 m
= 0.3 > 2.0 m
Determine the absorbed radiation, the emissive power, and the net radiation heat
transfer from the surface.
8 W m
:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1
2 4 6
m K 10

4
8 m 4
C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K
2
m

20 e n 6
2
F( ) := C2

15 3
+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of
4 n 3 2 n T
n = 1 n n
W
G := 750
2
m

C2 C2 C2
:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...
0.5 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 0.5 m 5800 K
C2 C2 C2
+ 0.50 F F + 0.30 1 F
2.00 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 2.0 m 5800 K
= 0.504
Gref := ( 1 ) G
W W
Gabsorbed := G Gabsorbed = 377.764 Gref = 372.236
2 2
m m

C2 C2 C2
:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...
0.5 m 425 K 1.00 m 425 K 0.5 m 425 K
C2 C2 C2
+ 0.50 F F + 0.30 1 F
2.00 m 425 K 1.00 m 425 K 2.0 m 425 K
= 0.3

4 W
Ts := 425 K E := Ts E = 554.973
2
m
W 3
net := Gref + E net = 927.208 netheat := 3 m 1 m net netheat = 2.782 10 W
2
m
6. An opaque surface, 2 m by 2 m, is maintained at 400 K and is exposed to solar
irradiation with G = 1200 W/m2. The surface is diffuse and its spectral absorptivity is

= 0 0 < < 0.5 m


= 0.8 0.5 m < < 1.0 m
= 0.0 1.0 m < < 2.0 m
= 0.9 > 2.0 m

Determine the absorbed radiation, the emissive power, and the net radiation heat
transfer.
8 W m
:= 5.67 10 m := Origin 1
2 4 6
m K 10

4
8 m 4
C1 := 3.742 10 W C2 := 1.439 10 m K
2
m

20 e n 6
2
F( ) :=
C2

15 3
+ 6 + + 3 = Definition of
4 n 3 2 n T
n = 1 n n
W
G := 1200
2
m

C2 C2 C2
:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...
0.5 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 0.5 m 5800 K
C2 C2 C2
+ 0.0 F F + 0.90 1 F
2.00 m 5800 K 1.00 m 5800 K 2.0 m 5800 K
= 0.43
Gref := ( 1 ) G
W W
Gabsorbed := G Gabsorbed = 515.403 Gref = 684.597
2 2
m m

C2 C2 C2
:= 0.00 F + 0.80 F F ...
0.5 m 400 K 1.00 m 400 K 0.5 m 400 K
C2 C2 C2
+ 0.0 F F + 0.90 1 F
2.00 m 400 K 1.00 m 400 K 2.0 m 400 K
= 0.9

4 3 W
Ts := 400 K E := Ts E = 1.306 10
2
m
3 W 3
net := Gref + E net = 1.991 10 netheat := 2 m 2 m net netheat = 7.964 10 W
2
m
7. Develop a figure showing the sunpath lines for the latitude of your hometown. On a
separate figure show the sunpath line for 21 June and indicate the ACTUAL TIME (not
the solar time) on the 21 June sunpath line. How many hours from sunrise to sunset?
The town used in this exercise is Brooksville, MS. Google provides the latitude and longitude
as 33.21 degrees and 88.56 degrees, rerspectively.

The generation of the sunpath chart as a function of latitude.


n := 1 .. 365 The days of the year.

Declination Angle
The declination angle is the angle between the sun's

n := 23.45 sin360
( n + 284 )
rays and the zenith (overhead) direction at solar noon on
365 180 the equator. The declination is dependent on the Earth's
position in its orbit around the sun.
Declination for specific days

D0 := 355 21 Dec D1 := 21 21 Jan D2 := 52 21 Feb D3 := 80 21 March

D4 := 111 21 April D5 := 141 21 May D6 := 172 21 June

23.45 Declination angle in degrees for use in sunpath generation.



20.138
11.226
D = 0.404

11.579
20.138
23.45

Input the latitude (in degrees):
L := 33.21 Latitude of Brooksville, MS
Establish range variables for days and hours. Degrees to radian conversion:
i := 0 .. 6 Days of interest
dr :=
180
hss := 0 .. 180 hsp := hss Hours
hss
.
Calculation of sunpath angles following Kreith and Kreider.

( )
sinhss , i := sin( L dr) sin Di dr + cos( L dr) cos Di dr cos hsp( ) ( hss
dr ) Altitude angle

hss , 6
(
hss , i := asin sinhss , i ) ang
hss
:=
dr
Altitude angle in degrees

sinas (
:= cos Di dr )
(
sin hsp
hss
dr ) Azimuth angle
hss , i (
cos hss , i )
Test for azimuth angle > 90 degrees.
Since the principal values of the arcsin are defined for -90 degrees < angle < 90 degrees, logic is
needed for any azimuth angle greater than 90 degrees.

1 tan( Di dr)
hlimit := acos
i dr tan( L dr)
T
hlimit = ( 131.5 124.067 107.65 90.617 71.761 55.933 48.5 )

Hour angles at a 90-degree azimuth for a given latitude.

Definition of arcsin function to include azimuth angles > 90 degrees.

as
hss , i
:= asin sinas ( hss , i ) if hsp
hss
> hlimit
i

(
asin sinas )
hss , i
otherwise
hss , i as
hss , i
Change all angles from radians to degrees hss , i := as :=
dr hss , i dr

i i
For ease of plotting redefine hss,i and ashss,i as Yi and X i, respectively.Y := X := as
i i

90

80

70
Y0

Y1 60
ALTITUDE ANGLE

Y2
50
Y3

Y4 40

Y5
30
Y6

20

10

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6

AZIMUTH ANGLE
SUNPATH LINES FOR GIVEN LATITUDE
Establish the lines of constant solar time (hour angle) on the sunpath. Each solar hour
corresponds to 15 degrees of hour angle. Thus, 1 PM solar time is 15 degress from solar noon.
solar1 := 15 , i azi1 := as solar2 := 30 , i azi2 := as
i i 15 , i i i 30 , i

solar3 := 45 , i azi3 := as solar4 := 60 , i azi4 := as


i i 45 , i i i 60 , i

solar5 := 75 , i azi5 := as solar6 := 90 , i azi6 := as


i i 75 , i i i 90 , i

solar7 := 105 , i azi7 := as solar8 := 120 , i azi8 := as


i i 105 , i i i 120 , i

solar9 := 135 , i azi9 := as solar10 := 150 , i azi10 := as


i i 135 , i i i 150 , i

solar11 := 165 , i azi11 := as solar12 := 180 , i azi12 := as


i i 165 , i i i 180 , i

90

Y0

Y1 80

Y2

Y3 70

Y4

Y5
60
Y6
ALTITUDE ANGLE

solar1i
50
solar2i

solar3i
40
solar4i

solar5i
30
solar6i

solar7i
20
solar8i

solar9i
10

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6 , azi1i , azi2i , azi3i , azi4i , azi5i , azi6i , azi7i , azi8i , azi9i

AZIMUTH ANGLE
All of the information and plots generated thusfar in this worksheet have been expressed in
terms of the hour angle (15 degrees per hour) and referenced to solar noon (zero azimuth
angle). For any location and any day of the year a simple procedure is needed to relate solar
time to "real" time. This is done by using the equation of time with a correction of E (in
minutes). Thus,

Solar Time = Standard Time + 4(Standard Longitude - Local Longitude) + E

Standard Time + 1 = Daylight Savings Time

Standard Longitudes for the US time zones are: 75 degrees for Eastern
90 degress for Central
105 degrees for Mountain
120 degrees for Pacific

Equation of Time

n := 1 .. 365

360 ( n 81)
B := (in radians)
n 364 180

E := 9.87 sin 2 B
n ( n ) 7.53 cos(Bn) 1.5 sin(Bn)
20
CORRECTION E IN MINUTES

15

10

5
En
0

10

15
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390
n

JULIAN DATE
THE EQUATION OF TIME
In this figure, the abscissa is the Julian date (the number of the day of the year with 1 Jan as
1) and the correction E is in minutes.
The Julian date for 21 June is 171. From the equation of time
E = 1.5
172
DST = solar time + 1 hr - 4(standard longitude - local longitude) min - E min

DST (21 June) = solar time + 1 hr - 4(90 - 88.56) min -(-1.5 min)

DST(21 June) = solar time + 1 hr - 5.76 min + 1.5 min

DST(21 June) = solar time + 55.74 min = solar time + 0.929 hr

Thus, on 21 June, Central Daylight Savings Time is 55.74 min or 0.929 hr ahead of solar
time. For example solar noon would occur at 12:55.74 pm.

90
12:55.74 pm
80
1:55.74 pm 11:55.74 am
Y6
70
solar1i

solar2i 2:55.74 pm 10:55.74 am


60
ALTITUDE ANGLE

solar3i

solar4i50
3:55.74 pm 9:55.74 am
solar5i

solar6i40
4:55.74 pm 8:55.74 am
solar7i
30
solar8i
5:55.74 pm 7:55.74 am
solar9i
20

6:55.74 pm 6:55.74 am
10

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
X6 , azi1i , azi2i , azi3i , azi4i , azi5i , azi6i , azi7i , azi8i , azi9i

AZIMUTH ANGLE
8. Develop a figure showing the sunpath line for the latitude of your hometown on the
day of your birth. Indicate the ACTUAL TIME (not the solar time) on the sunpath line.
How many hours from sunrise to sunset?
The town used in this exercise is Brooksville, MS. Google provides the latitude and longitude
as 33.21 degrees and 88.56 degrees, rerspectively. 25 March (Julian date is 84) is the day
used.

The generation of the sunpath line for a given day as a function of latitude.

n := 1 .. 365 The days of the year.


The declination angle is the angle between the sun's
Declination Angle
rays and the zenith (overhead) direction at solar noon on

n := 23.45 sin360
( n + 284 ) the equator. The declination is dependent on the Earth's

365 180 position in its orbit around the sun.

Declination for specific day (use Julian date). For March 25, the Julian date is 84.
D := 84 D = 1.21 25 March Declination angle in degrees for use in sunpath generation.

Input the latitude (in degrees):


L := 33.21 Location of Brooksville, MS
Establish range variables for days and hours. Degrees to radian conversion:

hss := 0 .. 180 hsp := hss Hours dr :=
hss 180
.
Calculation of sunpath angles following Goswami et al.

sin1hss := sin( L dr) sin( D dr) + cos( L dr) cos( D dr) cos hsp ( hss
dr ) Altitude angle

1 hss
(
1 hss := asin sin1hss ) ang
hss
:=
dr
Altitude angle in degrees

sin1as := cos( D dr)


(
sin hsp
hss
dr )
hss (
cos 1 hss ) Azimuth angle

Test for azimuth angle > 90 degrees.


Since the principal values of the arcsin are defined for -90 degrees < angle < 90 degrees, logic is
needed for any azimuth angle greater than 90 degrees.

acos tan( D dr) 1 if L > D


hlimit :=
tan( L dr) dr
0 otherwise
hlimit = 88.15 Hour angle at 90-degree azimuth for given day.

Definition of arcsin function to include azimuth angles > 90 degrees.


as1
hss
:= (
asin sin1as )
hss
if hsp
hss
> hlimit

(
asin sin1as )
hss
otherwise
1 hss as1
hss
Change all angles from radians to degrees 1 hss := as1 :=
dr hss dr

Plot the sunpath taking advantage of the symmetry of the morning and afternoon segments.

90
80
70
60
1hss
50
1hss40
30
20
10
0
180 150 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180
as1hss , ( as1) hss

Establish the lines of constant solar time (hour angle) on the sunpath. Each solar hour
corresponds to 15 degrees of hour angle. Thus, 1 PM solar time is 15 degress from solar noon.

solar := 1 15 azi := as1 solar := 1 30 azi := as1


1 1 15 2 2 30

solar := 1 45 azi := as1 solar := 1 60 azi := as1


3 3 45 4 4 60

solar := 1 75 azi := as1 solar := 1 90 azi := as1


5 5 75 6 6 90

solar := 1 105 azi := as1 solar := 1 120 azi := as1


7 7 105 8 8 120

solar := 1 135 azi := as1 solar := 1 150 azi := as1


9 9 135 10 10 150

solar := 1 165 azi := as1 solar := 1 180 azi := as1


11 11 165 12 12 180

solar := 1 0 azi := as1 Solar noon


0 0 0

All of the information and plots generated thusfar in this worksheet have been expressed in
terms of the hour angle (15 degrees per hour) and referenced to solar noon (zero azimuth
angle). For any location and any day of the year a simple procedure is needed to relate solar
time to "real" time. This is done by using the equation of time with a correction of E (in
minutes). Thus,

Solar Time = Standard Time + 4(Standard Longitude - Local Longitude) + E

Standard Time + 1 = Daylight Savings Time


Standard Longitudes for the US time zones are: 75 degrees for Eastern
90 degress for Central
105 degrees for Mountain
120 degrees for Pacific

Equation of Time
n := 1 .. 365

360 ( n 81)
B := (in radians)
n 364 180

E := 9.87 sin 2 B
n ( n ) 7.53 cos(Bn) 1.5 sin(Bn)
20
CORRECTION E IN MINUTES

15

10

5
En
0

10

15
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390
n

JULIAN DATE
THE EQUATION OF TIME
In this figure, the abscissa is the Julian date (the number of the day of the year with 1 Jan as
1) and the correction E is in minutes.
E = 6.577
The Julian date for 25 March is 84. From the equation of time 84

Daylight savings time starts the second sunday in March; thus 25 March will be in DST.

DST = solar time + 1 hr - 4(standard longitude - local longitude) min - E min

DST (21 June) = solar time + 1 hr - 4(90 - 88.56) min -(-6.577 min)

DST(21 June) = solar time + 1 hr - 5.76 min + 6.6577 min

DST(21 June) = solar time + 60.90 min = solar time + 1.015 hr

Thus, on 25 March, Central Daylight Savings Time is 60.90 min or 1.015 hr ahead of solar
time. For example solar noon would occur at 1:0.90 pm.

90

80

70

60
1:0.90 pm
1hss
12:0.90 am 2:0.90 pm
solar 50
11:0.90 am 3:0.90 pm
1hss
40
solar
10:0.90 am 4:0.90 pm
30
9:0.90 am 5:0.90 pm
20
8:0.90 am 6:0.90 pm
10

0 7:0.90 am 7:090 pm
180 150 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180
as1hss , azi , as1hss , azi
9. Develop a figure showing the sunpath lines for the latitude of Washington,
DC. Washington Reagan-National AP is located at 38 51' N, 77 2' W.
The generation of the sunpath chart as a function of latitude.
n := 1 .. 365 The days of the year.

Declination Angle
The declination angle is the angle between the sun's

n := 23.45 sin360
( n + 284 )
rays and the zenith (overhead) direction at solar noon on
365 180 the equator. The declination is dependent on the Earth's
position in its orbit around the sun.
Declination for specific days

D0 := 355 21 Dec D1 := 21 21 Jan D2 := 52 21 Feb D3 := 80 21 March

D4 := 111 21 April D5 := 141 21 May D6 := 172 21 June

23.45 Declination angle in degrees for use in sunpath generation.



20.138
11.226
D = 0.404

11.579
20.138
23.45

Input the latitude (in degrees):
L := 38.85 Latitude of Washington Reagan-National Airport
Establish range variables for days and hours. Degrees to radian conversion:
i := 0 .. 6 Days of interest
dr :=
180
hss := 0 .. 180 hsp := hss Hours
hss
.
Calculation of sunpath angles following Kreith and Kreider.

( )
sinhss , i := sin( L dr) sin Di dr + cos( L dr) cos Di dr cos hsp ( ) ( hss
dr ) Altitude angle

hss , 6
(
hss , i := asin sinhss , i ) ang
hss
:=
dr
Altitude angle in degrees

sinas (
:= cos Di dr )
(
sin hsp
hss
dr ) Azimuth angle
hss , i (
cos hss , i )
Test for azimuth angle > 90 degrees.
Since the principal values of the arcsin are defined for -90 degrees < angle < 90 degrees, logic is
needed for any azimuth angle greater than 90 degrees.
1 tan( Di dr)
hlimit := acos
i dr tan( L dr)
T
hlimit = ( 122.584 117.082 104.266 90.501 75.263 62.918 57.416 )

Hour angles at a 90-degree azimuth for a given latitude.

Definition of arcsin function to include azimuth angles > 90 degrees.

as
hss , i
:= asin sinas ( hss , i ) if hsp
hss
> hlimit
i

(
asin sinas )
hss , i
otherwise
hss , i as
hss , i
Change all angles from radians to degrees hss , i := as :=
dr hss , i dr

i i
For ease of plotting redefine hss,i and ashss,i as Yi and X i, respectively.Y := X := as
i i

90

80

70
Y0

Y1 60
ALTITUDE ANGLE

Y2
50
Y3

Y4 40

Y5
30
Y6

20

10

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6

AZIMUTH ANGLE
SUNPATH LINES FOR GIVEN LATITUDE
Establish the lines of constant solar time (hour angle) on the sunpath. Each solar hour
corresponds to 15 degrees of hour angle. Thus, 1 PM solar time is 15 degress from solar noon.
solar1 := 15 , i azi1 := as solar2 := 30 , i azi2 := as
i i 15 , i i i 30 , i

solar3 := 45 , i azi3 := as solar4 := 60 , i azi4 := as


i i 45 , i i i 60 , i

solar5 := 75 , i azi5 := as solar6 := 90 , i azi6 := as


i i 75 , i i i 90 , i

solar7 := 105 , i azi7 := as solar8 := 120 , i azi8 := as


i i 105 , i i i 120 , i

solar9 := 135 , i azi9 := as solar10 := 150 , i azi10 := as


i i 135 , i i i 150 , i

solar11 := 165 , i azi11 := as solar12 := 180 , i azi12 := as


i i 165 , i i i 180 , i
90

Y0

Y1 80

Y2

Y3 70

Y4

Y5
60
Y6
ALTITUDE ANGLE

solar1i
50
solar2i

solar3i
40
solar4i

solar5i
30
solar6i

solar7i
20
solar8i

solar9i
10

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
X0 , X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , X5 , X6 , azi1i , azi2i , azi3i , azi4i , azi5i , azi6i , azi7i , azi8i , azi9i

AZIMUTH ANGLE