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The main purpose of this work is to investigate the porous medium and diffusion thermo effects on unsteady combined convection magneto hydrodynamics boundary layer flow of viscous electrically conducting fluid over a vertical porous surface in the presence of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation. The slip boundary condition is applied at the porous surface. A uniform Magnetic field is applied normal to the direction of the fluid flow. The non-linear coupled partial differential equation are solved by perturbation method and obtained the expressions for concentration, temperature and velocity fields. The rate of mass transfer in terms of Sherwood number h , the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number Nu and the Skin friction coefficient Cf are also derived. The Profiles of fluid flow and derived quantities for various values of physical parameters are presented and analyzed.

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Reactive Flow Over a Vertical Porous Surface in

the Presence of Diffusion-Thermo Effect

G. Sreenivasulu Reddy1, S.Geethan Kumar2, S. Karunakar Reddy3, P. Durga Prasad4*,

S.Vijayakumar Varma5

1

Reader in Mathematics, Govt. Degree College, Pakala, Chittoor, A.P, India

3

Department of Mathematics, JNTU Hyderabad, Telangana, India

2,4,5

Department of Mathematics, S.V.University, Tirupati, India

the porous medium and diffusion thermo effects on Thermal Grashoff number

unsteady combined convection magneto hydrodynamics Coefficient of mass diffusivity

boundary layer flow of viscous electrically conducting Thermal diffusion ratio

fluid over a vertical porous surface in the presence of first Absorption coefficient at the wall

order chemical reaction and thermal radiation. The slip Magnetic field parameter

boundary condition is applied at the porous surface. A Radiation parameter

uniform Magnetic field is applied normal to the direction Nusselt number

of the fluid flow. The non-linear coupled partial Constant

differential equation are solved by perturbation method

Pressure

and obtained the expressions for concentration, Prandtl number

temperature and velocity fields. The rate of mass transfer Heat source/sink parameter

in terms of Sherwood number , the rate of heat transfer

Sink strength

in terms of Nusselt number and the Skin friction 0 Dimensional heat absorption coefficient

coefficient are also derived. The Profiles of fluid flow 1 Absorption of radiation parameter

and derived quantities for various values of physical Coefficient of proportionality for the absorption

parameters are presented and analyzed. Radiative heat flux

KeywordsDiffusion-thermo effect, Thermal radiation, Schmidt number

Chemical reaction, Magnetic field, Absorption of Sherwood number

Radiation. Fluid Temperature

Temperature of the fluid near the plate

Nomenclature Temperature at the wall

Suction velocity parameter

Temperature far away from the plate

0 Magnetic field of uniform strength

, Components of dimensional velocities

Species concentration Velocity of the fluid along

Dimensional concentration

Free stream dimensional velocity

Specific heat at constant pressure

Wall dimensional velocity

Concentration susceptibility

Velocity of the fluid along

Species concentration at plate

0 Scale of free stream velocity

Species concentration far away from the plate

0 Section velocity

Skin friction coefficient

Specific heat at a constant pressure

Molecular diffusivity

Specific heat at a constant volume

Plancks function

, Dimensional the distances along and

Acceleration due to gravity

perpendicular to the plate

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Local Reynolds number Heat source parameter

Greek Ssymbols 1 Slip parameter

Fluid dynamic viscosity Thermal conductivity

Fluid thermal diffusivity Supersripts

Coefficient of kinematic viscosity Differentiation with respect to y

Coefficient of Volumetric expansion for the heat * Dimensional properties

transfer Subscripts

Coefficient of Volumetric expansion for the fluid p Plate

0 Magnetic field coefficient w Wall condition

, Thermal and concentration expansion coefficients Free stream condition

Density of the fluid

Electrically conductivity of the fluid I. INTRODUCTION

Dimensionless normal distance

Fluid currents formed in a fluid-saturated porous medium field on an electrically conducting viscous fluid in a

during convective heat transfer have many important horizontal channel bounded on both sides porous

applications, such as oil and gas production, central grain substrates of finite thickness was studied Rudraiah et al.

storage, porous insulation, and geothermal energy. The [10], which is equivalent to the problem of forced

study of natural convection through porous medium also convection where the momentum equation is independent

throws some light on the influence of environment such as of concentration distribution and the diffusion equation is

temperature and pressure on the germination of seeds. In coupled with the velocity distribution using Beavers-

many situations, the heat and mass transfer on the Joseph slip condition at the porous interface.

hydromagnetic flow near the vertical plate is encountered In many chemical engineering processes, the chemical

e.g., the cooling of nuclear reactor with electrically reaction occurs between a foreign mass and the fluid in

conducting coolants such as liquid sodium and mercury, which the plate is moving. These processes take place in

studied by Rath and Parida [1]. Raptis [2] , Jha and Prasad numerous industrial applications e.g., manufacturing of

[3] have studied the steady free-convection flow and mass ceramics or glassware, polymer production, and food

transfer through a porous mediumbounded by an infinite processing. Chemical reactions can be codified as either

vertical plate for the flow near plateby using the model of homogeneous or heterogeneous processes. This depends

Yamamoto and Iwamura [4]. Gebhart and Pera[5] have on whether these occur at an interface or as a single phase

studied the laminar flows which arise in fluids due to the volume reaction. Many transport processes exist in a

interaction of the force of gravity and density differences nature and mass transfer as a result of combined buoyancy

caused by the simultaneous diffusion of thermal energy effects of thermal diffusion and diffusion of chemical

and of chemical species. species. Apelblat [11] studied analytical solution for mass

As stated by Pal and Talukdar [6], convection in porous transfer with a chemical reaction of the first order. Das et

media has gained significant attention in recent years al. [12] have analyzed the effects of homogeneous first

because of its importance in engineering applications such order chemical reaction on the flow past an impulsively

as solid matrix heat exchangers, geothermal systems, started infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux and

thermal insulations, oil extraction and store of nuclear mass transfer. Chambre and Young [13] have analyzed a

waste materials. Convection in porous media also is first order chemical reaction in the neighborhood of a

applied to underground coal gasification, ground water horizontal plate.

hydrology, iron blast furnaces, wall cooled catalytic Radiative convective flows are encountered in various

reactors, solar power collectors, energy efficient drying ways in the environment e.g., heating and cooling

processes, cooling of electronic equipments and natural chambers, evaporation from large open water reservoirs,

convection in earths crust. Reviews of the applications fossil fuel combustion energy processes, solar power

associated to convective flows in porous media can be technology, astrophysical flows, and space vehicle re-

found in Nield and Bejan [7].The fundamental problems entry. Radiative heat and mass transfer play an important

of flow through and past porous media has been studied role in manufacturing industries for the design of reliable

extensively over the years both theoretically and equipment. Nuclear power plants, gas turbines, and

experimentally by Cheng [8] and Rudraiah[9].The effect various propulsion devices for satellites, missiles, aircraft

of Beavers-Joseph slip velocity and transverse magnetic and various space vehicles are examples of such

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engineering applications. If the temperature of the transfer along a permeable vertical infinite plate in the

surrounding fluid is rather high, radiation effects play an presence of radiation and solutions are derived using

important role and this situation does exist in space Kellar box scheme and accurate finite-difference scheme.

technology. In such cases, one has to take into account the Ahmed [32] investigated the study of influence of thermal

effect of thermal radiation and mass diffusion. radiation and magnetic Prandtl number on the steady

The thermal radiation effects of an optically thin gray gas MHD heat and mass transfer mixed convection flow of a

bounded by a stationary vertical plate was studied by viscous, incompressible, electrically-conducting

England and Emery [14]. The radiative natural convective Newtonian fluid over a vertical porous plate with induced

flow of an optically thin gray-gas past a semi-infinite magnetic field.

vertical plate was considered by Soundalgekar and Takhar When heat and mass transfer occur simultaneously in

[15]. In all above studies, the stationary vertical plate is moving fluid, the relations between the fluxes and the

considered. The effects of the thermal radiation and free driving potentials are of a more intricate nature. It has

convection flow past a moving vertical plate studied by been observed that an energy flux can be generated not

Raptis and Perdikis [16].Ibrahim et al. [18]have recently only by temperature gradients but also by concentration

reported computational solutions for transient reactive gradients. The energy flux caused by a concentration

magneto hydrodynamic heat transfer with heat source and gradient is termed the diffusion-thermo (Dufour) effect.In

wall flux effects. They have also analyzed the effects of most of the studies related to heat and mass transfer

the chemical reaction and radiation absorption on the process, Soret and Dufour effects are neglected on the

unsteady MHD free convection flow past a semi-infinite basis that they are of a smaller order of magnitude than the

vertical permeable moving plate with heat source and effects described by Fouriers and Ficks laws. But these

suction. Due to the importance of Soret (thermal- effects are considered as second order phenomena and

diffusion) and Dufour (diffusion thermo) effects for the may become significant in areas such as hydrology,

fluids with very light molecular weight as well as medium petrology, geosciences, etc. For fluids with medium

molecular weight many investigators have studied and molecular weight (H2, air), Dufour and Soret effects

reported results for these flows of whom the names are should not be neglected as indicated by Eckert and Drake

Dursunkaya and Worek [19], Anghel et al. [20], [17] Prakash etal. [33] analyzed Diffusion-Thermo and

Postelnicu [21] are worth mentioning. Radiation Effects on Unsteady MHD Flow through Porous

Chamkha[24] investigated unsteady convective heat and Medium Past an Impulsively Started Infinite Vertical Plate

mass transfer past a semi-infinite porous moving plate with Variable Temperature and Mass Diffusion. To our

with heat absorption. Chamkha[25] studied the MHD flow best knowledge, the interaction between the diffusion-

of a numerical of uniformly stretched vertical permeable thermo and chemical reaction in the presence of porous

surface in the presence of heat generation/absorption and a medium, heat absorption/generation, thermal radiation,

chemical reaction. Mohamed [26] has discussed double radiation absorption effects has received little attention.

diffusive convection radiation interaction on unsteady Hence, an attempt is made to study the diffusion-thermo

MHD flow over a vertical moving porous plate with heat effects on an unsteady MHD free convective heat and

generation and Soret effects. Muthucumaraswamy and mass transfer flow of a viscous incompressible electrically

Janakiraman[27] studied MHD and radiation effects on conducting fluid through porous medium from a vertical

moving isothermal vertical plate with variable mass porous plate with varying suction velocity in slip flow

diffusion.Rajesh and Varma[28] studied thermal diffusion regime.

and radiation effects on MHD flow past a vertical plate To the best of our knowledge, the interaction between the

with variable temperature.Kumar and Varma[29] diffusion-thermo and chemical reaction in the presence of

investigated thermal radiation and mass transfer effects on porous medium, heat absorption/generation, thermal

MHD flow past an impulsively started exponentially radiation, radiation absorption effects has received little

accelerated vertical plate with variable temperature and attention. Hence, an attempt is made to study the

mass diffusion. Raptis et al.[30] studied the diffusion-thermo effects on an unsteady MHD free

hydromagnetic free convection flow of an optically thin convective heat and mass transfer flow of a viscous

gray gas taking into account the induced magenetic field incompressible electrically conducting fluid through

in the presence of radiation and the analytical solutions porous medium from a vertical porous plate with varying

were obtained by perturbation technique. Orhan and suction velocity in slip flow regime.

Ahmad [31] examined MHD mixed convective heat

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II. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION our assumption that there is no applied voltage which

Consider an unsteady two dimensional flow of an implies the absence of an electric field. The plate is

incompressible viscous, electrically conducting and heat- maintained at constant temperature and

absorbing fluid past a semi-infinite vertical permeable concentration , higher than the ambient temperature

plate embedded in a uniform porous medium and and concentration respectively. The chemical reactions

subjected to a uniform transverse magnetic field in the are taking place in the flow and all thermo physical

presence of thermal and concentration buoyancy effects. properties areassumed to be constant. Due to the semi-

The applied magnetic field is also taken as being weak so infinite plane surface assumption, the flow

that Hall and ion slip effects may be neglected. We variables are functions of and time only.Under the

assume that the Dufour effects may be described by a usual boundary layer approximations the governing

second-order concentration derivative with respect to the equations are governed by the following equations.

transverse coordinate in the energy equation. Further to

=0 (1)

1 2 02

+ = + 2 + ( ) + ( ) (2)

2 1 0 1 2

+ = ( ) + ( ) + (3)

2 2

2

+ = 2 ( ) (4)where , and are the dimensional distances along and directions

and dimensional time respectively, and are the components of dimensional velocities along and

directionsrespectively, is the dimensional temperature, is the dimensional concentration, and are the temperature

and concentration at the wall, and are the free stream dimensional concentration and temperature, is the density, is

kinematic viscosity, is the specific heat at constant pressure, is the fluid electrical conductivity, 0 is the magnetic

induction, is the permeability of the porous medium, is radiative heat flux, 0 is the dimensional heat absorption

coefficient, 1 is the coefficient of proportionality for the absorption, R is the chemical reaction, and are the thermal and

concentration expansion coefficients, D is the molecular diffusivity, is the coefficient of mass diffusivity, is the thermal

diffusion ratio,

0 ( )is assumed to be the amount of heat generated or absorbed per unit volume and 0 is a constant.

The radiative heat flux is considered, which is given by Cogley et al. [22], Pal and Talukdar [6] as

= 4( ) (5)

where = 0 , the coefficient of absorption near the wall and is Plancks function.

Under the above stated assumption, the initial and boundary conditions for the velocity distribution involving slip flow,

temperature and concentration distributions are defined as:

= = , = + ( ) = 0 (6)

= + ( ) (7) , at = 0

=

= 0 (1 + ), ,

, as (8)

From Eq. (1) it is clear that the suction velocity at the plate surface is either constant or a function of time only. Hence, it is

assumed that

= 0 (1 + ) (9)

where 0 is the mean suction velocity and 1. The negative sign indicated that the suction velocity is directed towards the

plate.

In the free stream Eq.(2) gives

1

= + 02

(10)

On introducing the non-dimensional quantities

0

= = , = , = ,

0 0 0

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02

= , = , = ,

( )

= 2 , = ,

0 0 02

( ) 02

= 2 , = ,

0 0 02

0 1 ( )

= , = 2 , 1 = 2 ,

0 0 ( )

4

= 2 , = , = 2 ,

0 0

( )

= (11)

( )

In view of the above dimensionless variables, the basic field of Eqs. (2) to (4) can be expressed in dimensionless form as

2

(1 + ) = + ( ) + + + , (12)

2

1 2 2

(1 + ) = + 1 + ( ) (13)

2 2

1 2

(1 + ) = (14)

2

The corresponding initial and boundary conditions in equations (6)-(8) in non-dimensional form are given below

= = 1 , = 1 + ,

= 1 + at y = 0 (15)

= (1 + ) , 0, 0

(16)

The equations (12) to (14) are coupled non-linear partial differential equations whose solutions in closed-form are difficult to

obtain.To solve these coupled non-linear partial differential equations, we assume that the unsteady flow is superimposed on

the mean steady flow, so that in the neighbourhood of the plate, we have

= 0 ()+ 1 () + (2 ) (17)

= 0 ()+ 1 () + (2 ) (18)

= 0 ()+ 1 () + (2 ) (19)

By substituting the set of Eqs. (17)-(19) into Eqs.(12)-(14) and equating the harmonic and non-harmonic terms, and neglecting

the higher order terms in , we obtain

0 + 0 1 0 = 1 0 0 (20)

1 + 1 1 = ( + )

0 1 1 (21)

0 + 0 Pr( + )0 = 1 0 0

(22)

1 + 1 Pr( + + )1 = 1 1 1 0

(23)

0 + Sc0 0 = 0 (24)

1 + 1 ( + )1 = 0 (25)

where the prime denotes the differentiation with respect to y. Now the corresponding boundary conditions are

0 = 1 0 , 1 = 1 1 , 0 = 1,

1 = 1, 0 = 1, 1 = 1 = 0 (26)

0 = 1, 1 = 1, 0 0, 1 0, 0 0,

1 0, as y . (27)

By solving the set of Eqs.(20)- (25) with the help of boundary conditions (26)-(27), the following set of solutions are

obtained

0 = 1 + 4 6 3 2 2 1 (28)

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1 = 1 + 5 3 + 4 6 10 2 1 1 2 5 3 4 (29)

0 = (1 1 ) 2 + 1 1 (30)

1 = 9 5 + 6 1 + 7 2 + 8 4 (31)

0 = 1 (32)

1 = (1 5 ) 4 + 5 1 (33)

(, ) = 1 + 4 6 3 2 2 1 + (1 + 5 3 + 4 6 10 2 1 1 2 5

3 4 ) (34)

(, ) = (1 1 ) 2 + 1 1 +

(9 5 + 6 1 + 7 2 + 8 4 ) (35)

1 ) 4 1

(, ) = + ((1 5 + 5 ) (36)

The coefficient of Skin-friction, the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number and the rate of mass transfer are the

important physical parameters for this kind of boundary layer flow. Hence these quantities are defined and derived as follows:

u

= =( ) = 4 6 + 3 2 + 2 1 + (5 3 4 6 + 10 2 + 1 1 + 2 5 + 3 4 ) (37)

0 0 y =0

( )

=0

= = ( ) = (2 (1 1 ) 1 1 )+ (5 9 1 6 2 7 4 8 )

( ) =0

(38)

( )

=0

= ,

( )

= ( )

=0

= 1 + (4 (1 5 ) 5 1 ) (39)

0

Where = is the local Reynolds number.

The analytical solutions are performed for concentration,

temperature and velocity for various values of fluid flow 1 ,Solutal Grashof number Gr,

permeability parameter

parameters such as Schmidt number Sc , chemical mass Grashof num Gm are presented in figures 1-15.

reaction parameter , Dufour number Du Magnetic field Throughout the calculations the parametric values are

parameter M ,Heat absorption parameter , Radiation chosen as Pr 0.71, A 0.5, 0.02, n 0.1, t 1.

1.6 1.6

F=1 =0.00

1.5 F=2 1.5 =0.50

F=3 =0.75

1.4 F=4 1.4 =1.00

1.3 1.3

1.2 1.2

u

1.1 1.1

1 1

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

y y

Fig.1: Velocity Profiles for various values of F Fig.2: = 0.6, = 4.0, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, =

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with, = 4.0, = 0.6, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, = 1, = 2.0, = 0.3, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0.

1, = 2.0, = 0.5, 1 = 0.3, = 0.5.

1.5 1.5

M=1 =0

M=2 =1

1.4 1.4

M=3 =2

M=4 =3

1.3 1.3

1.2 1.2

u

u

1.1 1.1

1 1

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

y y

Fig.3: .Velocity profiles for various values of Fig.4: Velocity profiles for various values of

with, = 0.6, = 4.0, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, = with = 0.6, = 4.0, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, =

1.0, = 0.3, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0, = 1. 0.3, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0, = 1, = 2.

1.5 1.5

Q1=1 Gr=0

Q1=2 1.4 Gr=1

1.4 Gr=2

Q1=3

Gr=3

Q1=4 1.3

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.1

u

1.1

1

1

0.9

0.9 0.8

0.8 0.7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

y y

Fig.5: Velocity profiles for various values of Fig.6: Velocity profiles for various values of

1 with = 0.6, , = 4.0, = 2.0, = 2.0, = with = 0.6, = 3.0, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, =

0.1, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0, = 1, = 1.0. 0.3, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0, = 1, = 1.0

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1.5 1.6

Gm=0

Gm=1 1.4

1.4

Gm=2

Gm=3 1.2

1.3 1=0.0

1

1=0.1

1.2 0.8 1=0.3

u

u

1=0.5

1.1 0.6

0.4

1

0.2

0.9

0

0.8 -0.2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

y y

Fig.7: Velocity profiles for various values of Fig.8: Velocity profiles for various values of

Gmwith = 0.6, , = 4.0, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, = 1 with = 0.6, = 4.0,

0.3, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0, = 1, = 1.0. = 3.0, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, = 0.3, = 2.0, =

0.5, = 1.0.

1.6 1.3

Sc=0.16

1.5 Sc=0.60 1.2

Sc=1.00

Sc=2.00 1.1

1.4

1

1.3

0.9

1.2

u

0.8

u

Dotted line:Gr= -4, Gm= -2

1.1 0.7 for Du=0,1,2,3

0.6

1

0.5

0.9

0.4

0.8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

y 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

y

Fig.9: Velocity profiles for various values ofSc Fig.10: Velocity profiles for various values

with = 2.0, = 2.0, = 2.0, 1 = 2.0, = with = 0.6, 1 = 2.0, = 0.5, 1 = 0.3, =

0.1, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0, = 0.5, = 1.0. 2.0, = 1.0, = 0.5, = 2.0.

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1.4 1.4

F=1 =0

F=2 =1

1.2 1.2

F=3 =2

F=4 =3

1 1

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

y y

Fig.11: Temperature profiles for various values Fig.12:Temperature profiles for various values

ofwith = 0.6, = 4.0, = 3.0, = 2.0, 1 = ofwith = 0.6, = 4.0, = 3.0, = 2.0, 1 =

2.0, = 0.5, 1 = 0.3, = 1.0. 2.0, = 0.5, 1 = 0.3, = 2.0,

= 1.0.

1.4 2.5

Q1=1

Dotted line: =1.0, Du=0,1,2,3

1.2 Q1=2 Solid line: = -0.5, Du=1,2,3

Q1=3 2

1 Q1=4

1.5

0.8

0.6 1

0.4

0.5

0.2

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 y

y

Fig.13:Temperature profiles for various values Fig. 14:Temperature profiles for various with =

of1 with = 0.6, = 4.0, = 3.0, = 0.6, 1 = 2.0, = 2.0, = 0.5.

2.0, = 0.5, = 2.0, = 1.0, = 0.5.

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1.4

Sc=0.16

Sc=0.60

1.2

Sc=1.00

Sc=2.00

1

0.8

C

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

y

Sc with = 0.5.

Table.1: Comparison of present results with those of Kim [23] & Pal and Talukdar [6] with different values of C fx ,

Nux Rex

Kim[23] Pal and Talukdar [6] Present Results

( = 2, = , = 0) = 2, = 0, 1 = 0, = 0, = 2, = 0, 1 = 0,

( )

1 = 0, = 0 = 0, 1 = 0,

= 0, = 0

M C fx Nux Re x M C fx Nux Re x C fx Nux Re x

M

0 4.5383 -0.9430 0 4.5383 -0.9430 0 4.5383 -0.9430

2 3.9234 -0.9430 2 3.9234 -0.9430 2 3.9234 -0.9430

5 4.4457 -0.9430 5 4.4457 -0.9430 5 4.4457 -0.9430

10 5.2976 -0.9430 10 5.2976 -0.9430 10 5.2976 -0.9430

Table: 2: Comparison of present results with those of Pal and Talukdar [6] with different values of C fx , Nux Rex ( =

(Pal and Talukdar [6]) (Present results)

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0.0 0 4.0441 -1.3400 -0.8098 4.0442 -1.3400 -0.8098

0.50 3.7512 -1.4825 -1.1864 3.7513 -1.4825 -1.1864

0.75 3.6744 -1.5226 -1.3178 3.6744 -1.5227 -1.3178

1.00 3.6149 -1.5546 -1.4325 3.6149 -1.5546 -1.4326

0.1, = 0.5

1 C fx F C fx Nux Re x

0.0 6.2727 1.0 3.6557 -0.8319

0.1 4.9698 2.0 3.5111 -1.3014

0.3 3.5111 3.0 3.4129 -1.6742

0.5 2.7143 4.0 3.3400 -1.9860

The effect of radiation parameteris shown in fig.1.It is correspond to an increased domination of conduction over

observed in this figure that velocity profiles decrease with absorption radiation, thereby increasing buoyancy force

an increase in the radiation parameter. It is clear that, the and thickness of the thermal and momentum boundary

increase of the radiation parameter leads to decrease the layer. From fig.5, it is clear that the velocity starts from

momentum boundary layer thickness and reduces the heat minimum value of zero at the surface and increases till

transfer rate in the presence of thermal and solutal attains the peak value. For different values of the thermal

buoyancy forces. Fig.2 illustrates the effect of chemical buoyancy force parameter and solutal buoyancy force

reaction parameter .It is clear that at first the velocity parameter are plotted in figs. 6 and 7. As seen from

increases and later on decreases uniformly with the figures that maximum peak value is attained and

increasing values of. It is interesting to observe that the minimum peak value is observed in the absence of

peak values of the velocity profiles attain near the porous buoyancy force. This is due to fact that buoyancy force

boundary surface.The velocity profiles for different values enhances fluid velocity and increases the layer thickness

of magnetic parameter are depicted in fig.3. From this with increase in the value of .Fig.8 illustrates the

figure it is clear that as the magnetic field parameter variation of velocity distribution across the boundary layer

increases, the Lorentz force, which opposes the fluid flow for various values of the slip parameter1 . It is observed

also increases and leads to an enhance deceleration of the that the velocity increases near the source and reaches the

flow. This result qualitatively agrees with the expectations free stream condition. The permeability 1 is directly

since the magnetic field exerts retarding force on the free proportional to square root of the actual permeability.

convection flow. Fig.4 represents the fluid velocity Hence, an increase in 1 will decrease the resistance of

decreases as the heat absorption parameter increases the porous medium which will tend to accelerate the flow

and hence momentum boundary layer thickness decrease. and increase the velocity.

Figs. 5 and 13 display the effects of the radiation The influence of Schmidt number on the velocity

absorption parameter 1 on velocity and temperature profiles are shown in fig.9. We observe in fig.9 that at

fields. It is obvious from the figures that an increase in the very low values of Schmidt number (e.g., = 0.16 ),

absorption radiation parameter 1 results an increase in there is an increase in the peak velocity near the

the velocity and temperature profiles within the boundary plate ( 1) . Whereas for higher values of Schmidt

layer as well as an increasee in the momentum and number, the peak shifts closer to the plate. Further it is

thermal thickness. This is because the large values of 1

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-4, Issue-5, May- 2017]

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observed that the momentum boundary layer decreases are presented in Table. 3. It is observed that the skin

with an increase in the value of. friction at the plate decreases with increasing 1 or F. As

The temperature profiles for different values of the the radiation parameter increases the heat is transfered

radiation parameter are shown in fig.11.It is observed from the plate to the fluid.

that an increase in the radiation parameter results a

decrease of the thermal boundary layer thickness. Further V. COMPARISON OF RESULTS

it is observed from that, the temperature is very high at the In order to examine the accuracy of the results of the

porous boundary and asymptotically decreases to zero present study, it is considered that the analytical solutions

as . Fig.12 depicts the variations in temperature obtained by Kim [23], Pal and Talukdar[6] who computed

profile against spanwise co-ordinate for different values the numerical results

of heat absorption parameter . From this figure, it is for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number. These

clearly understood that heat absorption parameter computed and compared results are presented in Table.1.

condenses the thickness of the temperature boundary layer From this table it is interesting to observe that the present

because when heat is absorbed, the buoyancy force results in the absence of Diffusion-thermo effect and

decreases the temperature. The effect of Schmidt number Porous medium are in good agreement with the

on the species concentration profiles is shown in corresponding results obtained from Pal and Talukdar [6].

fig.15.It is clear that the concentration decreases It is also observed that the present results are in good

exponentially and attains free stream condition. Also it is agreement with those of Kim [23] when = 2, =

noticed that the concentration boundary layer thickness 0, = 0, = 0. Also from Table. 2, it is clear that the

decreases with. present results for skin-friction, Nusselt number and

The temperature profiles for different values of Dufour Sherwood number for different values of chemical

number in heat absorption ( > 0) and heat generation reaction in the absence of porous medium and diffusion

( < 0) cases are shown in fig.14. It can be seen that the thermo effect are in good agreement with the

fluid temperature increases with Dufour number in both corresponding results of Pal and Talukdar [6], which

the cases. Thermal boundary layer thickness is higher in clearly shows the correctness of our present analytical

the case of heat absorption than that in the case of heat solutions and computed results.

generation. Physically, the Dufour term that appears in the

temperature equation measures the contribution of VI. CONCLUSIONS

concentration gradient to thermal energy flux in the flow In this paper we have studied the Dufour effect on an

domain. It has a vital role in enhancing the flow velocity unsteady MHD convective heat and mass transfer flow

and the ability to increase the thermal energy in the through a high porous medium over a vertical porous

boundary layer. As a result, the temperature profile at all plate. From the present study the following conclusions

time stages increases with the increase in Du. can be drawn.

Fig.10 displays the velocity profiles for various values 1. The diffusion-thermo parameter increases the

Dufour number in the cases of cooling and heating of the thermal and momentum boundary layer thickness.

plate. The velocity increases with Dufour number in the 2. The fluid velocity increases with an increasing

case of heating of the plate and opposite trend is observed values of slip parameter1 .

in the case of cooling of the plate. 3. The skin friction at the plate increases with an

From Table.1 and Table.2, it is observed that the skin increasing values of .

friction at the plate decreases with increasing chemical 4. The rate of heat transfer coefficient at the plate

reaction parameter or Magnetic parameter. It is also ( Nux ) increase with Dufour number while it is

noticed that the Nusselt number and Sherwood number

decreases as chemical reaction parameter () or

decreases with increase in .

Radiation parameter () increases.

The influence of slip parameter1 on skin-friction, and

radiation parameteron skin-friction and Nusselt number

Appendix

+( 2 +4) + 2 +4(+) 1+4(1 +)

1 = , 2 = , 3 = ,

2 2 2

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-4, Issue-5, May- 2017]

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+ 2 +4(+) + 2 +4Pr(++) 1+1+41 (1 12 )

4 = ,5 = ,6 = , 1 = ,

2 2 2 (12 1 (+))

(1 +) (11 ) 6 4 1

2 = , 3 = , 4 = , 5 =

(12 1 1 ) (22 2 1 ) (62 6 (1 +)) (12 1 (+))

(1 5 5 12 +1 1 ) (2 1 2 ) (1 +5 1 42 +5 42 )

6 = ,7 = , 8 =

(12 1 Pr(++)) (22 2 Pr(++)) (42 4 Pr(++))

3 2 +7 +6 +5 9

9 = 1 (6 + 7 + 8 ),10 = , = 22 1 ,2 = 2

(22 2 (1 +)) 1 1 1 (1 +) 5 5 (1 +)

8 +(15 ) (1+2 +3 +2 1 1 +3 1 2 ) (1+4 10 1 2 3 )

3 = , 4 = , 5 = +1 ,

42 4 (1 +) (1+ ) 1 6 (1+ ) 1 3

1 (4 6 + 10 2 + 1 1 + 2 5 + 3 4 )

1 =

(1 + 1 3 )

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