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Answers to investigation questions 2016

1
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number

5(a) 1. iodine; if iodine for glucose goes 4 max


blue black = 0
2. blue / black / blue black = starch;
only award Mp1 and Mp3
3. Benedicts / eq; if linked to correct test
4. heat / use water bath / eq; heat must be linked to
5. red / orange / yellow / green = glucose; Benedicts

(b) 4
2
Question Group Example
Answerfrom the Molecule used toNotes Marks
number
group store carbohydrate
3(a) (i) safety glasses / wear gloves ; Ignore lab coat / tie 1
animals (cat) hair back / eq
glycogen;
Ignore in plants sugar /
plants (maize) starch / sucrose;
(ii) 11/ eleven; glucose / fructose 1
fungi mucor / yeast / glycogen;
mushroom / mould /
(b) (i) remove starch / solution from surface of Ignore get into 1
syringe / eq; eq; syringe Allow
1
Fomes formentarius / eq
(ii) mix contents / mix amylase and starch / eq; Mix alone = 0 1
Allow enzyme and
starch

(iii) keep at correct temperature / Total 8 m


keep temperature constant / eq; Ignore fair test

(c) (i) 1. volume / concentration of amylase; Allow amount only 2


2. volume / concentration of starch; once
3. volume / concentration of iodine /
drops of iodine;
4. volume / concentration of mixture;

(ii) temperature; Ignore time 1

(d) 1. 6 minutes / between 5 and 6 minutes / eq; Reject 6-7 mins 3

2. iodine stays yellow / orange / brown /


iodine stays same colour / colourless /
not blue black;

3. no starch present;

4. digested/broken down ;

Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
(e)(i) 1. fewer wells with blue black colour / 2
more wells yellow / orange / brown /
colourless / eq;
2. starch digested sooner / quicker /
reaction completed sooner / eq;

(ii) 1. enzymes work faster at 400C / Ignore ref to denature 2


ref to optimum / eq;
2. more (kinetic) energy /
molecules move faster / eq;
3. more collisions /
more enzyme substrate complexes /eq;

Total 15 marks
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
3
8 (a) protect eyes / prevent blindness / eq; 1

(b) 1. diffusion; 2

2. high concentration to low concentration / eq;

(c) 1; 1

(d) (i) surface area 24 unit cm2;; If number wrong Max 2


but units cm2 or
or mm2 = 1
surface area 2400 unit mm2;;

(ii) volume 8 unit cm3;; If number wrong Max 2


but units cm3 or
or mm3 = 1
volume 8000 unit mm3;;



4
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
6 (a)
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2;; unbalanced but correct =1
eg CO2 + H2O
C6H12O6 + O2;

words alone = 0 2
(b) (i) 1. turn off Bunsen / use water bath / eq;
ignore gloves / protective
2. ethanol is flammable / eq; clothing

OR

3. wear goggles;

4. protect eye;

OR

5. use forceps / tongs;

6. protect fingers / skin;

2
(ii) kill leaf / stop digestion / stop chemical reactions; ignore wax removal / soften
denature enzymes; leaf
1
(iii) 1. remove chlorophyll / remove green (pigment) / ignore remove chloroplasts /
remove colour / to see colour of iodine; destroy chlorophyll

2. allow remove waxy cuticle;


1

(c)(i) 1. place one leaf in light / no cover of leaf;

2. place one leaf in dark / cover part of leaf; 2. eg use of stencil / tape
2
(ii) 1. use variegated leaf / eq;

2. draw pattern of chlorophyll and compare results


/ test white and green parts / eq;
2
(iii) 1. NaOH / soda lime / KOH;

2. absorb / remove carbon dioxide / eq;


2

Total 12 marks


4
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number

9(a)(i) oxygen / O2; Ignore O 1

(ii) Four from: Mps in pairs

1. temperature; Mp2 ignore control of 4 max


2. waterbath / glass screen / eq; room temp. /
using a thermometer

3. carbon dioxide;
4. add same mass of hydrogen carbonate to water / eq;

5. light intensity / wattage of bulb / eq;


6. distance from lamp / use a light meter / same bulb /
background light / eq;
Plant as variable 1 max

7. mass / surface area of plant / number of leaves / species /


same plant;

(b) Ignore 24.6


(i) 25 / 24.7 / 24.6 recurring;
Allow 24.6 = 25 1

Ignore 24.67

1. (red and blue) have been repeated / show

(ii) similar pattern; 2

2. (green) ignored anomalous result /


green only two repeats;

(c) S y axis scale linear and graph at least half the grid; 5

A y axis labelled number of gas bubbles /


number of bubbles / rate of photosynthesis;

U released in one minute / per minute / in one minute;

P average plotted correctly for blue and green;

K colour bars identified;

Line graph loses P


Allow S and A if axes reversed

(d)
1. blue light absorbed;
2 max
2. green light reflected / transmitted / not absorbed / eq;

Total 15 m
5

Question
Answer Notes Marks
number

8(a)(i) all burnt / more burnt / complete combustion / all energy released Ignore speed of burning 1
/ eq;
Allow converse

(ii) 1. less heat loss / prevent heat loss / eq; 1. Ignore energy 2

2. (more) accurate; 2. Ignore precise /


reliable / valid

(b) (i) 1. starch / cellulose / glycogen / polysaccharide; Mp 1 Ignore carbohydrate 2


2. protein;
Mp1 Reject sugar /
glucose / maltose
1
(ii) (yes) food E contains most energy / food with least fat/food A Ignore food with more fat
contains least energy / as fat increases energy increases / contains more energy
indication of correlation / indication of trend / eq; alone 1

(iii) result that does not fit pattern / odd result / outlier / wildly out / Ignore wrong /
rogue value / eq; unexpected / inaccurate /
random

5 Total 7 mark
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
3 (a) (i) flask A 22 and flask B 18 (both temperatures correct) ; units not required 1

(ii) respiration; allow converse


heat released / eq; ignore energy / warmth 2
(b) kill bacteria / kill microorganisms / remove bacteria / no bacteria / ignore other organisms 1
fewer bacteria / sterilise / eq;

(c) oxygen (in) / carbon dioxide (out); ignore air / gas / gas 1
exchange;
reject oxygen out alone /
carbon dioxide in alone
eg to allow oxygen in and
out = 1
allow movement of
oxygen / carbon dioxide

(d) mass / number / age / amount (of seeds) / eq; ignore health / time / 1
outside temperature
ignore size

Total 6

6
Q u e s tio n
Answer Notes Marks
number
5 (a) (i) 1. (flask X) red / orange;

2. (flask Y) yellow; 2

(more) carbon dioxide (in flask Y) / carbon dioxide ignore colour


(ii) produced; eg. goes purple because
of CO2 = 1 1
(b) (i) 1 . colour change faster for small hamster / takes allow converse

less time for small hamster / eq;

2 . more respiration with small hamster / faster
production of carbon dioxide / eq;

3 . larger surface area to volume / loses more heat
maintain body temperature / eq;
2

(ii) 1 . optimum temperature;




2 . enzymes; 2. reject if enzymes die 2

(c) (i) only one reading / not repeated / not


enough results / only one hamster of each
size used / eq; 1

difficult to tell when colour changes / eq; ignore gas escape /


(ii) loose bung
1

(d) 1 . age / species / type; mark first three answers




2 . temperature;

3 . volume of indicator; 3 and 4 ignore amount

4 . concentration of indicator; ignore activity /


size of bell jar
3

7 Total 12 marks
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
7 (a) less carbon dioxide ( in tube) / carbon dioxide absorbed / eq; ignore oxygen 3
photosynthesis;
light;
(b) control / show leaf causes change / (valid) comparison / show nothing happens without 1
indicator does not change colour on its own / eq; a leaf = 1
to show light does not
cause the change = 1

(c) 1 respiration and photosynthesis; rate of photosynthesis is max 2
2 rate of (photosynthesis) = rate of (respiration); the same as rate of
3 less photosynthesis in dim light / eq; respiration = 2
4 carbon dioxide level is constant /
no net input of carbon dioxide /
no net output of carbon dioxide / eq;

(d) (i)
Question distance / wattage / any valid method to change LI / more lamps no credit for change 1
/ eq; Answer intensity ofNotes
light Marks
number
(ii) count bubbles; ignore names of gases max 1
5 (a) measure
1. at lowvolume using
light / up to Asyringe
carbon/ dioxide
measure volume using
released; 2 max
measuring cylinder / collect gas using syringe / collect gas using
measuring
2. carbon cylinder / eq;
dioxide absorbed;
time taken for indicator to change colour;
3. levels off / flattens / plateaus / stays constant /
(iii) repeats
light/no
average
longer ;limiting factor; max 2
similar pattern / eq;
(b) not include anomalies
respiration / remove anomalies / eq;
= photosynthesis; 1

Total 10

(c) 1. hydrogen-carbonate (indicator); Mp 1 ignore other 2 max


indicators

2. yellow in dark / yellow more CO2 / yellow release of CO2; Mp 2 ignore other colours

OR Mp 2 correct for light but


incorrect for CO2 = 0
red/purple in light / red/purple less CO2 /
red/purple absorption of CO2;

Total 5 marks
9

Q u e s tio n
Answer Notes Marks
number
2 (a) (i) 1 . measure mass / measure weight / measure water loss;


2 . in one minute / in an hour / per minute / per hour /
per day / after a period of time / eq; 2. ignore
before and
after /
at the end
of the
experiment 2
(II) 1 . no plant; ignore twig
with no
2 . oil layer and water present; leaves


3 . balance present; ignore
number on
balance

labels not
needed
3

Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
10 (a) potometer; 1

(b) transpiration / evaporation / diffusion; 1

(c) 1 cut under water; Max 4


2 water tight / air tight / seal / eq;
3 how bubble introduced;
4 dry leaves / eq;

5 measure distance bubble moves /


length of bubble eq;
6 scale / ruler / cm / eq;
7 time / second / minute / hour / day;
8 repeat;

(d) (i) blows water away / removes water / eq; 2


(maintains) diffusion gradient / conc. gradient /
eq;
1
(ii) stomata close / pores close; ignore guard cells

(iii) less surface / area; 2


(fewer) idea of reduced number of stomata /
pores;
(e) fan / hairdryer / outdoors / put in a draught / put 1
in open window / eq;

Total 12
11
Question
Answer Marks
number
7 (b) S size at least half grid; 5
A1 axis labelled %/percentage (correct);
A2 axis with % correct linear;
K1 finger, hand and wrist / F,H and W;
K2 0.5, 1, and 2;

(c) finger tips; 3


more correct answers / most success / eq;
at each distance apart / at 0.5 apart;

(d) nerve endings / receptors / nerves / neurones / 2


eq;
more / closer together / closer to skin surface /
eq;
skin thickness;
used for touch / to feel / use of fingers / eq;

(e) fair test / easier or harder to detect / valid 1


(comparison) / eq;
Ignore control / reliable / accurate;

Question Total 13 Marks


Answer Notes Marks
number
12
10 (a) 1. random fertilisation of gametes / eq;

2. variation / mixing genetic material /


genes/alleles from both parents /
genetically different offspring / eq;

3. meiosis / eq; allow random


assortment / crossing
over 2

(b) (i) 1. no petals / small petals; ignore colour / scent

2. exposed stigma / feathery stigma / eq;

3. exposed anthers / exposed filament /


long filaments / exposed stamen /
long stamen / eq; 2

(ii) 1. no nectar / no nectary; ignore sweet / sugar

2. no scent / no smell;

3. no colour / not bright / eq; 2


13
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
3 (a) (i) obtain light for photosynthesis;
1
(ii) 1. light / lamp; ignore temperature /
2. dark room / even illumination / species / water
same light intensity everywhere / eq;
2
(iii) plant upright / clinostat / not on its side / eq; allow answers that
describe a clinostat 1
(b) (i) less/no transpiration / less water loss / ignore drying out
less evaporation / prevent wilting /
prevent flaccid cells / eq;
1
(ii) 1. less/no carbon dioxide; ignore ref to gas
2. photosynthesis; exchange unqualified
3. less glucose / starch / carbohydrate;
4. less cooling / ignore respiration
less transport of water /
less transport of mineral ions;
2
14
(Total for Question 3 = 7 marks)
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number

5(a) (i) (student B) 2 max

1. random / spread out / scattered / eq;

2. used 10 quadrats / repeated use of quadrats / several / eq;

(ii) number / all / total / amount of named species / of a species / number of species = 0 1
of one species;
number of organisms = 0

number of same
organism = 1

number of an organism =
1

Ignore group

(b) (i) (student) B; 1

(ii) (student) D; 1

Total 5 m

14
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
5 (a) S scale linear + use of at least half grid; L lost if points plotted 5
L lines on bars neat; allow yr or y for year
A axes correct way; allow kJ m-2 yr -1
A axes labelled energy + kJ per m2 per year
and A,B,C,D / eq;
P bars at correct height;
(b) temperature / heat; ignore humidity 3
(sun)light / light intensity;
wavelength / colour;
water / rain;
minerals / ions / salts / named mineral / nutrients;
(c) (i) (less) pests / disease control / pesticides / eq; ignore pollution / CO2 2
biological control / predators; levels or other abiotic
fertiliser / fertile soil / crop rotation / legumes / eq; factors
irrigation / watered; ignore glasshouse /
replanting / several plantings per year; polythene
GM / species of plant / different strains / eq;
weed removal;
(ii) man / human / you / farmer; 4
desired characteristic / named feature / eq;
breed / produce offspring / eq;
many generations / eq;
(d) several / use more than one / sample / repeat / eq; allow if implicit Max 4
random; ignore count / measure
weigh / method of weighing / scales / eq; biomass
remove animals / consumers / soil; ignore average
multiply to total area / scaling;

Total 18
15
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number

14 (a) (yeast) glucose ONLY; Allow if C6H12O6 2

alcohol/ethanol + carbon dioxide (+ energy) Allow C2H5OH


ONLY; and CO2

(b) limewater; 2 max


(clear to) cloudy / (clear to) milky / eq;

or

hydrogen carbonate indicator;


(orange to) yellow / eq;
Total 4
marks

Total for Paper: 120 Marks

15
Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
3 (a) keep out oxygen; respiration 2
anaerobic / prevent aerobic idea / eq; alone gets no
credit

(b) (i) 3

starts low and rises; inverted = 0


peak / level / rise less steep;
down;

(ii) carbon dioxide / CO2 (production); 1

(iii) temperature; 1

(c) volume of glucose; allow amount / 2


concentration / mass of glucose; quantity

mass / volume / number / of yeast; ignore volume


species / type of yeast; of water in
pH of solution; bath
ignore room
temperature
ignore ref to
oxygen
ignore ref to oil

(d) repeat / eq; 1

(e) volume of gas / measuring cylinder / 1


syringe / eq;

Question
Answer Notes Marks
number
3 (f) glucose; ethanol/alcohol; + carbon ignore yeast on 3
dioxide; left hand side
of equation but
reject if any
other
substance used
ignore energy /
heat
allow symbols
only if correct
eg CO2 = 0
CO2 = 1

Total 14 marks