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# TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS

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CONTENTS

Introduction
Influence of Poles on Time Response

## Transient Response of Second-Order System

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INTRODUCTION
The concept of poles and zeros, fundamental to the analysis of
and design of control system, simplifies the evaluation of
system response.
The poles of a transfer function are:
i. Values of the Laplace Transform variables s, that cause the
transfer function to become infinite.
ii. Any roots of the denominator of the transfer function that are
common to roots of the numerator.
The zeros of a transfer function are:
i. The values of the Laplace Transform variable s, that cause the
transfer function to become zero.
ii. Any roots of the numerator of the transfer function that are
common to roots of the denominator.
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## INFLUENCE OF POLES ON TIME RESPONSE

The output response of a system is a sum of
i. Forced response
ii. Natural response

## a) System showing an input and an output

b) Pole-zero plot of the system
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## c) Evolution of a system response. Follow the blue

arrows to see the evolution of system
component generated by the pole or zero
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## Effect of a real-axis pole upon transient response

a) First-order system
b) Pole plot of the system
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FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM
General form:
C ( s) K
G ( s)
R( s ) s 1

## Problem: Derive the transfer function for the following circuit

1
G( s)
RCs 1
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FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM
Transient Response: Gradual change of output from initial to
the desired condition.
Block diagram representation:
Where,
K
R(s) C(s) K : Gain
s 1 : Time constant

## By definition itself, the input to the system should be a step

function which is given by the following:
1
R( s)
s
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FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM
General form:
C ( s) K
G ( s) C ( s ) G ( s) R( s)
R( s ) s 1

Output response:
1 K
C ( s )
s s 1
A B

s s 1
B
c(t ) A e t

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FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM
Problem: Find the forced and natural responses for the
following systems
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## TRANSIENT RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS

Time constant,
The time for e-at to decay 37% of its 1
initial value.

a

Rise time, tr
The time for the waveform to go 2.2
tr
from 0.1 to 0.9 of its final value. a

Settling time, ts
The time for the response to reach, 4
ts
and stay within 2% of its final value. a
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## TRANSIENT RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS

Problem: For a system with the transfer function shown below,
find the relevant response specifications
50
G( s)
s 50

i. Time constant,
ii. Settling time, ts
iii. Rise time, tr
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
General form:
Kn2
G s 2
s 2n s n2
Where,
K : Gain
: Damping ratio
n : Undamped natural frequency

Roots of denominator:
s 2 2n s n2 0

s1, 2 n n 2 1
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Natural frequency, n
Frequency of oscillation of the system without damping.

Damping ratio,
Quantity that compares the exponential decay frequency of the
envelope to the natural frequency.

## Exponentia l decay frequency

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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Problem: Find the step response for the following transfer
function
Gs 2
225
s 30s 225
ct 1 e 15 t 15te 15 t
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Problem: For each of the transfer function, find the values of
and n, as well as characterize the nature of the response.

G s 2
400
a)
s 12s 400

Gs 2
900
b)
s 90s 900

Gs 2
225
c)
s 30s 225

G s 2
625
d)
s 625
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Step responses for second-order system damping cases
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Pole plot for the underdamped second-order system
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Second-order response as a function of damping ratio
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Second-order response as a function of damping ratio
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
When 0 < < 1, the transfer function is given by the following.

Kn2 Where,
G s d n 1 2
s n jd s n jd
Pole position:
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Second-order response components generated by complex
poles
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SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM
Second-order underdamped responses for damping ratio value
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## TRANSIENT RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS

Second-order underdamped response specifications
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## TRANSIENT RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS

Rise time, Tr
The time for the waveform to go from 0.1 to 0.9 of its final value.

Peak time, Tp

The time required to reach the first Tp 2

or maximum peak. n 1

Settling time, Ts
The time required for the transients 4
damped oscillation to reach and stay
Ts
n
within 2% of the steady-state value.
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## TRANSIENT RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS

Percent overshoot, %OS
The amount that the waveform overshoots the steady-state, or
final value at peak time, expressed as a percentage of the steady-
state value.

( / 1 2 )
%OS e 100%

ln(%OS / 100)

2 ln 2 (%OS / 100)
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SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Percent overshoot versus damping ratio
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SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Lines of constant peak time Tp, settling time Ts and percent
overshoot %OS

## Ts2 < Ts1

Tp2 < Tp1
%OS1 < %OS2
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SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Step responses of second-order underdamped systems as
poles move

a) With constant
real part
b) With constant
imaginary part
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SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Step responses of second-order underdamped systems as
poles move

## c) With constant damping ratio

Thus far we have dealt primarily with the input/output characteristics of linear
systems. State variable, or state space, representations describe the internal
state of the system.
State variables represent a way to describe ALL linear systems in terms of a
common set of equations involving matrix algebra.
Many familiar properties, such as stability, can be derived from this common
representation. It forms the basis for the theoretical analysis of linear systems.
State variables are used extensively in a wide range of engineering problems,
particularly mechanical engineering, and are the foundation of control theory.
The state variables often represent internal elements of the system such as
voltages across capacitors and currents across inductors.
They account for observable elements of the circuit, such as voltages, and
also account for the initial conditions of the circuit, such as energy stored in
capacitors. This is critical to computing the overall response of the system.
Matrix transformations can be used to convert from one state variable
representation to the other, so the initial choice of variables is not critical.
Software tools such as MATLAB can be used to perform the matrix
manipulations required.
STATE EQUATION
Let us define the state of the system by an N-element column vector, x(t):
x1 (t )
x (t )
x(t ) 2 x1 (t ) x2 (t ) x N (t )
t

N
x ( t )

Note that in this development, v(t) will be the input, y(t) will be the
output, and x(t) is used for the state variables.
Any system can be modeled by the following state equations:
x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t ) x : Nx1 A : NxN B : Nxp p : number of inputs
y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv (t ) y : qx1 C : qxN D : qxp q : number of outputs

## This system model can handle

single input/single output systems,
or multiple inputs and outputs.
The equations above can be
implemented using the signal flow
graph shown to the right.
Consider the CT differential equations:
y(t ) a1 y (t ) a0 y (t ) b0 v(t )
A second-order differential equation requires two state variables:
x1 (t ) y (t ) x2 (t ) y (t )
We can reformulate the differential equation as a set of three equations:
x1 (t ) x2 (t )
x 2 (t ) a0 x1 (t ) a1 x2 (t ) b0 v(t )
y (t ) x1 (t )
We can write these in matrix form as:
x1 (t ) 0 1 x1 (t ) 0
x (t ) a
a1 x2 (t ) b0
v(t )
2 0
x1 (t )
y (t ) 1 0
x2 (t )
This can be extended to an Nth-order differential equation of this type:
N 1
y N
(t ) ai y i (t ) b0 v(t )
i 0
The state variables are defined as: xi (t ) y (i 1) t , i 1, 2, ..., N
The resulting state equations are:
x1 (t ) x2 (t )
0 1 0 0 0
x2 (t ) x3 (t ) 0 0
0 1
A B
x N 1 (t ) x N (t )
0 0 0 1 0
N 1
x N (t ) ai xi 1 (t ) b0 v(t ) a0 a1 a2 a N 1 b0
i 0
C 1 0 0 0 D0
y (t ) x1 (t )
Next, consider a differential equation with a more complex forcing function:
y(t ) a1 y (t ) a0 y (t ) b1v(t ) b0 v(t )
The state model is:
x1 (t ) 0 1 x1 (t ) 0 x (t )
x (t ) a y (t ) b0 b1 1
a1 x2 (t ) 1
v(t )
2 0 x2 (t )
We can verify this by expanding the matrix equation:
x1 (t ) x2 (t )
x2 (t ) a0 x1 (t ) a1 x2 (t ) v(t )
y (t ) b0 x1 (t ) b1 x2 (t )
dy (t ) 1 1 d 2 y (t ) R dy (t ) 1 1
y (t ) v(t ) y (t ) v(t )
dt RC RC dt 2
L dt LC LC
1
A a0 0 1 0 1
RC A
R / L
a0 a1 1 / LC
1
B b0 C 1 D 0 0 0
RC B
b0 1 / LC
x1 (t ) 1 x (t ) 1 C 1 0 D 0
RC 1 RC v(t )

x1 (t ) 0 1 x1 (t ) 0
x (t ) 1 / LC R / L x (t ) 1 / LC v(t )

2 2

x1 (t )
y (t ) 1
x (t )
y (t ) 1 0 1
x2 (t )
Recall our state equations:
x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )
y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv (t )
To solve these equations, we will need a few mathematical tools. First:
A 2t 2 A 3t 3
e I At
At

2! 3!
where I is an NxN identity matrix. Ak is simply AxAxA.
For any real numbers t and :
e A (t ) e At e A
Further, setting = -t:
e A (t ) e At e At I
Next:
d At d A 2 t 2 A 3t 3 A 3t 2
e I At A A t
2

dt dt 2! 3! 2 !
A 2 t 2 A 3t 3
A I At Ae At
2! 3!
We can use these results to show that the solution to x (t ) Ax (t )
is: x(t ) e At x(0), t 0
If: x(t ) e At x(0), t 0
d
dt dt
dt

x(t ) d e At x(0) d e At x(0) Ae At x(0) Ax(t )
e is referred to as the state-transition matrix.
At

## We can apply these results to the state equations:

x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )
x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )
e At x (t ) Ax (t ) e At Bv(t )

Note that:

d
e x(t ) e At x (t ) e At x(t ) e At x (t ) Ae At x(t ) e At x (t ) Ax (t )
d At
dt dt

d At
dt

e x(t ) e At Bv(t )

## Integrating both sides:

t
e At
x(t ) x(0) e A Bv( )d
0
t
x(t ) e x(0) e A t Bv( )d , t 0
At

0
Recall:
At t

y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv(t ) Ce x(0) e A t Bv( )d Dv(t ), t 0
0
t
Ce x(0) Ce A t Bv( )d Dv(t ), t 0
At

## Using the definition of the unit impulse:

t
y (t ) Ce At x(0) Ce A t Bv( ) D t v( ) d , t 0

y zi t
0

y zs t

## Recall our convolution integral for a single-input single-output system:

t
y zs t h(t ) * v(t ) h(t )v( )d , t 0
0

Equating terms:

Ce
t t
Bv( ) D t v( ) d h(t )v( )d
A t

0 0

## h(t ) Ce At B D t The impulse response can be computed

directly from the coefficient matrices.
Recall our state equations:
x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )
y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv (t )
Using the Laplace transform on the first equation:
sX( s ) x(0) AX ( s ) BV ( s )
sI A X( s) x(0) BV( s)
X( s ) sI A x(0) sI A BV ( s )
1 1

## Comparing this to:

t
x(t ) e x(0) e A t Bv( )d , t 0
At

0
reveals that:

e At L1 sI A
1

## Continuing with the output equation:

y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv(t )
The transfer function can
Y ( s ) CX( s ) DV ( s ) be computed directly from
1

sI A x(0) CsI A B D V ( s )
1
the system parameters.
For zero initial conditions:

Y(s) H(s)X(s) where H(s) CsI A B D
1

SUMMARY
Introduced the concept of a state variable.
Described a linear system in terms of the general state equation.
Demonstrated a process for deriving the state equations from a differential
equation with a simple forcing function.
Generalized this to an Nth-order differential equation with a more complex
forcing function.
Demonstrated these techniques on a 1st-order (RC) and 2nd-order (RLC) circuit.
Observation: We have now encapsulated all passive circuit analysis (RLCs)
into a single matrix equation. In fact, we now have a unified representation for
all linear time-invariant systems.
Introduced the time-domain and Laplace transform-based solutions to the
state equations.
Even nonlinear (and non-time-invariant) systems can be modeled using these
techniques. However, the resulting differential equations are more complex.
Fortunately, we have powerful numerical modeling techniques to handle such
problems.