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ASMN EEE3401

ASMN EEE3401

CONTENTS

Introduction

Influence of Poles on Time Response

ASMN EEE3401

INTRODUCTION

The concept of poles and zeros, fundamental to the analysis of

and design of control system, simplifies the evaluation of

system response.

The poles of a transfer function are:

i. Values of the Laplace Transform variables s, that cause the

transfer function to become infinite.

ii. Any roots of the denominator of the transfer function that are

common to roots of the numerator.

The zeros of a transfer function are:

i. The values of the Laplace Transform variable s, that cause the

transfer function to become zero.

ii. Any roots of the numerator of the transfer function that are

common to roots of the denominator.

ASMN EEE3401

The output response of a system is a sum of

i. Forced response

ii. Natural response

b) Pole-zero plot of the system

ASMN EEE3401

arrows to see the evolution of system

component generated by the pole or zero

ASMN EEE3401

a) First-order system

b) Pole plot of the system

ASMN EEE3401

FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM

General form:

C ( s) K

G ( s)

R( s ) s 1

1

G( s)

RCs 1

ASMN EEE3401

FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM

Transient Response: Gradual change of output from initial to

the desired condition.

Block diagram representation:

Where,

K

R(s) C(s) K : Gain

s 1 : Time constant

function which is given by the following:

1

R( s)

s

ASMN EEE3401

FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM

General form:

C ( s) K

G ( s) C ( s ) G ( s) R( s)

R( s ) s 1

Output response:

1 K

C ( s )

s s 1

A B

s s 1

B

c(t ) A e t

ASMN EEE3401

FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM

Problem: Find the forced and natural responses for the

following systems

ASMN EEE3401

ASMN EEE3401

Time constant,

The time for e-at to decay 37% of its 1

initial value.

a

Rise time, tr

The time for the waveform to go 2.2

tr

from 0.1 to 0.9 of its final value. a

Settling time, ts

The time for the response to reach, 4

ts

and stay within 2% of its final value. a

ASMN EEE3401

Problem: For a system with the transfer function shown below,

find the relevant response specifications

50

G( s)

s 50

i. Time constant,

ii. Settling time, ts

iii. Rise time, tr

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

General form:

Kn2

G s 2

s 2n s n2

Where,

K : Gain

: Damping ratio

n : Undamped natural frequency

Roots of denominator:

s 2 2n s n2 0

s1, 2 n n 2 1

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Natural frequency, n

Frequency of oscillation of the system without damping.

Damping ratio,

Quantity that compares the exponential decay frequency of the

envelope to the natural frequency.

Natural frequency (rad/s)

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Problem: Find the step response for the following transfer

function

Gs 2

225

s 30s 225

Answer:

ct 1 e 15 t 15te 15 t

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Problem: For each of the transfer function, find the values of

and n, as well as characterize the nature of the response.

G s 2

400

a)

s 12s 400

Gs 2

900

b)

s 90s 900

Gs 2

225

c)

s 30s 225

G s 2

625

d)

s 625

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Step responses for second-order system damping cases

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Pole plot for the underdamped second-order system

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Second-order response as a function of damping ratio

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Second-order response as a function of damping ratio

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

When 0 < < 1, the transfer function is given by the following.

Kn2 Where,

G s d n 1 2

s n jd s n jd

Pole position:

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Second-order response components generated by complex

poles

ASMN EEE3401

SECOND-ORDER SYSTEM

Second-order underdamped responses for damping ratio value

ASMN EEE3401

Second-order underdamped response specifications

ASMN EEE3401

Rise time, Tr

The time for the waveform to go from 0.1 to 0.9 of its final value.

Peak time, Tp

The time required to reach the first Tp 2

or maximum peak. n 1

Settling time, Ts

The time required for the transients 4

damped oscillation to reach and stay

Ts

n

within 2% of the steady-state value.

ASMN EEE3401

Percent overshoot, %OS

The amount that the waveform overshoots the steady-state, or

final value at peak time, expressed as a percentage of the steady-

state value.

( / 1 2 )

%OS e 100%

ln(%OS / 100)

2 ln 2 (%OS / 100)

ASMN EEE3401

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Percent overshoot versus damping ratio

ASMN EEE3401

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Lines of constant peak time Tp, settling time Ts and percent

overshoot %OS

Tp2 < Tp1

%OS1 < %OS2

ASMN EEE3401

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Step responses of second-order underdamped systems as

poles move

a) With constant

real part

b) With constant

imaginary part

ASMN EEE3401

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Step responses of second-order underdamped systems as

poles move

Thus far we have dealt primarily with the input/output characteristics of linear

systems. State variable, or state space, representations describe the internal

state of the system.

State variables represent a way to describe ALL linear systems in terms of a

common set of equations involving matrix algebra.

Many familiar properties, such as stability, can be derived from this common

representation. It forms the basis for the theoretical analysis of linear systems.

State variables are used extensively in a wide range of engineering problems,

particularly mechanical engineering, and are the foundation of control theory.

The state variables often represent internal elements of the system such as

voltages across capacitors and currents across inductors.

They account for observable elements of the circuit, such as voltages, and

also account for the initial conditions of the circuit, such as energy stored in

capacitors. This is critical to computing the overall response of the system.

Matrix transformations can be used to convert from one state variable

representation to the other, so the initial choice of variables is not critical.

Software tools such as MATLAB can be used to perform the matrix

manipulations required.

STATE EQUATION

Let us define the state of the system by an N-element column vector, x(t):

x1 (t )

x (t )

x(t ) 2 x1 (t ) x2 (t ) x N (t )

t

N

x ( t )

Note that in this development, v(t) will be the input, y(t) will be the

output, and x(t) is used for the state variables.

Any system can be modeled by the following state equations:

x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t ) x : Nx1 A : NxN B : Nxp p : number of inputs

y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv (t ) y : qx1 C : qxN D : qxp q : number of outputs

single input/single output systems,

or multiple inputs and outputs.

The equations above can be

implemented using the signal flow

graph shown to the right.

Consider the CT differential equations:

y(t ) a1 y (t ) a0 y (t ) b0 v(t )

A second-order differential equation requires two state variables:

x1 (t ) y (t ) x2 (t ) y (t )

We can reformulate the differential equation as a set of three equations:

x1 (t ) x2 (t )

x 2 (t ) a0 x1 (t ) a1 x2 (t ) b0 v(t )

y (t ) x1 (t )

We can write these in matrix form as:

x1 (t ) 0 1 x1 (t ) 0

x (t ) a

a1 x2 (t ) b0

v(t )

2 0

x1 (t )

y (t ) 1 0

x2 (t )

This can be extended to an Nth-order differential equation of this type:

N 1

y N

(t ) ai y i (t ) b0 v(t )

i 0

The state variables are defined as: xi (t ) y (i 1) t , i 1, 2, ..., N

The resulting state equations are:

x1 (t ) x2 (t )

0 1 0 0 0

x2 (t ) x3 (t ) 0 0

0 1

A B

x N 1 (t ) x N (t )

0 0 0 1 0

N 1

x N (t ) ai xi 1 (t ) b0 v(t ) a0 a1 a2 a N 1 b0

i 0

C 1 0 0 0 D0

y (t ) x1 (t )

Next, consider a differential equation with a more complex forcing function:

y(t ) a1 y (t ) a0 y (t ) b1v(t ) b0 v(t )

The state model is:

x1 (t ) 0 1 x1 (t ) 0 x (t )

x (t ) a y (t ) b0 b1 1

a1 x2 (t ) 1

v(t )

2 0 x2 (t )

We can verify this by expanding the matrix equation:

x1 (t ) x2 (t )

x2 (t ) a0 x1 (t ) a1 x2 (t ) v(t )

y (t ) b0 x1 (t ) b1 x2 (t )

dy (t ) 1 1 d 2 y (t ) R dy (t ) 1 1

y (t ) v(t ) y (t ) v(t )

dt RC RC dt 2

L dt LC LC

1

A a0 0 1 0 1

RC A

R / L

a0 a1 1 / LC

1

B b0 C 1 D 0 0 0

RC B

b0 1 / LC

x1 (t ) 1 x (t ) 1 C 1 0 D 0

RC 1 RC v(t )

x1 (t ) 0 1 x1 (t ) 0

x (t ) 1 / LC R / L x (t ) 1 / LC v(t )

2 2

x1 (t )

y (t ) 1

x (t )

y (t ) 1 0 1

x2 (t )

Recall our state equations:

x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )

y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv (t )

To solve these equations, we will need a few mathematical tools. First:

A 2t 2 A 3t 3

e I At

At

2! 3!

where I is an NxN identity matrix. Ak is simply AxAxA.

For any real numbers t and :

e A (t ) e At e A

Further, setting = -t:

e A (t ) e At e At I

Next:

d At d A 2 t 2 A 3t 3 A 3t 2

e I At A A t

2

dt dt 2! 3! 2 !

A 2 t 2 A 3t 3

A I At Ae At

2! 3!

We can use these results to show that the solution to x (t ) Ax (t )

is: x(t ) e At x(0), t 0

If: x(t ) e At x(0), t 0

d

dt dt

dt

x(t ) d e At x(0) d e At x(0) Ae At x(0) Ax(t )

e is referred to as the state-transition matrix.

At

x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )

x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )

e At x (t ) Ax (t ) e At Bv(t )

Note that:

d

e x(t ) e At x (t ) e At x(t ) e At x (t ) Ae At x(t ) e At x (t ) Ax (t )

d At

dt dt

d At

dt

e x(t ) e At Bv(t )

t

e At

x(t ) x(0) e A Bv( )d

0

t

x(t ) e x(0) e A t Bv( )d , t 0

At

0

Recall:

At t

y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv(t ) Ce x(0) e A t Bv( )d Dv(t ), t 0

0

t

Ce x(0) Ce A t Bv( )d Dv(t ), t 0

At

t

y (t ) Ce At x(0) Ce A t Bv( ) D t v( ) d , t 0

y zi t

0

y zs t

t

y zs t h(t ) * v(t ) h(t )v( )d , t 0

0

Equating terms:

Ce

t t

Bv( ) D t v( ) d h(t )v( )d

A t

0 0

directly from the coefficient matrices.

Recall our state equations:

x (t ) Ax (t ) Bv(t )

y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv (t )

Using the Laplace transform on the first equation:

sX( s ) x(0) AX ( s ) BV ( s )

sI A X( s) x(0) BV( s)

X( s ) sI A x(0) sI A BV ( s )

1 1

t

x(t ) e x(0) e A t Bv( )d , t 0

At

0

reveals that:

e At L1 sI A

1

y (t ) Cx(t ) Dv(t )

The transfer function can

Y ( s ) CX( s ) DV ( s ) be computed directly from

1

sI A x(0) CsI A B D V ( s )

1

the system parameters.

For zero initial conditions:

Y(s) H(s)X(s) where H(s) CsI A B D

1

SUMMARY

Introduced the concept of a state variable.

Described a linear system in terms of the general state equation.

Demonstrated a process for deriving the state equations from a differential

equation with a simple forcing function.

Generalized this to an Nth-order differential equation with a more complex

forcing function.

Demonstrated these techniques on a 1st-order (RC) and 2nd-order (RLC) circuit.

Observation: We have now encapsulated all passive circuit analysis (RLCs)

into a single matrix equation. In fact, we now have a unified representation for

all linear time-invariant systems.

Introduced the time-domain and Laplace transform-based solutions to the

state equations.

Even nonlinear (and non-time-invariant) systems can be modeled using these

techniques. However, the resulting differential equations are more complex.

Fortunately, we have powerful numerical modeling techniques to handle such

problems.

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