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IGCSE QUESTIONS SET 1 (Atomic Structure)

A2 The diagram shows the nuclei of five different atoms.

key

neutron

proton

atom A atom B atom C atom D atom E


(a) Which atom has an
number of number of number of
ion
protons neutrons electrons

40 +
Ca2

37
Cl

[2]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Atomic Structure)

A4 The diagram shows the atomic structure of an atom of element X.

XX

XX
electron

nucleus

= a proton
= a neutron

(a) Complete the table.

sub-atomic relative charge relative mass


particle

electron 1

neutron

proton 1

12
(b) Carbon-12 has the symbol 6C.
Write the symbol for an atom of element X.
[2]

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(c) Draw a diagram to show the atomic structure of another isotope of element X.

[2]

[Total:

6]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Atomic Structure)

A2 The table shows the atomic structure of six particles, represented by the letters L to Q. The particles
are atoms or ions. The letters are not the symbols of the elements.

particle electrons protons neutrons

L 6 6 6

M 2 2 2

N 12 12 12

O 10 12 12

P 6 6 8

Q 10 13 14

Use the letters L to Q to answer the following questions.

(a) Which two particles are ions?

............................................................ and ..................................................................[1]

(b) Which particle is an atom of a noble gas? atomic number of 3?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Which atom has a mass number of 6?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Which two atoms are isotopes of the same element?

..... and ......


[1]

(d) Complete the table below to show the number of sub-atomic particles in both an atom
and an ion of potassium.

K+
39 39
potassium atom 19 K potassium ion 19

number of protons

number of electrons

number of neutrons
[2]

Total / 5

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET 2 (Atomic Structure)

A3 Complete the table below to show the number of subatomic particles in each of the two ions

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Which two particles are an atom and an ion of the same element?
............................................................ and ..................................................................[1]

(d) Which two particles are isotopes of the same element?

............................................................ and ..................................................................[1]

(e) Which particle has the highest atomic mass?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

Total / 5
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Atomic Structure)

2 (a) Complete the table which gives the names, symbols, relative masses and relative charges of the
three subatomic particles.

name symbol relative mass relative charge

electron e-

proton 1

n 0
[3]

(b) Use the information in the table to explain the following.

(i) Atoms contain charged particles but they are electrically neutral because they
have no overall charge.

[2]

(ii) Atoms can form positive ions.

[2]

(iii) Atoms of the same element can have different masses.

[2]

(iv) Scientists are certain that there are no undiscovered elements missing from the
Periodic Table from hydrogen to lawrencium.

[1] [Total:

10]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Atomic Structure)

3 The following is

element electron distribution


chemistry number of
IGCSEparticle number
SET X of number of neutrons
(Atomic Structure) symbol or
protons
A electrons
2,5 formula
A 9 10 10 19 -
9F
2 The table below gives the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms or ions.
B 2,8,4
B 11 11 12
C 2,8,8,2
C 18 18 22
D 2,8,18,8
D 15E 18
2,8,18,8,1 16

E 13F 10
2,8,18,18,7 14
(a) Complete the table. The first line is given as an example. [6]

(b) Which atom in the table is an isotope of the atom which has the composition 11p,
11e and 14n? Give a reason for your choice.

[2]

[Total: 8]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Atomic Structure)

11 This question is about atoms.

(a) Look at the diagram. It shows a lithium atom.

electron
X
X X
proton

part A

neutron

(i) Part A contains protons and neutrons.

What is the name of part A?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) What is the charge on an electron?

Choose from the list.

negative

neutral

positive

answer ......................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?


Group .......................................................................................................................... [1]
(iv) The outer electron is removed.

This forms a charged particle, Li+.

What is a charged particle, such as Li+, called?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Look at the Periodic Table on the back page.

Find the element with the symbol Na.

What is the atomic number of this element?

............................................................................................................................................. [1] [Total:

5]

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Atomic Structure)

12 This question is about atomic structure.

Look at the diagram.

It shows the electronic structure of an atom.


a list of the electron distributions of atoms of unknown elements.

(a) Choose an element from the list for each of the following descriptions.

(i) It is a noble gas.

(ii) It is a soft metal with a low density.

(iii) It can form a covalent compound with element A.

(iv) It has a giant covalent structure similar to diamond.

(v) It can form a negative ion of the type X 3-. [5]


(b) Elements C and F can form an ionic
compound.

(i) Draw a diagram that shows the formula of this compound, the charges on the
ions and the arrangement of the valency electrons around the negative ion.
Use o to represent an electron from an atom
of C. Use x to represent an electron from an
atom of F.

[3]
(ii) Predict two properties of this
compound.

[2]

[Total: 10]
electron X

XX
XX

X X
X X
X X

nucleus XX

(a) The nucleus contains two types of particles.

What are the names of these two particles?

.................................................................. and ................................................................. [1]

(b) What is the atomic number of this element?

............................................................................................................................................ [1]

(c) Look at the diagram of the electronic structure of an atom.

An element contains atoms with this electronic structure.

(i) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Explain how you can tell that this element is in Period 3 of the Periodic Table.

...........................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 4]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Atomic Structure)
13 This question is about atomic structure.

Look at the diagram.

It shows the structure of an atom.

XX

XX

electron
X

nucleus

= a proton

= a neutron

(a) What is the atomic number of this atom?

.................................................................... [1]

(b) What is the mass number of this atom?

.................................................................... [1]

(c) An element is made up of these atoms.

(i) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?

................................................................... [1]

(ii) Which period of the Periodic Table is this element in?

................................................................... [1]

[Total: 4]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Atomic Structure)

12 This question is about atomic structure.

Look at the diagram. It shows the structure of an atom.

XX

XX

electron
X

nucleus

= a proton

= a neutron

(a) What is the atomic number of this atom?

.................................................................... [1]

(b) What is the mass number of this atom?

.................................................................... [1]

(c) An element is made up of these atoms.

(i) Which group of the Periodic Table is this element in?

................................................................... [1]

(ii) Which period of the Periodic Table is this element in?

................................................................... [1]

(d) Finish the diagram to show an isotope of the element above.

XX

XX

= a proton
X
= a neutron

nucleus

[1]
TOTAL / 5
Type of Paper Aluminium Lead
radiation sheet sheet
Alpha 0 0 0

Beta 80 20 5
Gamma 98 70 20

The element americium exists as different isotopes.


Americium-241 emits mainly alpha radiation, and is
used in smoke alarms. The alarm only sounds when
smoke stops the alpha radiation reaching a detector
in the alarm.

(a) What are isotopes?


[2]

Suggest why it is not hazardous to use the


radioactive
isotope americium-241 in a smoke detector. [2]

Suggest two reasons why the radioactive isotope


cobalt-60, which emits gamma radiation, is not
used in
a smoke detector. [2]

(MEG, 1995)

2.16 In 1986, an explosion at Chernobyl in Russia


teased a radioactive cloud. The main radioactive
isotopes teased were:

(a) Give the number of protons, neutrons and Element Nucleon (mass) number
electrons in
an atom of uranium-238. [3] Strontium 90

i) Uranium-238 atoms split up to give a different Iodine 131


caesium 137
element. This has a proton (atomic) number of 90
and
a mass number of 234. What is the symbol for
this
new element? (Use the Periodic Table on page 65
to
help you.) [1]

(c) Why do uranium-238 atoms split up? [2]

(AQA(NEAB) 1995)

2.15 The table gives some information about


radiation from radioactive substances.

Percentage of radiation which can


pass through different materials
2.17 Which one of the following pairs represents
Use the Periodic Table (there is one in figure 3.1 on two atoms with the same number of neutrons?
page 65) to answer the following questions.

(a) (i) How many electrons are there in one atom


of

strontium-90? [1] B 19
9 F and 2010Ne

(ii) How many protons are there in one atom of C 23


11 Na D 59
27 Co

iodine-131? [1] and 59


28 Ni [1]

(iii) How many neutrons are there in an atom of


(AQA(NEAB) 1993)

caesium-137? [1]
2.18 Many power stations convert heat to
(b) The air around Chernobyl became polluted. What electrical energy. In a nuclear power station the
is a heat comes from the fission of uranium.
pollutant? [2]
(a) Copy and complete the table by correctly
(c) In Sweden, caesium-137 built up in small plants adding the missing information for the
called uranium-238 isotope. [2]
lichen. These plants were eaten by reindeer and
gave
rise to radioactive meat.
Isotope Symbol Number Number Number
(i) If radioactive caesium was reacted with of of of
chlorine, protons neutrons electrons
would you expect the caesium chloride 235 TT
produced Uranium-235 92 U 92 143 92
to be radioactive? Explain your answer. Uranium-238 92 92
[2]

(ii) State a beneficial use in industry of a (b) The control rods in a nuclear reactor often
radioactive contain
isotope. [1] boron. Natural boron contains about 20%
boron-10
(iii) State a medical use of a radioactive isotope. (1B) and 80% boron-11 (151B).
[1] (i) Give the electronic structure of a boron
(IGCSE, part question, 1992)
atom. [1]
(ii) Explain why the relative atomic mass of
boron is
10.8.
[3]

A 126C and
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Atomic Structure)

A4 Helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon are noble gases.

(a) State a use for argon.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Use ideas about electronic structure to explain why the noble gases are unreactive.

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Complete the table to show the number of particles in two isotopes of argon.

isotope number of number of number of


protons electrons neutrons

36
18
Ar

40
18
Ar

[2]

(d) Explain why potassium comes after argon in the Periodic Table even though it has a relative
atomic mass which is lower than that of argon.

.......................................................................................................................................

Total / 4

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Atomic Structure)

4. Complete the table.

Particle Number of protons Number of neutrons Number of electrons

65
30
Zn 30

39
19
K+ 20

Total 6 marks
16 16 18
Structured Questions:
11.Compete these definitions:
a) The proton number of an element is the number of ..in its atom which is equal to
the number of .
2

b) The mass or nucleon numb of an element is the sum of the number of ..and
.. 2

c) The ..is a positively charged particle found in the .of an atom 2

d) The neutron is a particle which has a mass equal to that of a 2

e) The .is a negatively charged particle with a mass which is assumed to be


. 2

f) Atoms of the same which have different masses are called .they have
varying numbers of .. 2

12.From this skeletal version of the periodic table, answer questions below.
a) Name four elements in the same period. 2

b) Name four elements in the same Group.

c) Name four gaseous elements. 2

d) Which element is magnetic? 1

e) Which elements are liquid at room temperature and pressure? 2

He
Li C O F Ne
Na M Cl Ar
g
Cu Br Kr
Ag I
Hg

13. Some elements denoted by the letters A to G (which are NOT their chemical
symbols) have proton numbers which are:
A 3, B 10, C 9, D 17, E 11, F 18 and G 20.

a) Which of these have complete outermost shells? 2

b) Which of these are in Group I of the Periodic Table? 2

c) Which of these are in Group II of the Periodic Table? 2

d) WII of the Periodic Table? 2

e) Which of these are in Group 0 of the Periodic Table? 2


14. Try this cross word. Most of the answers are to be found somewhere in this chapter.

Across
2 positive particles found in the nucleus of an atom (7).

4 Element with electron configuration of 2, 4.(6)

7 LEUS is found at the centre of all atoms. (3)

8 chemical symbol for selenium (guess). (2)

9 see 5 down. (2)

12 Negative charged particles in all atoms. (9).

14 symbol of an element with an electron configuration of 2, 8, 4. (2)

15 In the Periodic Table, a period is a horizontal .(3)

16 Noble gas with an electron configuration of 2, 8. (4)

18 Chemical symbol for the least reactive of the alkali metals. (2)

Down
1 .NCIUM is the most reactive of the alkali metals. (3)

3 these sub-atomic particles do not have a charge. (8)

4 ..SIUM is slightly less reactive than 1 down. (3)

5 chemical symbol for a Group I element. (2)

6 the number of electrons in the outermost shell of the alkali metals. (3)

8 electrons orbit in this. (5)

10 hydrogen and helium make up the first of these. (6)

11 this element has an electron configuration of 2,8, 8. (5)

13 see 14 across. (2)

17 ..YGEN. A very important gas. (2)

1 2 3

4 5 6 7

8 9
10 11
12 13
14

15 16 17
18
Questions:

1. Fluorine atoms have a mass number of 19.


a) Use the periodic table to find the atomic number of fluorine. [2]

b) Explain what mass number means. [1]

c) Write down the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in a fluorine atom. [3]

d) Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of the electrons in the fluorine atom. [2]

2. Work out the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in each of the following atoms:

a) b) c) [9]

3. Chlorine has two isotopes, chlorine-35 and chlorine-37.


a) what are isotopes? [2]

b) Write down the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in the two isotopes. [2]

c) Write down the arrangement of the electrons in each of the two isotopes. [2]

4. Draw diagrams to show the arrangement of the electrons in a) sodium, b) silicon, c) sulphur [6]

5. Find each of the following elements in the Periodic Table, and write down the number of electrons in
their outer energy level.

a) arsenic, As, b) Bromine, Br, c) tin, Sn, d) xenon, Xe [4]

6. The questions refer to the electronic structures below.


A 2, 4 B 2, 8, 8
C 2, 8, 18, 18, 7 D 2, 8, 18, 18, 8
E 2, 8, 8, 2 F 2, 8, 18, 18, 32, 18, 4

a) Which of these atoms are in group 4 of the periodic table? [2]

b) which of these structures represents carbon? [2]

c) which of these structures represents an element in group 7 of the Periodic Table? [2]

d) Which of thee structures represent noble gases? [2]

e) Name element E. [2]

f) How many protons does element F have? Name element. [2]

g) Element G has one more electron than element B. draw a diagram to show how the electrons

are arranged in an atom of G. [2]