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Contents

Normal and Abnormal Transients


Reignition
Reignition and Restrikes Reactor Switching
Restrike
By :- Himanshu Bahirat Capacitor switching
EE5220 : Power System Transients Three phase capacitor switching
Grounded vs. Ungrounded banks
Date:- February 22, 2010

Normal and Abnormal Transients Reactor Switching


Normal Transients Trapped Energy
Transients during energization
Up to 2 p.u. voltages
High Frequency oscillations of reactor voltage
No trapped charges assumed Dielectric Breakdown
Capacitor Energization inrush currents and voltages
Abnormal Transients
During denergization Rs Ls CB
Trapped charges
Very high voltages and currents
Current Chopping Reactor
SC
Interruption of currents
Restrikes and Reignitions
Vs
Circuit Breaker Current : Reignition Reactor Voltage :Reignition
Interruptionofcircuitcurrentwith 4

reignition
900
AfterReignition [p.u]

[A] 3

700
2

500
1
ReactorSiderecovery
300
Voltage:Highfrequency 0

100
Reignition:Current -1
75
[A]
-100
-2
0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50 50
(f ile Reactor_Switching_reignitions_P56.pl4; x-v ar t) c:SRC -REACT

25
-3
0

-25 -4
8.1 8.3 8.5 8.7 8.9 [ms] 9.1
(file Reactor_Switching_reignitions_P56.pl4; x-var t) v:REACT
-50 factors: 1 8.88E-06
offsets: 0 0
-75

-100
8.20 8.25 8.30 8.35 8.40 8.45 8.50 8.55 [ms] 8.60
(f ile Reactor_Switching_reignitions_P56.pl4; x-v ar t) c:SRC -REACT

Reignition : Definition Capacitor Switching


A reignition occurs when a current is interrupted Switching of normal load current
at current zero and then re-establishes itself within
one-eight of a power frequency cycle [2]. Deenergization at system peak voltage
120 900 Trapped charge on the capacitor
[kV] [A]

80 600

V Ls CB V
Reignition
40 300
region
0 0

Cap Bank
-40 -300
Vs
-80 -600

-120 -900
0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50
(file Reactor_Switching_reignitions_P56.pl4; x-var t) v:SRC c:XX0001-REACT
Capacitor Bank Trapped Voltage and Restrikes and Voltage Escalation
TRV 800

[kV] [kA]
16

12
600

Trapped Voltage on Capacitor Bank 400


8

after deenergization Circuit Breaker TRV 4


150 200
300
[kV] [kV] 0

100 200 0
-4

100
50 -200
-8
0
0
-400
-12
-100
-50
-600 -16
-200 0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50
(file Restrike_Basics.pl4; x-var t) v:CAPA c:BUSA -CLRA
-100
-300
0 10 20
(f ile Restrike_Basics.pl4; x-v ar t) v :BUSB -CLRB v :BUSC -CLRC
30 40 [ms] 50 Voltage escalation with multiple restrikes
-150
0 10
(f ile Restrike_Basics.pl4; x-v ar t) v :CAPB
20
v :CAPC
30 40 [ms] 50
Stored Voltage on Capacitor Bank increase with each restrike. (1st
3.p.u. 2nd 5 p.u
Very high transient current spikes

Restrikes : TRV Restrikes :Bus Voltage


6.0 800

[V] [kV]

3.4 500

0.8 200

-100
-1.8

-400
-4.4

-700
-7.0 0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50
0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50 (f ile Restrike_Basics.pl4; x-v ar t) v :BUSA
(file Restrike_Basics.pl4; x-var t) v:BUSA -CLRA
factors: 1 7.61E-06
offsets: 0 0
Restrikes :Ungrounded banks Restrikes :Ungrounded banks
Capacitor Bank Voltage Circuit Breaker TRV
4

[V]
3

3 [V]

-1
-1

-2
-2
0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50
(file Restrike_Basics.pl4; x-var t) v:CAPC v:CAPA
factors: 1 7.61E-06 7.61E-06 -3
offsets: 0 0 0

Higher trapped voltages than the case of grounded banks. -4

Restrike on phase A results in escalation on phase c. -5

First restrike trapped voltage increases to about 3.5 p.u


0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50
(file Restrike_Basics.pl4; x-var t) v:BUSA -CLRA v:BUSC -CLRC
factors: 1 7.61E-06 7.61E-06
offsets: 0 0 0

Restrike : Definition Restrike and Reignition: Comparison


The term restrike is defined as a re-establishment of the current,
120 900

one-quarter cycle or longer, following interruption of a capacitive


[kV] [A]

current at a normal current zero [1].


80
Reignition 600

region
120 900
40 Restrikeregion 300
[kV] [A]

80 600

0 0
40 Restrikeregion 300

0 0 -40 -300

-40 -300

-80 -600

-80 -600

-120 -900
-120 -900
0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50
0 10 20 30 40 [ms] 50
(file Reactor_Switching_reignitions_P56.pl4; x-var t) v:SRC c:XX0001-REACT (file Reactor_Switching_reignitions_P56.pl4; x-var t) v:SRC c:XX0001-REACT
Conclusions References
Abnormal transients are a result of trapped 1. N. E. Dillow, I. B. Johnson, N. R. Schultz, and A. E. Were, "Switching Capacitive
Kilovolt-Amperes with Power Circuit Breakers," AIEE Transactions, pp. 188--
charges and energy. 200, 1952.
2. R. D. Garzon, High Voltage Circuit Breakers:Design and Applications: Marcel
Reignitions and restrikes can lead to very Dekker, Inc.,1996.
magnitude transients. 3. Shui-cheong Kam Modelling of Restriking and Reignition Phenomena in Three-
phase Capacitor and Shunt Reactor Switching.
Multiple restrikes can damage circuit breakers http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec06/htdocs/content/pdf/77.pdf
and other equipments. 4. Allan Greenwood. Electrical Transients in Power Systems. Wiley, New York,
NY.
Ungrounded Banks result in higher magnitude of
transients than grounded banks.
Can controlled with use of surge arresters.