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Habits

of a Successful String Orchestra



Tools and Strategies for Taking Your Middle and
High School Orchestras To the Next Level


Using Fundamentals Time to Improve Your Orchestras
Tone, Articulation, Intonation, Rhythm and Reading Ability


Christopher R. Selby










1
What is the difference between school orchestra and youth orchestra?
In youth orchestra, the individualized instruction is left, almost entirely, to the private teacher.
Key Concept #1: In School Orchestra, all studentsnot just the ones taking lessons
deserve sequential, comprehensive technical instruction that enables them to learn the
musical and performance skills that upper-level orchestral works require, so that every
student can make great music.

When should we review and teach advancing string skills to upper-level students?
If Orchestra Directors want to teach great orchestral repertoire to their studentsand have
their students play this music wellthey must devote part of their rehearsal to teaching
students the fundamental and advancing skills these pieces require. Fundamentals Time is the
classroom rehearsal time that you devote to improving student skills and technique. We spend
time at the beginning of rehearsals, but also time embedded within the rehearsal to teach and
reinforce good technique that improves student performance.

CHALLENGES: Teaching advancing string technique in an orchestra rehearsal has its challenges.
1. Most of us were never taught how to embed technical instruction into a rehearsal.
2. Our programs are so individualized that most sequential method books dont seem to fit
what our students need to learn.

What will you take away from this session?
Today, we will identify tools and strategies that can be used during fundamentals time for
resolving and overcoming several of the most pressing and entrenched problems our upper
orchestras face. We will identify the challenges that cause our students to struggle with
intonation, tone quality and rhythmic literacy, and we will look at exercises and strategies for
correcting these problems.

2
Part 1: Teaching Resonant Intonation
Why upper-level middle and high school string students play out of tune
1. Their instruments are out of tune
a. Students must learn to tune themselves; insist on quality instruments
b. Students must learn to listen and use a tuning tone
c. Cross-tuning is required
2. Poor hand position and instrument position increase the difficulty of an instrument that
is already challenging to play in tune
a. Increase strategies: Constantly look for new, better ways to teach technique;
keep adding to your bag of tricks
b. Decrease tolerance of poor position (zero-tolerance is a good goal to have)
3. Finger patterns dont agree with the key signature
a. Student fingers are not familiar or comfortable with the finger patterns;
solution: spend more time on finger patternsincluding cello
extensionsto increase muscle memory and aural awareness and skills to
differentiate between the patterns
b. Students are not cognitively aware ( or paying attention to) to the key/key
signature; solution: spend more time studying 4th and 7th scale degrees in each
key
4. Students lack fine tuning skills and experience
a. Sing
b. Tuning Canon and Chords
c. Chorales
5. Rangehigher registers pose new challenges with the above mentioned skills
a. Shifting
b. Scales, Arpeggios, and Thirds
c. More study of Higher Positions


Think for a moment: Why do students play out of tune? What can you do to correct that?

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3
1. Tuning Our Instruments

Teach Students to Tune Themselves. Teach Tuning Tone: Using a soft, transparent tone
allows students to hear the correct pitch while they tune their strings.

Cross Tuning For Classes Comfortable Tuning Themselves
1. The leader plays the A; the students listen for 5 seconds, and then tune their A string at
the tip of the bow. Once the A is in tune, the leader turns off the A and instructs the
class to tune up the rest of their strings. The class tunes their instruments quietly
using the tip of the bow and stops playing when they are finished.
2. Even accomplished high school orchestras are still a little out of tune at this point, and
the student leader should then take the class through the Cross-Tuning procedure.
A. Everyone plays their A string again to make sure it is perfect.
B. Violin/bass play their A strings while violas and cellos tune their D strings.
C. Players switch. Violas/cellos play their A while violins/basses tune their D.
D. Violins/basses continue to play their D; violas and cellos cross over and tune
their G string.
E. Players switch; viola/cellos play their D while violin/basses tune their G string.
F. Violins and basses continue to play their G string; violas and cellos cross over and
fine tune their C string.
G. Finally, violas and cellos play their A string, while the violins tune their E string.
Then, violas and cellos drop out, and basses tune their E string to the violins.
Basses may take few extra seconds to double check their tuning using
harmonics.


2. Instrument Left Hand Position
Allocate fundamentals time at the beginning of rehearsals for reviewing hand, body and
instrument position and technique.
Have upper instruments stand up; its easier for them to play, and for you to see and
correct problems.
Get off the podium and move around the room.
Use calisthenics and maintain zero tolerance for position problems and flawsDont be
an enabler by allowing poor positions.

4
?4 b b b
4

? # # N
6


3. Finger Patterns, then Key Signature Agreement
Use
b
exercises that focus on specific patterns to develop muscle memory.
# n
?
11


Basics: Highs, Lows, Extensions

16. Forward Extension Exercises *

? 4 .. 3 # # 4 2 .. 3 # .. # # .. N # # ..
A. B. C. D.

4
2 3 4

2 1 1

17. Scale and Arpeggio Forward Extensions

? 44 ..
A. 3
# # .
B.
. # # N . C.. # # . D.. n # .
. . . . . . .
x2

3
? # # # 4 .. 2 x2 x2 ..
18. Extension Etude
4

* 16A and B: Match the 3rd finger with open G. Keep 2nd finger perpendicular to string with the thumb directly behind it. Always
keep 4th finger
Tetrachord curved, relaxednever stretched and straight. The extension (space) occurs between the 1st and 2nd fingers.
Etude
16C: Play all of Mary with the 2nd finger perpendicular to the string, and 4th finger curved and relaxed.
The purpose
16D: When 2nd of finger
the moves
Tetrachord
from F toEFtude
s, keepis
it tperpendicular
o efficiently focus
to the string on
andfinger
move thepatterns.
thumb with it.
It can be used as a daily warm-up or in a rehearsal to review the problematic finger
pattern and transfer the pattern to the music.
The etude is to be learned and performed on one string. Cellos shift between two
positions in a way that is common for them; basses will shift through three positions and
6 use bass pivot fingerings. Habits of a Successful String Musician - Violin

19. Tetrachord Etude
Tuning Notes (Dorian Tetrachord) Etude

U U U U
4

12
& 8 . #. . . .. # # ..
4 4

w.

After learning the Etude with the Dorian tetrachord above, play it with one of the other tetrachords below.

Tetrachords:
Major Dorian Phrygian Lydian Major (half pos.)

& # # & # n & n & b & b b


20. Velocity Etude
Perform as written first, and then perform with the different finger patterns (#2. Fn and #3. Ef) shown below.
4
& 4 # # # #

Finger Pattern #1 #2 #3
5
& # & N & b
Tetrachord Etude Strategies
1. Set the tuner to a low E pedal tone and begin with the Dorian pattern written below.
2. Students should learn one measure at a time while listening and adjusting their
fingertips to finely tune the notes in the pattern.
3. After students can play the Tetrachord Etude with the dorian pattern, teach them the
other patterns. A pedal C on the tuner works better for Phrygian and Lydian patterns.
4. After all the patterns have been learned, have students perform them one after
another, to help them hear and understand the differences.
5. To practice changing modes in quick succession, omit measure one (tuning notes), and
perform only measures two and three after each repeat.
6. Have students perform the etude on other strings or in higher positions to perfect the
intonation and tone quality of all other notes on the instrument.

Teaching Velocity
Use velocity exercises develop finger speed and accuracy while maintaining a relaxed left hand.
This Velocity Etude also improves bow management and tone production.
Once the Major pattern is learned, teach the Minor and Phrygian patterns.
Perform the etude with all three patterns in succession as a group without stopping.
This is Variation A; the other variations can be taught the same way.
Find Positions
IV Higher the students maximum
and Alternate relaxed tempo; write down this speed limit and make 11
Clefs it a
goal to extend this limit during the course of the year. Always check for relaxed left
hands (especially thumbs.) Relaxation is a key component of these exercises, as tension
IV Higher Positions and Alternate Clefs
slows fingers down.

48. Velocity Etude in Higher Positions
Perform as written first, and then perform with the different finger patterns (#2. Fn and #3. Ef) shown below.

# # # #
& 44

Finger Positions
#1 #2 #3

2 # N b
Third Pos.

&
3

& &
1

2 3 4
Second Pos.

Velocity Etude Variations


A. B. C. D. E. F.
&


&
G. H. J. K. M. N.

Alternate Clefs
Advanced violinists should learn alto clef, so they can double on viola if needed.

C D E F G A B C

& w w w w w 6
Treble Clef
w w w
w w w w w
w
D Major
II Lower Positions: Finger Patterns,
75. Tuning Canon
Intonation, and Velocity
76. Tuning Chords
Uw Uw
Uw
-2

#
1. 2. 3. 4.
U # U U U U Uw w w
# P44atterns
& Natural
Finger
12. & Sharp .. w
and Key Signature Agreement 4
& # 4 w w ww ww
# Which
A. B.
notes do string players miss most? What are C.we doing div.
about it?
4 .
& 4Most
. pitch . .
in s. chool
problems . .
. .
. ..
th
orchestras occur on the 4 and 7 scale degrees where
th
II Lower Positions: Finger Patterns, Intonation, and Velocity 5
77. Scales
keys and
and Arpeggios - OnecOctave
finger patterns hange first.
# Had a Little Lamb (Backward Extension)
# 4 II Lower
13. Mary
, ## 4

Positions: Finger Patterns,
4 4

& b 44 w & 4 w
4 4

& bexercises
b 4 that student
raise awareness about the 4th and 7th scale
degrees
Use Intonation, and Velocity

Two Octaves

# 4
#
& 4A.
4
12. Natural & Sharp
w
-1 -2 4
14. Backward Extension Exercises
#b 4 4 . A.
B. C. C.
& b b4 4 . .. n b .. .. .. .. n b Three .. .. .. Octaves
.. .. .. ..
B. D.

D n b .. E1
1
III

-1

## 4 -1 0 2 # # 4 G2 1

& 4
3 3 1 A

& 4
1

w
,
13. Mary Had
15. Dominant Etude a Little Lamb
1 (Backward Extension)
4b
III I V

& 4b b 44 -1 4 x4 -4 3 -3 b -3 A4 b D b G4
III

# # -1 4

& w
2

IIIN
& #A. # B. x4 C.

6
14. Backward VII Extension
XI Exercises VI

b 4 3 1 -4 1 A3 D.1 D2 G4 2
b b . n b . . n b .. .. .. .. ..
# . . . -1

D

& # 444 3 # n 3
11&
G A 3 E 3

1 n b
4 2 -1
2 1 2


nd Reviewing

VIIIb Awareness w
&
Teaching aIII Keys
V and Key Signature
1


III

Use exercises that focus on the 4 and 7 scale degrees of the key you want
15. Dominant Etude
th th
to teach
4
b b b

& Forward
4
Exercises

16. Extension
A.
78. Dominant Arpeggio
4# ..
B. C. D.

& 4 # 4 # # . # . # #N ..N # # ..
. .
2 4
4 4

& 4 #2 # 1 1
6 3 4 4

&
2 1

# n
17. Scale and Arpeggio Forward Extensions

A. Arpeggios g o pportunity
& ive students b to C.h4ear the leading tones key; the
11

.. .. # # N .. .. # # .. .. n # ..
Dominant B. the D. 4in a given
4Thirds
.. - Lower# Octave
&
79. 4 #
the sound
4 feel of the key (and leading
tones in that the better they 4
# # 4
better they learn and key)
notes
in their music.
4

& iForward
will
16. 4 aExtension
dentify nd correct the problem
Exercises 1
1
18. Extension Etude 1
4 We use dominant arpeggios to teach any and all 12 major and 12 minor keys/modes
A. B. C. D.
.
& #4# # .Octave # -2.. th 4 # -2 th .. ## -2 .. -2N # .. # ..
1

4 # .
4 .2 practice,
& # Slow
Upper
14 and 7 scale
degrees; listen and adjust
fingertips
identifying
1
4
& #
Reviewing
17.Scale a dominant
and Arpeggio Forward
III
arpeggio
Extensions rVight before rehearsing
III
a piece sI aves time and 1improves
A. B.
intonation significantly. C. D. 4
4 .. .. # # N .. .. # # .. .. n # ..
& 4 ..
4

# #

18. Extension Etude


### 4 . ..
7
& 4 .
4



? 43 ..
. .. . - .
Bass

13
4 4 .
1 &- - exercises and . opportunities to learn how to finely tune their fingers
4. Give students
4teach
students o listen, blend, and
. tHabits
Vln.
Tuning Canons, Chords and Chorales
26 2 & of a Successful
fString
inely t4une the notes
than
J lower instruments should be louder
4 4

key.
- i-n each
and chords For
overall balance, the
Musician
- Violin
.
the
upper instruments, and no one should play so loudly
that
they cannot blend and finely tune
their B - w
Vla. notes - ith
the players
around
. f
DThe Major
them. tuning canon w ay
is a good to class;
begin as . a
warm up, students -can focus
- . with good
on performing

pitch and good tone
.
Vc. ?

.
121. Tuning Chords
120. Tuning Canon
U
. U. . U U U U Uw Uw Uww ww
b ?b 4 b b 4 .
1. 2. 3. 4.

&bbb 4
Bass - .. w & b b b 4 w w ww ww
.


128 Habits of a Successful String Musician - Conductor
and42Arpeggios - One Octave
122. Scales
STUDENT 194. Chorale #3: Pavane from Capriol Suite
PAGE q = 88
b b Chorale
bSTUDENT
4 #9:
& 25b b 4 Midwinter
the Bleak - continued) bb 4
& b b b 4

- w w
(200. In 40
PAGE

b 2.
11 & bb 4

.. J # 1 - w .. .
.. J # . w .
& n # J .

Two Octaves
b b b
4
2 - .. . J w ..
b&b bb4 4 .. b N
Vln.

&22b & - w ..
Vln. 4
-1 -2

1
w
- -
III

b2 .
I

Three
.. .. Octaves G ..1
Vla. B & b 4. . J -1 -1 w 1 A1 -1 nw
b b b 4 J2
.
E

bb 4
Vla.

& b b b 4 w & b b .4 w
? 2
Vc. B b b 4. .. J III . . JIII V ..
Vc. - -
I
. .
-1. 4 -4 3 -3 . -3. . A4
b ? b 2 J 4 4 2 w ..
x4 -4

.
& b b b 4 . J
b
G
Bass b B - - w . .
-1 D

Bass w
VII IX VI III

EChorale -4
b Emperor
Concerto,
x4

201. Chorale #10: from


D D

b 4
A A G

b
3 3 3 1

b
2 2

& b4
2 4 1 -1 2 -1 1 3 1 4 2

V Movt.
VIII 2 q = 42 III
w
III Adagio un poco mosso

# # # # 4 3 1 .
1

1 & #4
1


123.
Vln. Dominant Arpeggio p
# # # #3 4


2 b& # 4 j
4 2

b 4
1

& b b b 4 - - . -
p
# n
2

# ## 4
I 1 1
j
Vla. B # # 4
- - . -
p

? # # # #- Lower
44 Octave . n a
.
j
124.
Vc. Thirds # J -
bb 4 p
& b?b #4 # 4 .
b
1

j
1

# # # 4 1 J n a . -
p
Bass

-2
b6 b # # #1 . 1 -2 1 2
Upper Octave -2



-2

b b
&1 &b # #

f p
8
III V III I

# ##
Vln. cresc. dim.

2 & # # j
.
# 4
24.
39. D Major Scale and Arpeggio - on One String
4
-1 -2 -3

& 4 to the Same Finger


-1 -2 -3

23. #Shifting Performall shifting exercises with and without slurs.


& ## 44 .. III3 I -1 III -1 4I .. .. III -2 .. Iw -2
-1 4
-2 -4
-4

& 44 -1 -3 -1 -2
25. Shifting Up the String
Ef Major
III I III I

#
40.
5. Teaching Scale tand
R-1ange Arpeggio
hrough - on U
Shifting, One
nits String
on Upper Positions and -1Alternate Clefs, and -1Scales
4
24.b b 44 . -2 .. .. .. 9
-1


-1
&
III Shifting Exercises-1 -1 -1

-1 -1 -3


-2 -1

b .
-2

& # 44 -1 -2 -3 -3w
ifferent Finger Shifts

Shifting
& students
4 about t-1he different I
-1

39. D
Teach Major Scale
II
and Arpeggio
I
- on One
III x4
k String
inds
-4
o f s
I
hifts: B
-3 IV
oth S
ame a nd
I
D
V

41.#Up4and Down -4 III


# 4 .. to a Different . . .. w
-1 4 4 I

-1Finger . .and thethumb


III I -2 I -4

&
III
the Octave
To reachhigher positions, bring
26. Shifting
the elbow and arm around the instrument, around the neck.

b -1-1 -1 -1
25./i`>`i`i>wiwxi>iwi>`Li``i]i>`
Shifting Up the-1 String -3

4 -1 -1 -2
-1 -2

b# -1 -2
# b
-1 -1 -1

40.& f 444 Scale - on


-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Arpeggio String
-1 -1

&&E Major44 and -1 One . -1 -2 . -2


-1 -2 -1


-1

-1 -3
b 4 III -1 III -1 V -1 -1 I -1
&&b bbb b4 . I . . III .. wI
. IV-1 . . -1
-1
II -1
-1 III -1I I -1 -1 I -1 I -1



27. -2
26.s#Shifting
4
x4 -3

.
-4
-2

entire range of -3the instrument.


-1 -3 -3

& 4
Use hifting etoxercises that dFinger
evelop skills throughout the -1
These 9
.
III Shifting a
Exercises Different
exercises
41. 42.UpEtudeandain lso
DownFhMajor
elp
thestudents
Octave develop well-balanced instrument positions to shift easily and
/i`>`i`i>wiwxi>iwi>`Li``i]i>`

39. D# 4 4
correctly.
To reach III-1 positions, bring
higher I the elbow and arm III around the instrument, and the thumbIII -2 4 -2the neck. 2I -4
around
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 . -1 -1
I-2

& b 4
-1

-3 -1
-2 -2 -4 -1
Major Scale and Arpeggio - on One String
4 -3 . -4 -1 -2 -1
-3

&b #b 44 -3
-3 -4 -2
28.

-1

&& # #4444 .IIIIII I I III I III I . . I III III . I I


-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
-1

& 4 . III . .
-1
-2 -2 4

. w
-4


27.
b # in Fs Minor -3 -1
&&b b 4 -3 .
-1 -1
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1-3 -1 -1 -1 -1


-2 -1 -2

-3
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1


-2 -3
43. Etude

-3

4
# #f#Major Scale and Arpeggio - onOne . String -3 -2
4 -1 Mark III adotor a-2diamond.
Minor shifts with -2-2I -1III -3 I
-2 4 -2
40. E
& b 44 -1
-2 -4

-1Ithe silent
-1 I -1 III -2 I III .. .. -1I
29. Etude in EIII
& b# b4 4 in.. FMajor III -1 III .
. -2I
# 44 -2
x4 -4 -4 -2
4 -2
w -3
42. Etude
28.
& -3 -3 -3 -4
-3

& 4 4 in E Major
-1

-1
-3 -2 -3 -1 -2

44.bEtude
2 -4

& 4
-1

# # #and4IIIDown
#ifferent kinds Iof shifting I III I

41. dUp theto
Octave

Use etudes Iteach different IIIpatterns
-2

& To reach 4 higher positions, the elbow andarm around the instrument, and the thumb around the neck.
1 -1

bring
III

b b 4ininFI EMinor s
VI -1
b
43.29. Etude -1 -1 -1

&# ### # # 4 -1-2 -1-2-2 4 -1-2


Etude -1
Minor Mark the-1 silent
-1 III shifts with -1 -1 -1 V
a dot or a diamond.
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1

# 44 -2-3 -3-2 -1-2 -2 -4-3 -1 -3


#
&&& 44 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

-2


-2

b b b -1 III -1 IIV III I II III -1 I -1 1/2 III I I -1


&

45.Etude
44. EtudeininEGMajor
Major (Finger Replacement)

# # # 4 in3 F Major
42.#Etude -4-2
4 -2 2 -4

-3

&& 44 4.. -2 -3 -3 -4
-1
1 -3 -1


-3 -4


& b 44 I III III I -2 V III IVI III
-4 -2

# # # # III I-2 -3 III-3 -4 I -4 III 1.-4 I -4 -2


& #
-1


Positions
..
III 2. -4 I

& Etude
-3 -4
Higher
43. in F s Minor IV
Take time to teach students how to play in higher positions.
II
Just figure it out yourself
I
and go
#
1/2

# # p4rivate teacher
Replacement) 4 -3
-2 I III 4 -2 III I III I III I -3
ask your a re n ot tIeaching strategies.
-3

&Etude4in G Major (Finger


-2 -3 -2 -4

45.
# 4 . 3 III

-3

.
I -3 III I I -4III I
& 4
III -4

44. Etude in E MajorIII


#
# # 4 2.-4 -4
I I III

1.
III

&# # 4 -3 -3 -4 -4
-1
1 -1 -2

..
-3 -4 -4

&
#
I III V VI

## # I
-2I


I III I -2 -1 I

&
-2 III III III
9
IV II 1/2 I
## 44 30 . 2 11 -4 2 1 -1 2
& .. J n -1 n 2 j 0 2 1 n -4 1 ? n -2 0
2 1

B4 B ..
3

4 & .
Vc.


Bass

#
& # 44
V III II1/2 V III I

n n n n
1 2 2 1
Bass

Upper Register and Thumb Position


53. A Major
To reach Scale
higher and Arpeggio
positions, bring the elbow and arm
STUDENT around
PAGE 12 the instrument, and the thumb around the neck.

52. Upper Register



Patterns
# # # 4 1 -4 -3

E

-1 3 1
x4 x4

4 E
-1

&
-1 3

# # 4 1
Vln.

& 4 A
0
Vln.
# # 0
-4 -2 -4
4

& # 44 A1
x4
-1 4

# 4
Vla.

& # 4
3
Vla.

1 2 2 1 D3 2 1 2 D
A A 2
B # # # 44
D


1 2 3

#
Vc.

& # 44 A D 1 3 G 1 1 2
3 3

3 1 A3 1
1 2 2 1


a
Vc.

3 1 3
D

B ## 4
## 4
1 3

& # 44
Bass


1 3 3 1
Bass



54. D Major Scale and Arpeggio STUDENT PAGE 12


-4 -3
# 4 1 -1 3 1
x4 x4

-1
E

& # 4
-1 3

Vln.

-4 -3
# 4 1 -1 3 1
x4 x4

-1
A

& # 4
-1 3

Vla.

#
D A D

& # 44
3
D


1 2


3 2 1 2 2


1 2 3 2 1


Vc.

G
# 4
D G D
3 0
D

& # 4 Habits
1 3 -2 3


String Musician
1 3 1 1

of aSuccessful
1 3 3

- Conductor
1 3 2 -3
122
Bass

STUDENT PAGE 40
(194. Chorale #3: Pavane from Capriol Suite - continued)
-
-

b
& b .. .. .. ..
17

1
- -
b . .
Vln.
2 & b .. . . ..

b - -
Vla. & b .. .. .. ..

- -
# #
n # .
B b b .. .. .. .
Vc.

? b b .. - - ? .. .. B

Bass
B
..


195. Chorale #4: Coventry Carol q = 98
10
#
1 & # 43 # # .
Tone The bow angle is perpendicular to the string and rotated correctly.
Bow weight and speed are well-matched and appropriate.
Bow placement (frog, lower half, balance point, middle, upper half, tip) is correct.

Notes are consistently correct and in tune, especially 4th and 7th scale degrees.
Hand placement is correct on fingerboard, not sharp or flat.
Intonation i>i>wi>ViiViV>w>`ii`>Vi>iViV
-w>iVi>>`iiiVi`xi>iViV
Scales and Arpeggios Fingertips adjust quickly, refining the pitch after finger placement.
The purpose of studying scales and arpeggios is to improve intonation and tone by learning
/i>iVi]L]`>
patterns and tand
Tempo echnique required in different keys across the entire range of the instrument.
Rhythm is correct.
Rhythm Exercise is memorized when appropriate.
Introducing New Scales and Arpeggios to students of different levels

Students of different levels can learn and perform scales at the same time. Those performing more octaves
should begin their scale first, as shown below.


# 4

3-Octave
& 4
w
# 42-Octave
V Scales, & 4 and Thirds
w
Arpeggios, 41

# 1-Octave
& 44be taught the same way.
Arpeggios can

w

students of different levels

# Instruction
44
3-Octave
to teach at the same time:
&
Use Differentiated


w
1. Set the classroom tuner to drone the tonic note of the key.
# 42-Octave
2. Have everyone
& 4
p lay the one-octave scale and
arpeggio to get familiar with the new

tonality and patterns.

3. Next, more advanced students can move on to the two-octave scale; one-octave
# 41-Octave
students stay
& 4
on the one-octave scale. When teaching multiple levels, the students

performing more octaves should begin
their scale
wfirst.
4. Next, three-octave students can move to the three-octave scale, while the other
students stay on the number of octaves appropriate for their level. Again, students
Differentiated Instruction
performing byoctaves
more Instrument begin tSection
heir scale first
The difficulty of a scale can vary depending on the instrument. In a high school class, for example, violin
students will likelyIbe
Differentiate ready to tlearn
nstruction a three-octave
o Accommodate Bf scale long
Instrument before their lower string peers. Instead of
Differences
asking the
The violas toof play
difficulty a three-octave
a scale f
B scale before
can vary depending on the they are ready,
instrument. In ause theschool
high strategies forfor
class, differentiated
instruction described
example, above towmake
violin students scale
ill likely be levels
ready appropriate for everyone.BIn
to learn a three-octave thescale
-flat example
long below,
before the violin
their
students can learn their three-octave B f scale while the rest of the students
lower string peers. We recommend differentiating instruction (below) to make scale levels just play two.
appropriate for everyone.

b 44

&b
Violin


w


B bb 44 w
Viola



? b 44

Cello/Double Bass

b w

Dominant Arpeggios
No exercise
teaches students the patterns and feel of a particular key better than the dominant arpeggio,
11
where the high and low fingered notes occur in close proximity. Set the tuner to drone the 5th scale
degree (the root note of the dominant arpeggio). Focus especially on keeping the 7th scale degree high and
V Scales, Arpeggios, and Thirds 15

Major Scales, Arpeggios, and Thirds




C Major

Uw
65. Tuning Canon 66. Tuning Chords
Uw Uw -2
U Uw w w
4 U U U U
1. 2. 3. 4.
4 .. w w ww ww
&4 &4 w
4

div.

67. Scales and Arpeggios - One Octave


4 & 44
&4
4

w w
1

Two Octaves
4
4
&4
4
-1 -2 4

w
III I
Three Octaves
4 1
4
-1
E

4
& 44
x4


G A

&4
2 1

w IV

4 -4 3 -3
II

-1

x4

-3 A4
-1
D


4 G

&
4 2

w

VI VIII V II

-1 3 1
x4

-4
E 3

4 1 A3 1
D 2 D


A 3 G

&4
2 4 2 1 -1 2 4 2

IV VII II
w
II

68. Dominant Arpeggio

4
1

&4
4

69. Thirds - Lower Octave

& 44

4 4


3 4

1 1
I 1

-2 -2
Upper Octave
4
&
4

III 1 I

12
V Scales, Arpeggios, and Thirds 39

Chromatic and Jazz Scales


Additional Scale Studies
A chromatic scale is made entirely of half steps.

# -3 4
185. Two Octave Chromatic C Scale
-1 -2
3 # # #
x4

& 4 # # # # # #
0 1 -1 2 3
3 4 0 1 -1 2 -2 3 4 1 2 -2 3 4 0

b -3 b 2 -2 b 1 -1 0 4 3 2 -2 1 -1 0 4 3 2 -2 1 -1 0 4
-1 2 3 4 2 2 -1 2 -1 2 3 4
1 2 -1 2

b b b
4 -4 3

& b b b
3

3 2 1 -4 3 2 1 1 -2 1
b .
1 -2

Mixolydian and Blues Scales

186. Bf Mixolydian Blues Scale and Arpeggio


b 4
&b 4 b b b b n b b b
b n b w

187. F Mixolydian Blues Scale and Arpeggio

4 b b b b n b b b
&b 4 b n b w

188. C Mixolydian Blues Scale and Arpeggio


4
& 4 b b b # b b # n b b b w

189. G Mixolydian Blues Scale and Arpeggio


# 4 n n b # n n # n b n
& 4 b w

190. D Mixolydian Blues Scale and Arpeggio


#
& # 44 n n n # n n # n n n n w

191. A Mixolydian Blues Scale and Arpeggio


### 4
& 4 n n n n # n n
n # n n w

13
I Tone and Articulation 1

I Tone and Articulation


Open String Exercises
Part 2. Tone and Articulation
Even
Tone - Frog to Tip
44 U
1.
Use Oapen Strings
bowthold,
o teach
playbasic tone string
production.
With flawless the open without counting or keeping
I Tone and Articulation &
i>>iiLV>V]>i]i]>`ii` w
Start with a relaxed bow hold. Use calisthenics to improve bow holds and correct problems.
Talk about the basic components of tone production and incorporate these terms into every
rehearsal.
Even
Bow Distribution Open String Exercises
2a. 2b.

& 44 .. & 44 ..
Frog Tip Frog Tip
Even Tone - Frog to Tip
.. ..
w w - - - - - - - -
7>{>iL`]>iiViii>>iiL
contact point, angle, weight, and speed.
I2c. ToneFrog
and Articulation Tip 1
44 .. & 44 ..
2d.

&Teacher .. ..
Tips:
w of this exercisew is to study the following basic bowing
- components
- - without
- thinking
- - about- fingers
- or
The purpose
I Tone and Articulation
2e.counting.
4 .. Hold: A flawless bow hold & 44orExercises
2f.

&U4 Bow Open .. String


has no visible problems ..unnecessary tension; ..
w placement is correct;
w thumb and pinky are curved; knuckles - -are fluid.
- - - & 4
4U
-
1.

- -
finger
Vln.
U Contact Point: The bow is correctly placed on the string between
Even Tone - Frog to Tip the bridge and w
44 U4 U
1.
fingerboard
With
Grab a flawless
Bow
U and Angle:bow
Release Thehold,
bow isplay the opentostring
perpendicular without
the string counting
and the or keeping
stick is directly over &Vla. B 4 w
i>>iiLV>V]>i]i]>`ii`
the hair or rotated slightly toward the scroll of the instrument. w
Grab the string with the hair of the bow to begin each note with a crisp attack.
U Bow Placement: The correct part of the bow for producing the desired articu- ? 44 U
Vc. w
3a. lation
Even Bow frog, balance point, middle,
Distribution 3b. tipis over the string. 3c.
U4 Bow
.. -Frogweight speed are4balanced
.. Tip .. and produce .. tone that& 44 Bass
.. Tip? 44-w -
U
..
&2a.4 projects - and bow & 4
. . . . .4. . .
2b.
an excellent
. . . .
4
Frog

& 4 .. .. & 4 .. ..
well.

w3d. w - - - - - - - -
STUDENT PAGE 1

4 .. Tip 2d. . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2c.
4 & 4Distribution
Frog

&4 .
Even .Bow . &4 . ..
w w - - - - - - - -
Teacher Tips:
Crossings Strings
U -`i>i>VViiiiL>V>Lii` >i`Liii`V>
4 .. Frogstring. Tip & 44 ..
2e. 2f.

& 4 the .. 4c. ..


&U44 iiLViiL`ii`i]>`ViixiL>`i`i
.. w & 44 .. . - 44 -.. - - - - - ..
4a. 4b.
.. w
-. &
U i>i>`i>iwVi>iwiLi`iVLi>i


Grab
4d. and Release 4e. Middle Bow

4 . 44 .. Tip
STUDENT PAGE 1

. Tstring
4 .with
Frog the hair
of the
bow
to begin
. each
2b.note .. a crisp
4 . Frogwith .
& 4 the & 4. . & 4 . &attack. .. .
2a. Tip
Grab
Teacher ips
Vln.
w are to practice w using the entire bow -with - a constant - - bow - - Bow
- angles
3a. Students 3b. 3c. - speed.
4 should t4 4
& 4 ..Vla. .. w4& .4 .. . . .. . . B. 4 ... - . -. .. - - . & 4- .. . - . - - -. . .to - be ..

- B 44 ..b-we perpendicular 4
Frog Tip
4f. Frog Tip
o the string. .
Dig in more a t the t &
ip a 4 .
nd l
ess a
? 4 . Frog
t t he f
rog t o c
ompensate
f .
or t he b ow's t endency
? a4 t .. the tip.
Frog Tip Tip

light .
. 4 . ..
Vc.
3d. 4 w w - - - - - - - -
Move 4 ..the
bow closer tTip

o the bridge when digging
- - - - - - - - ..
Frog in more, and closer to the finger board
& 4 . . . i.n l.ess.
. . . . . . . . .. . . . 4 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Tip

w w
Frog

? 4
when 4 d..igging ? 4
Bass

Crossings Strings
4a. 4c. 14

& 44 .. & 44 .. .. & 44 .. ..


Frog Tip 4b.
..
Introduction (teacher) Theme (student)
## 4 # . #
& 4 & # 44 j j. j j & # 44 j j .. w

8a. 4 8b. 4
4

. . . . . . . .
## 4 #
8c. 8d.

& 4 & # 44 . . . . . . . .
Basic Bow
Bowing Strokes
. . . .
Variations . . . .
Here
5a. are a number of tools 5b. and strategies w5c. e use to efficiently and effectively teach tone,
# # 44
5d.
and rhythm combinations. !We use the following sequence most often: @
Middle to upper half

! @
articulation, 3

&
3 3 3

Spiccato Exercises
1. Select a rhythm or bowing that the students need to learn or review, pKeep ossibly from
pinky tcurved.
he
*iwiVV>i>iL>>ViiiiL>`Vi`>`iViw
# #fluid. , thumband
,
44menu of options below, j
5e. 5f. 5g. 5h.
re pjlaying.
U.H. L.H. or make up your own.
&
and
2 2.
Establish
- . . - . . - . . - . . . .
a t empo f rom a c
oncert p iece w ith t he r .
hythms
Habits of at .
he s
Successful -
tudents a
String Musician - - Violin
5j. # 4
3. Use
9a.
, , , , 5k. #
the i ntroduction t o m odel
9b. t he r , , 5m. , ,
hythms o r articulations s
# # 4 5n., t,he
tudents
9c. a re t o l , ,
earn.
#
&# 44 # 4
& 4 Variations j j j j & 4 or

4. Students p lay t he T heme i mmediately a fter t he t eacher, d emonstrating rhythm
& # 4articulation j .
ust m.
. .. . . .
odeled b Bowing
y t he t eacher o
r
s

tudent l eader. . . - . .
-
5. Practice
9d.
# 4
Perform the theme ,with ,using , ithout
and one
w , the trhythm
of he
## 4
9e. classroom , from the variations
metronome.
or articulations
## 4
9f. below.
& # 4Introduction . .
& 4
. . . . . . & 4
4 . . . 4. . . . . . .
(teacher) Theme (student)
#Bow
# 4 . ..
&9g.# 4 9h.#. 3 3 3
4
Full Exercises
# 3w
9j.
4 # 44 4
&# # 4Frog Tip & & # 4
3 3

- . . Frog . . . . . . Tip - . . . - . . .
6a. 6b. 6c. 6d.
4
& # 4 - . . . j . . . .j . . . riccochet
- - - - - - - - - -, - - - -, - - - - - -9n.- - - - - -
Basic# Bow 4 Strokesf #f# 4 ## 4 f
9k. 9m.

& #grand 4 martel & 4 & 4


- . .Tip. . - Frog . 5b.
. . Tip
. - 5c. . . . - . . . 6g. 5d. . .staccato . . . . .
. . to. upper
# # 44 j j j j ! !
5a.
6e. Frog 6f. up-bow

& 44 @ @
3
Middle half
Tip 3 Frog
3 3

> ------> ------ - . . . . . . - . . . . . .


f ,
## 4
Triple Patterns 5h. Keep , thumband pinky curved.

j
5e. 5f. 5g.
j
U.H. L.H.

& 4 10a.# - . . - . . 10b. . # # 12. . . -


-
Dotted Rhythms - & .# 12 8
. and Hooked j -j . j. j
Bows
& 8
7b.
5m. -7c.. . - . . - . 5n.. - . .
# 44 Tip ## 4 ## 4
5j.
7a. 5k.

& # 44 10c. r .. 10d. r


& 4 & 4 . -j - j .-. .
Frog Tip Frog


#.# .12 . . . .
.. - - # # 12
-
& 8 f & 8 j j . .
# #
7d. 7e.

& # 44 10f. # 4
& 4 . . . . . . . .
# 12. .Exercises
. . . . . # 12
10e.
Full Bow #
& 8 . . . #
& 8 . . . . . . . .
# # 44 Frog ## 4
6a.
7f. 6b. 6c. 7g. 6d.

&10g.# 44 . , . , . . ,- . j. . -, j & 10h. 4


Tip Frog Tip

# 12
.- - - - - . - - - - .
- -
-
- - - -# #-12- - - - - - - - --
& 8 f f & 8 . . . . . . . . f. .
grand martel
. . . . . .
# # 4to Rj emember
6e. Frog Tip Tip 6f. 6g.
Things Frog up-bow staccato

j j
j students
Tip Frog

& 4Model
how - - - - - - > - - - - - - - . . . . . . - . . . . . .
are to sound
Assess student performance. L>ook
f for correct bow hold, direction, part of the bow, good
weight and speed to project well, and correct articulation

Dotted Rhythms and Hooked Bows

# # #
7a. 7b. 7c.

& # 44 . . & # 44 .. r .. r & # 44


Tip Frog Tip Frog

- - - . . . - . . .
f 15
# 4 ## 4
7d. 7e.

& # 4 . . & 4 . . . . . . . .
4 Habits of a Successful String Musician - Violin
Slurring Variations can be used to teach slurs and detach (including sautill)
Use a metronome: Start with a slow tempo and gradually increase speed.
Slurs
Use more weight on the slurs, and more bow on separate notes.

#4 . #
611a. Habits11b.
of a Successful String Musician - Violin

. .. & 44 ..
..
4 4

& 4
4 4


w w
19. Tetrachord Etude
Tuning Notes (Dorian Tetrachord) Etude

#124U . U U #4 .
11c. 11d.
U
4

. ..
4

. . .
44

& .
& 8 4 . # . . . . # #& .
4 . w.
4 4 4


w

w

# #
After
4 4
11e. learning the Etude with the 11f.
4 Dorian tetrachord above, play it with one of the other tetrachords below.
.. .
. .
. ..
4

& 4
M anagement
& 4
4 4

Major (half pos.)



Tetrachords:
Velocity
Major
Etude Bow
for
Dorian
Phrygian
w Lydian
w
While we use the velocity etude primarily for developing left hand speed, it has also been a
& teaching &students
# #for
11g.tool # n to manage n bow speed. 11h.
& their & b must pay & b to b
good
#
contact 4point,
.. bow weight .. a good tone #
Students attention
44 t..he first note to the last. ..
& 4 speed
and

to produce
& from


w
w
20. Velocity Etude
Perform as written first, and then perform with the different finger patterns (#2. Fn and #3. Ef) shown below.
4
& 4 # # # #

Finger Pattern #1 #2 #3

VI Chorales
teaches
& # requiring s&
bow management, to
tudents N attention t&
Chorales are great tools for teaching tone, balance, blend, and phrasing. This chorale also
pay b point and bow speed.
o contact 125
STUDENT PAGE 41

Velocity Etude Variations198. Chorale #7: Fantasia in G q = 76


A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.
&
#4 - w - - M.
1 I.& 4 J. K. L. w N. w
&
# -
4 w -
Vln.
2 & 4
O. P. Q.
R. - -
& -
#4 - w w w
Vla. B 4
? # 4 The trillson beats - . -
21. Trills
4 2 and 4 are performed
the same way.



& b?44 # 4. w w w.
Vc.

. w . w w . . .
Bass 4

& b . # . . . N . .
# 8

w # . # w w
1
& 16

b #
&2 . . . . . -
.
Vln.

.
4
# 2
& 4 JVIII
Sight-Reading

by Level
J
A. Quarter Notes and Rests; Eighth Notes
260. and b.
# #3 2 Part 3: Rhythmic Literacy and Sight Reading
211a.
j j
& 4 4
The goal of teaching rhythm is to develop independent string musicians who can decipher,
# 3 j how
& #a#nd written
4 perform rhythms
without the of a teacher.
help We need to be careful

recall
we &

respond to the most frequently asked q uestion How J does this
in music education: go? If
we are not careful, teachers can unintentionally create students that become rhythmically
dependent upon the teacher or other players.
j j j j j j j j j j
212a.
261. and b.
# 42 . . . .

All &
44 has two components: the pulse and the rhythm that goes over the pulse. The
rhythm
# 4must develop both cjomponents for .to properly
a student understand j and
hould . b. e Jtaught
always Jneed perform
teacher
& 4 J J . J J Jthat there
rhythms.
262. P ulse s a nd e stablished f irst; s J
tudents t o l earn
can
&42Rhythm
VIIbe

a pulse Charts
without
in a a Musical
rhythm,

but there is no such thing as good rhythm without a pulse. 47
Context



213a. and b.
4 jD.j Intermediate Triple
j j j
Meter
263. 4 . . . . . .

2 b.
& #b 434 .
220a. and
j

& 48 . J J . . . j .
.
J J
#
264. 3
.

& # 8 practice
# 3 J
& 4
For additional with ties, dotted quarter notes and eighth rest patterns, go to Part VIII Sight Reading Exercises 270283.

VIII # Sight-Reading by Level


j j j j j j
221a. and b.
& #68 .
57
.
# 6 J j
. j
C. Syncopation
&
265. 8 J J J
&43
# 2 j j .
284.
# j j

& and 4 b. . j J .

j J Exercises
222a.
Additional Sight Reading
68 .
285. # > . .
266.

b#b 26443 j j . .
. j j
&&
& 8F > >J . j j J # . p .
p . f

## and
jj j J j . . j jj . j
286.
24 b. .
267.

&& 464 . . j
. J . f
223a.

8F P .

# j j j j
&# # #68 2 . j j j j.
287.

J J J .
& 4 J J

.
98 . j j . j J j . J jj j .
224a. and b.
288.
3
&4 J J J J
# 9 j . j j
8 J .
17
& J .
## j j . J J
289.

& # 43 . . j
Getting Started
1. Establish and model the tempo and counting style students are to use during the
rhythmic example. Students are to count the pulse (not the rhythm of the music) out
loud. After they demonstrate their ability to keep a steady pulse counting, they can
begin performing the rhythm of the music with their bow hand while continuing to
count out loud. Count using the smallest denomination used in the music; for example:
a. If the example is mostly quarters and half notes, count quarter notes (1, 2, 3, 4.)
b. If the example has dotted quarters and eighth-notes, count the pulse and
division (1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &)
c. Dotted eighths and sixteenth-notes: 1 e & a, 2 e & a, 3 e & a, 4 e & a
2. While counting out loud, students perform the rhythm exercises with their bow.
a. Air bow first. Students can get a preliminary feel of the rhythm as they count the
pulse out loud. Longer notes should be bowed with a slow, sustained motion.
The Teacher can check to make sure students are counting and watch the bows
to assess who is struggling most.
b. After students demonstrate success with air bowing, have them count and bow
the rhythm on an open string. Watch students closely to make sure they
continue counting as they play; the students who dont count will not know
when to come in after long notes and rests.
c. When they are ready, have students look at the line with the pitches. Remind
them to look at the key signature, and have them mentally practice (silently air
bowing and putting fingers on the string) before the class plays together. This
important step gives the non-readers with good ears a chance to practice
reading without having the opportunity to listen to the person next to them.
d. Instruct students to perform the notes and rhythms on the second line with their
bows. If they seem to need it, students may take the intermediate step of
counting and playing pizzicato before playing the notes arco.

Counting Out Loud
To genuinely understand a rhythm pattern, students must perform the rhythm while
simultaneously keeping a consistent pulse somewhere else in their body. The biggest benefit to
this strategy is that students are counting while they perform through long or dotted notes and
rests, which is the most important time to count. Students will find it easier to count in their
head (and they will beg their teachers to let them do this) because in truth, they temporarily
stop counting during the toughest rhythms; instead, they should count out loud, especially
when the rhythms are difficult.

Modeling is encouraged, but avoid teaching rhythm through repetition. Hammering a rhythm
over and over may clean up rhythmic inaccuracies, but the students are only learning to copy
the teacher, and not learning to count and independently perform the rhythm. Each time a
rhythm or exercise is repeated, the students with good ears and poor reading ability have less
need to read. So, avoid repetition, and remember that the best time to teach rhythmic literacy
is every time students are learning new exercises or music.

18
Take Students Through a Series of Rhythm Exercises that are sequenced in increasing
difficulty. Also, practice musical sight reading exercises that gradually challenge students to
play harder rhythms, in more advanced keys, and in higher positions and alternate clefs.
A. Quarter Notes and Rests; Eighth Notes
B. Ties, Dotted Quarters, and Eighth Rests
32 Habits of a Successful String Musician - Conductor
C. Syncopation
STUDENT PAGE 11
D. G.Intermediate H.Triple Meter J.

K. M. N.
E. T riplets
Vln. &
F. Simple Sixteenth Notes

G. Dotted Eighth Notes and Sixteenth Rests
Vla. B
H. Cut Time
Triple
J. Advanced Meter

?
Vc. K. Irregular Meter

?
Alternate Clefs
Take
Bass time to teach students how to read alternate clefs. Just figure it out yourself and go ask
? teacher
your private
not
are strategies.
teaching

Alternate Clefs
Violinists use ottava (8va) and lower strings use alternate clefs to reduce the number of leger lines the
performer reads when the music moves into higher registers. Viola players must learn to read treble clef.
Cello and double bass players must learn to read tenor and treble clefs. Advanced violinists should also learn
alto clef, so they can double on viola if needed.

Violin/Viola C D E F G A B C

& w w w w w
Treble Clef
w w w
w w w w w
Alto Clef B w w w

w w w
C D E F G A B C

w w w w w
?
Cello/Double Bass
Bass Clef

w w w w w
B w w w
Tenor Clef

& w w w w w
Treble Clef
w w w
C D E F G A B C

49. G Major Scale with Alternate Clef same as measures 1 and 2
# 4
Vln. & 4
B



B # 44
&

Vla.

0
-1 -4
-1 -4
D

? # 44

D
B

4
4 0

Vc. 19

-1
3 -4 -4
3

-1
3 -4 -4
0


-1 3 3

? # 44
0
B
0 3
0 -1
Bass
3 a 1 3 1 A3 1 2
G

3 1 3
D

B ## 4
A D

# 4
1 1 3 1

Bass

54. D Major Scale and Arpeggio STUDENT PAGE 12


-4 -3
# 4 1 -1 3 1
x4 x4

-1
E

& # 4
-1 3

Vln.

-4 -3
# 4 1 -1 3 1
x4 x4

-1
A

& # 4
-1 3

Vla.

#
D A D

& # 44
3
D


1 2


3 2 1 2 2


1 2 3 2 1


Vc.

G
# 4
D G D

3 0
D

Bass & # 4
1 3 -2 3


1 3 1 1


1 3 3


1 3 2 -3

IV Higher
IV
and
Higher Positions
Positions and Alternate
Alternate Clefs 35
33

STUDENT PAGE 12
60. Scotlands
50. Frere Jacques
Burning STUDENT PAGE 13


B 44# # 44 B
&
&
B & B & B

Vln.
Vln.

D A3
-1
4# 4 1 B -1 B 3 B-1 0

A

Vla.
Vla. B
&4 4 # & & & &

-1 2 3 1 3 2 D-4 1
III

1
-4

? 2

B 44# # 44 B ? B ? B ? B
Vc.
Vc.

3 1 D G1
III IV I

3
B # # D144 1 -1 4
1 1 3
0
3

? ?
G 1 3

?4 B ? B B B
4
Bass 1
Bass
III IV III


51. Viva la Musica
.
.
B 44 .. J B ..
61. Arirang STUDENT PAGE 13

& J
B# . J . J . J .
Vln.
3 . J
4 . J
.. .
Vln.

4 . B .
& 4# J J &.
3 j j j
Vla.
j j .
Vla. & 4 . . . . .
B 44 4 . -4 j
.. J 1 ? B ..
I . J & IV .1 . . . J .
-1 -4

3 . J
B#
Vc. 3 3

Vc. 4 IV3 J J I

0 . 2 1 -4 1 1 -1 2 3
B4 .. j -2 . 0 . B ..
3

J . .
?
B 4#
2 0

. . J
-1 2 1 -4 1

3 . &
JV III JII J
Bass
4 J
1

Bass V
1/2 III I




62. This Land Is Your Land
Upper Register and Thumb Position
STUDENT PAGE 13

and arm around


the instrument, and the thumb around the neck.


To reach higher positions, bring the elbow
# 4
52. B 4
Vln.Upper Register Patterns


20
# 44 E1
#



Vla. & # 4
Vln. & 4
Final Thoughts

1. Make Timefundamentals timefor teaching technique to your upper level students.
a. Fundamentals Time (25-50%)
b. Concert Music Rehearsal (50-75%)

2. Determine the skills that students at each level should have, and plan how you will go
about teaching them these skills.
a. Determine the skills for each level of orchestra you teach.
b. Organize these skills into units.
i. Left Hand Unit: Finger Patterns, Shifting, Upper Positions
ii. Tone and Articulation: Bow hand, basic tone projection, spiccato, etc
iii. Scales and Arpeggios
iv. Theory and Creativity
v. Concert Music
3. Create a Long Range plan that identifies the skills that will be addressed in each quarter.

Quarter 1 Overview
1. Tone and Articulation:
a. Review Right Hand Technique (1 week)
b. Basic Tone Production Review; Terms and Open String Exercises 1-4, (1 week)
c. Basic Strokes, Full tone: Bowing Variations 5 A-N (2 weeks)
i. Detache, Staccato, Legato, Marcato. Slur (11a - 11d)
d. Full Bow Skills, Tip to Frog with good bow angle: Exercises: 6-G (1 week)
i. Portato/loure, up-bow staccato, Slur (11e 11h)
e. Dotted Rhythms and Syncopated Patterns (3 week)
f. Chorales 1 & 2
2. Left Hand Skills:
a. Left Hand Position: Let Go of the Instrument
b. ExtensionsBackward and Forward
c. Tetrachord Etude
d. Velocity Etude and Trills
3. Scales, Arpeggios and Thirds: C Major & G Major
4. Creativity: The Cover Project
5. Literacy
a. Writing Familiar Melodies: Twinkle and Mary
b. Rhythmic Literacy Quarter Notes and Rests; Ties, Dotted Quarters and 8th rests
i. Exercises: Charts A and B from Habits Book Sections 7 and 8

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23


Christopher Selby is an active clinician, speaker, adjudicator and
conductor, and is the co-author of Habits of a Successful String
Musician, a string method book for upper level orchestras
published by GIA. Dr. Selby currently directs the high school string
and symphony orchestras at the School of the Arts in Charleston,
SC. He earned his Masters and Doctorate of Musical Arts degrees
in Orchestral Conducting from the University of South Carolina,
and a Music Education degree from the Hartt School of Music in
Connecticut. He earned his National Board Certification in the
area of Early Adolescent and Young Adult Music in 2002 and
2012.

Before moving to Charleston, Dr. Selby taught orchestra in
traditional elementary, middle and high schools for eighteen years. He was the Orchestra
Coordinator in Richland School District Two and had been teaching at Spring Valley High School
since 2005. Under his direction, his orchestras consistently receive superior ratings playing
grade VI music, and the schools small, diverse Chamber Orchestra won 1st Place in the
competitive high school string orchestra division of the 2012 National Orchestra Festival, at the
national conference of the American String Teachers Association (ASTA).

From 2012-2014, he served as the Chair of the Committee on School Orchestras and Strings in
the American String Teacher Association (ASTA). Dr. Selby has presented numerous sessions at
state and national conferences and gave a keynote address on Encouraging Creativity in
Secondary Performing Ensembles at the 2012 SCMEA state conference. He co-authored the
2010 SC Performance Standards for Instrumental Music, and published three articles in ASTAs
national publication, American String Teacher. A recipient of the 2009 SC ASTA Orchestra
Teacher of the Year, Dr. Selby has conducted a SC All-State Orchestra and numerous regional
honor orchestras in the area.

Dr. Selby was the 2011-2013 President of the South Carolina Music Educators Association
(SCMEA) Executive Board, which is in charge of the state conference and is the umbrella
organization for the Band, Orchestra, Choral, Elementary, Higher Ed and Piano Divisions. He was
President of the Orchestra Division from 2007 to 2009 and led this organization through the
restructuring of their Region and All-State Orchestras, and improved the clarity and rigor in the
evaluation process at Concert Festival and Solo and Ensemble Festivals.

Dr. Selby lives in Mount Pleasant, SC with his wife, Margaret, and their children, Alex and Kate.
He is currently writing his next book, Habits of a Successful Orchestra Director, offering helpful
tips for building a strong, successful orchestra program, and a guide to help directors plan and
deliver thoughtful, well-sequenced technique instruction in their advanced orchestras.


24