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SEMINAR REPORT

ON
NEW TECHNIQUES IN EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
STRUCTURES
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

Submitted by:

ACHAL GUPTA
(12 BAC 043) SEMESTER X

Guided by:

AR. P.K. JAIN


AR. VARSHA RAINA

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

LINGAYAS UNIVERSITY

FARIDABAD

2016-2017
2

CERTIFICATE
In partial fulfillment of the B.Arch. degree program, this is to certify that Achal
Gupta has worked on the seminar report entitled New Techniques in
Earthquake Resistant Structures under my guidance and supervision.

Ar. P.K. Jain

Ar. Varsha Raina


Ar. R.M Aggarwal

D
ean

External Examiner 1
External Examiner 2

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Declaration

I, Achal Gupta, hereby declare that the seminar entitled New techniques in
Earthquake Resistant Structures submitted in the partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Architecture is my original
design/ research work and that the information taken from secondary sources is
given due citations and references.

Date:15.5.17

Place: Faridabad
B.Arch. 10th Semester

2016- 2017

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Acknowledgements

I am deeply indebted to my seminar guide Ar. Varsha Raina for showing faith and
confidence in me for taking up such a project for my thesis. Without his guidance
and valuable suggestions, my work would not have come up to the level as
presented. I would also like to thank my friends, and above all, my family, for their
wholehearted co-operation at every stage through this journey.

Achal Gupta
12 BAC 043
B.Arch. 10th Semester
School of Architecture
Lingayas University

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.N CHAPTERS PAGE


O. S
1. INTRODUCTION 6

1.1. AIM 7

1.2. OBJECTIVE 7

1.3. NEED FOR STUDY 7

1.4. SCOPE 7

1.5. LIMITATIONS 8

1.6. TOOLS 8

1.7. METHODOLOGY 9

2. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES? 10


2.1. NEED FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES 11

2.2. WHAT ARE TECHNIQUES TO BE USED? 11

3. NEW TECHNIQUES 12
3.1. NEW TECHNIQUES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT 12
STRUCTURES
4. LITERATURE REVIEW 18

5. CASE STUDIES 24

5.1 TAIPEI 101, TAIWAN 24

5.2 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOMES - JAPAN 30

5.3 PETRONAS TOWERS , KUALA LAMPUR 33


5.4 COMPERATIVE STUDY 38
6. CONCLUSION 39

7. REFRENCES 39

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8. BIBLOGRAPHY 40

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Most of the loss of life in past earthquakes has occurred due to the collapse
of buildings, constructed in traditional materials like stone, brick, adobe and
wood, which were not particularly engineered to be earthquake resistant. In
view of the continued use of such buildings in most countries of the world, it
is essential to introduce earthquake resistance features in their construction.

From the results of studies on the performance of buildings during past


earthquakes, it appears that :

(i) certain building types should entirely be ruled out in seismic zones
having probable seismic intensity of VIII or more on Modified
Mercalli or the MSK Intensity Scales. This would include earthen
houses, random rubble masonry as well as brickwork in clay mud
mortar.
(ii) rich mortars involving cement and lime should be used in fired brick
and coursed stone masonry.
(iii) substantial steel reinforcement should be introduced in the walls in
both directions of the building.

But there are a number of socio-economic constraints such as the following


which do not
permit the adoption of high level of safety in the buildings for the masses:

(i) lack of concern about seismic safety due to infrequent occurrence of


earthquakes.
(ii) lack of awareness that buildings could be made earthquake resistant
at small additional cost only, hence lack of motivation.
(iii) lack of financial resources for additional inputs for meeting
earthquake resistance requirements in building construction.
(iv) other normal priorities on financial inputs in the daily life of the
people.
(v) scarcity of cement, steel as well as timber in the developing countries
in general.

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1.1 Aim

To study different available techniques used for the structures in


earthquake prone areas so that the building shall not collapse or harm
human lives during severe earthquake motions.

1.2 Objectives

Optimize the local structural performance, by limiting damage under


the most frequent (and less intense) earthquakes and minimizing the
probability of detachment and out-of-plane collapse under the
effects of the most intense earthquakes.
Minimize the negative effects that inadequate design and cause on
the global structural behavior of the rcc framed structure under the
effect of the design earthquake, i.e. at the ultimate limit state.

1.3 NEED FOR STUDY

An ordinary building should not suffer total or partial collapse.


It may sustain such damage which could be repaired quickly and the
building put back to its usual functioning.
The damage to an important building should even be less so that the
functioning of the activities during post-emergency period may
continue unhampered and the community buildings may be used as
temporary shelters for the adversely affected people.

1.4 SCOPE

To study various earthquake resistant techniques that will help to


discover, explore and learn about the new techniques to be used in
the earthquake resistant structures.

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1.5 LIMITATIONS

Lack of fundamental knowledge.


Construction practices and techniques used in particular region

1.6 TOOLS
RESEARCH PAPER

GENERAL CONCEPTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGNS -


NICEE
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES SHODHGANGA
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE BEAM-SLAB-COLUMN
SYSTEMS CONSTRUCTED WITH A RE-USEABLE SHEET METAL
FORMWORK SYSTEM. UPUL PERERA

BOOKS

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A


BUILDING BIS

PHD. PAPER

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS SHAZAR AHMAD BHAT

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1.7 METHODOLOGY

AIM: To study different available techniques used


TOPIC:
for structures in earthquake prone areas so that
NEW building shall not collapse or cause casualties in
severe earthquake.
TECHNQIUES IN
EARTHQUAKE OBJECTIVES: Optimize local structural
RESISTANT performance, by limiting damage under most
STRUCTURES. severe earthquake & minimizing the probability of
detachment and out of plane collapse under most

LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTERS:
RESEARCH PAPER
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGNS - STRUCTURE
NICEE NEW TECHNIQUES
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
STRUCTURES SHODHGANGA
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
BEAM-SLAB-COLUMN SYSTEMS
CONSTRUCTED WITH CASE STUDIES
A RE-USEABLE SHEET METAL
TAIPEI 101 , TAIWAN
FORMWORK SYSTEM. UPUL PERERA
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
BOOKS HOMES - JAPAN
PETRONAS TOWERS KUALA
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN AND LUMPUR
CONSTRUCTION OF A BUILDING BIS

PHD. PAPER

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS


CONCLUSIONS
SHAZAR AHMAD BHAT

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REFERENCES AND
CHAPTER 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES

INTRODUCTION
Disasters are unexpected events which have adversely affected humans
since the dawn of our existence. In response to such events, there have been
attempts to mitigate devastating effects of these disasters. Results of such
attempts are very encouraging in developed countries but unfortunately and
miserably poor in developing countries including ours. Earthquakes are one
of the natures greatest hazards on our planet which have taken heavy toll
on human life and property since ancient times .

Mitigation of the devastating damage caused by earthquakes is of prime


requirements in many parts of the world. Since earthquakes are so far
unpreventable and unpredictable, the only option with us is to design and
build the structures which are earthquake resistant. Accordingly attempts
have been made in this direction all over the world. Results of such attempts
are very encouraging in developed countries but miserably poor in
developing countries including our country India.

This is proved by minimal damage generally without any loss of life when
moderate to severe earthquake strikes developed countries, where as even a
moderate earthquake causes wide spread devastation in developing
countries as has been observed in recent earthquakes. It is not the
earthquake which kills the people but it is the unsafe buildings which is
responsible for the wide spread devastation.

Keeping in view the huge loss of life and property in recent earthquakes, it
has become a hot topic worldwide and lot of research is going on to
understand the reasons of such failures and learning useful lessons to
mitigate the repetition of such devastation. If buildings are built earthquake
resistant at its first place (as is being done in developed countries like USA,
Japan etc) the devastation caused by earthquakes will be mitigated most
effectively.

The professionals involved in the design/construction of such structures are


structural/civil engineers, who are responsible for building earthquake
resistant structures and keep the society at large in a safe environment.

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2.1) NEED FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES


An ordinary building should not suffer total or partial collapse.
It may sustain such damage which could be repaired quickly and the
building put back to its usual functioning.
The damage to an important building should even be less so that the
functioning of the activities during post-emergency period may
continue unhampered and the community buildings may be used as
temporary shelters for the adversely affected people.

2.2) WHAT ARE TECHNIQUES TO BE USED?


STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS AND PLANNING

Plan of building

(i) Symmetry: The building as a whole or its various blocks should be


kept symmetrical about both the axes. Asymmetry leads to torsion
during earthquakes and is dangerous.
(ii) Separation of Blocks: Separation of a large building into several
blocks may be required so as to obtain symmetry and regularity of
each block.
(iii) Simplicity: Ornamentation invo1ving large cornices, vertical or
horizontal cantilever projections, facia stones and the like are
dangerous and undesirable from a seismic viewpoint. Simplicity is
the best approach.

FOUNDATIONS
For the purpose of making a building truly earthquake resistant, it will be
necessary to choose an appropriate foundation type for it. Since loads
from typical low height buildings will be light, providing the required
bearing area will not usually be a problem.

The depth of footing in the soil should go below the zone of deep freezing
in cold countries and below the level of shrinkage cracks in clayey soils

DAMPERS
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TYPES OF DAMPERS

1. Viscous Dampers (energy is absorbed by silicone-based fluid passing


between piston cylinder arrangement),

2. Friction Dampers (energy is absorbed by surfaces with friction between


them rubbing against each other),

3. Yielding Dampers (energy is absorbed by metallic components that


yield).

4. Viscoelastic Dampers (energy is absorbed by utilizing the controlled


shearing of solids).

CHAPTER 3
NEW TECHNIQUES

NEW TECHNIQUES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES


Shear Wall
A wall designed to resist lateral force in its own plane. Braced frames,
subjected primarily to
axial stresses, shall be considered as shear walls for the purpose of this
definition.

Space Frame
A three-dimensional structural system composed of interconnected
members, without shear or bearing walls, so as to function as a complete
self-contained unit with or without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor
bracing systems.

Vertical Load Carrying Frame


A space frame designed to carry all the vertical loads, the horizontal loads
being resisted by shear walls.

Moment Resistant Frame


A space frame capable of carrying all vertical and horizontal loads, by
developing bending moments in the members and at joints. Moment
Resistant Frame with Shear Walls A space frame with moment resistant joints
and strengthened by shear walls to assist in carrying horizontal loads.

Band

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A reinforced concrete or reinforced brick runner provided in the walls to tie
them together and
to impart horizontal bending strength in them.

Another approach for controlling seismic damage in buildings and improving


their seismic performance is by installing Seismic Dampers in place of
structural elements, such as diagonal braces. These dampers act like the
hydraulic shock absorbers in cars much of the sudden jerks are absorbed in
the hydraulic fluids and only little is transmitted above to the chassis of the
car. When seismic energy is transmitted through them, dampers absorb part
of it, and thus damp the motion of the building.

How Dampers Work?

The construction of a fluid damper is shown in (fig). It consists of a stainless


steel piston with bronze orifice head. It is filled with silicone oil. The piston
head utilizes specially shaped passages which alter the flow of the damper
fluid and thus alter the resistance characteristics of the damper.

A fluid viscous damper resembles the common shock absorber such as those
found in automobiles. The piston transmits energy entering the system to
the fluid in the damper, causing it to move within the damper. The
movement of the fluid within the damper fluid absorbs this kinetic energy by
converting it into heat. In automobiles, this means that a shock received at
the wheel is damped before it reaches the passengers compartment.

In buildings this can mean that the building columns protected by dampers
will undergo considerably less horizontal movement and damage during an
earthquake.

Steel frame structures

Steel-framed structures .maybe further classified into the following types:


Single-storey, single or multi-bay structures which may be of truss or
stanchion frames or rigid frame of solid or lattice members.

Multi-storey, single or multi-bay structures of braced or rigid frame


construction.

Space structures (space decks, domes, towers etc.).

Tension structures and cable-supported roof structures.

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Stressed skin structures.

Concept of Base Isolation

Lead-rubber bearings are the frequently-used types of base isolation


bearings. A lead rubber bearing is made from layers of rubber sandwiched
together with layers of steel. In the middle of the solid lead plug. On top
and bottom, the bearing is fitted with steel plates which are used to attach
the bearing to the building and foundation. The bearing is very stiff and
strong in the vertical direction, but flexible in the horizontal direction.

How it Works
To get a basic idea of how base isolation works, first examine the above
diagram. This shows an earthquake acting on base isolated building and a
conventional, fixed-base, building. As a result of an earthquake, the ground
beneath each building begins to move. . Each building responds with
movement which tends towards the right. The buildings displacement in the
direction opposite the ground motion is actually due to inertia. The inertia
forces acting on a building are the most important of all those generated
during an earthquake.

In addition to displacing towards right, the un-isolated building is also shown


to be changing its shape from a rectangle to a parallelogram. We say that
the building is deforming. The primary cause of earthquake damage to
buildings is the deformation which the building undergoes as a result of the
inertial forces upon it.

Response of Base Isolated Buildings


The base-isolated building retains its original, rectangular shape. The base
isolated building itself escapes the deformation and damage-which implies
that the inertial forces acting on the base isolated building have been
reduced. Experiments and observations of base-isolated buildings in
earthquakes to as little as of the acceleration of comparable fixed-base
buildings.

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mN xN
kN

m2 x2
k2
m1 x1
k1
mb
Base isolator x
&
&g

Spherical Sliding Base Isolation

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Spherical Sliding Base Isolation

Spherical sliding isolation systems are another type of base isolation. The
building is supported by bearing pads that have a curved surface and low
friction. During an earthquake the building is free to slide on the bearings.
Since the bearings have a curved surface, the building slides both
horizontally and vertically. The forces needed to move the building upwards
limits the horizontal or lateral forces which would otherwise cause building
deformations. Also by adjusting the radius of the bearings curved surface,
this property can be used to design bearings that also lengthen the buildings
period of vibration

New Breed of Energy Dissipation Devices


The innovative methods for control of seismic vibrations such as frictional
and other types of damping devices are important integral part of seismic
isolation systems as they severe as a barrier against the penetration of
seismic energy into the structure. In this concept, the dampers suppress the
response of the isolated building relative to its base.

The novel friction damper device consists of three steel plates rotating
against each other in opposite directions.

The steel plates are separated by two shims of friction pad material
producing friction with steel plates.

When an external force excites a frame structure the girder starts to displace
horizontally due to this force. The damper will follow the motion and the
central plate because of the tensile forces in the bracing elements. When the
applied forces are reversed, the plates will rotate in opposite way. The
damper dissipates energy by means of friction between the sliding surfaces.

The latest Friction-ViscoElastic Damper Device (F-VEDD) combines the


advantages of pure frictional and viscoelastic mechanisms of energy
dissipation. This new product consists of friction pads and viscoelastic
polymer pads separated by steel plates. A prestressed bolt in combination

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with disk springs and hardened washers is used for maintaining the required
clamping force on the interfaces as in original FDD concept.

After development of passive devices such as base isolation and TMD. The
next logical steps is to control the action of these devices in an optimal
manner by an external energy source the resulting system is known as active
control device system. Active control has been very widely used in aerospace
structures. In recent years significant progress has been made on the
analytical side of active control for civil engineering structures. Also a few
models explains as shown that there is great promise in the technology and
that one may expect to see in the foreseeable future several dynamic
Dynamic Intelligent Buildings the term itself seems to have been joined by
the Kajima Corporation in Japan. In one of their pamphlet the concept of
Active control had been explained in every simple manner and it is worth
quoting here.

People standing in swaying train or bus try to maintain balance by


unintentionally bracing their legs or by relaying on the mussels of their spine
and stomach. By providing a similar function to a building it can dampen
immensely the vibrations when confronted with an earthquake. This is the
concept of Dynamic Intelligent Building (DIB

The philosophy of the past conventional a seismic structure is to respond


passively to an earthquake. In contrast in the DIB which we propose the
building itself functions actively against earthquakes and attempts to control
the vibrations. The sensor distributed inside and outside of the building
transmits information to the computer installed in the building which can
make analyses and judgment, and as if the buildings possess intelligence
pertaining to the earthquake amends its own structural characteristics
minutes by minute.

Active Control System

The basic configuration of an active control system is schematically shown in


figure. The system consists of three basic elements:

1. Sensors to measure external excitation and/or structural response.

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2. Computer hardware and software to compute control forces on the
basis of observed excitation and/or structural response.

3. Actuators to provide the necessary control forces.

Thus in active system has to necessarily have an external energy input to


drive the actuators. On the other hand passive systems do not required
external energy and their efficiency depends on tunings of system to
expected excitation and structural behavior. As a result, the passive systems
are effective only for the modes of the vibrations for which these are tuned.
Thus the advantage of an active system lies in its much wider range of
applicability since the control forces are worked out on the basis of actual
excitation and structural behavior. In the active system when only external
excitation is measured system is said to be in open-looped. However when
the structural response is used as input, the system is in closed loop control.
In certain instances the excitation and response both are used and it is
termed as open-closed loop control.

Control Force Devices

Many ways have been proposed to apply control forces to a structure. Some
of these have been tested in laboratory on scaled down models. Some of the
ideas have been put forward for applications of active forces are briefly
described in the following:

Active-tuned Mass Dampers (TMD)

these are in passive mode have been used in a number of structures as


mentioned earlier. Hence active TMD is a natural extension. In this system
1% of the total building mass is directly excited by an actuator with no spring
and dash pot. The system has been termed as Active Mass Driver (AMD). The
experiments indicated that the building vibrations are reduced about 25% by
the use of AMD.

Tendon Control

Various analytical studies have been done using tendons for active control.
At low excitations, even with the active control system off, the tendon will act
in passive modes by resisting deformations in the structures though resulting
tension in the tendon. At higher excitations one may switch over to Active
mode where an actuator applies the required tension in tendons.

CHAPTER 4
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LITERATURE REVIEW
1) RESEARCH PAPER
TITLE : GENERAL CONCEPTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
DESIGN
AUTHOR : National information center of earthquake
engineering.
YEAR : 2009
CONTENT :
CATEGORIES OF BUILDINGS

For categorising the buildings with the purpose of achieving seismic


resistance at economical cost, three parameters turn out to be
significant:

(i) Seismic intensity zone where the building is located,


(ii) How important the building is, and
(iii) How stiff is the foundation soil.
A combination of these parameters will determine the extent of
appropriate seismic strengthening of the building.

Plan of building

(iv) Symmetry: The building as a whole or its various blocks should be


kept symmetrical about both the axes. Asymmetry leads to torsion
during earthquakes and is dangerous.
(v) Separation of Blocks: Separation of a large building into several
blocks may be required so as to obtain symmetry and regularity of
each block.
(vi) Simplicity: Ornamentation invo1ving large cornices, vertical or
horizontal cantilever projections, facia stones and the like are
dangerous and undesirable from a seismic viewpoint. Simplicity is
the best approach.

FOUNDATIONS
For the purpose of making a building truly earthquake resistant, it will be
necessary to choose an appropriate foundation type for it. Since loads
from typical low height buildings will be light, providing the required
bearing area will not usually be a problem. The depth of footing in the soil
should go below the zone of deep freezing in cold countries and below
the level of shrinkage cracks in clayey soils

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2) RESEARCH PAPER
TITLE : EARTHQUAKE RESIATANT STRUCTURES
AUTHOR :SHODHGANGA
CONTENT :

Earthquake design techniques

The objective of design codes is to have structures that will behave


elastically under earthquakes that can be expected to occur more than
once in the life of the building. It is also expected that the structure
would survive major earthquakes without collapse that might occur
during the life of the building. To avoid collapse during a large
earthquake, members must be ductile enough to absorb and dissipate
energy by post-elastic deformations.

In some cases, the order of ductility involved during a severe


earthquake may be associated with large permanent deformations and
in those cases, the resulting
damage could be beyond repair. Even in the most seismically active
areas of the world, the occurrence of a design earthquake is a rare
event. In areas of the world recognised as being prone to major
earthquakes, the design engineer is faced with the dilemma of being
required to design for an event, which has a small chance of occurring
during the design life time of the building.

If the designer adopts conservative performance criteria for the design


of the building, the client will be faced with extra costs, which may be
out of proportion to the risks involved. On the other hand, to ignore the
possibility of a major earthquake could be construed as negligence in
these circumstances.

To overcome this problem, buildings designed to these prescriptive


provisions would
(1) not collapse under very rare earthquakes;
(2) provide life safety for rare earthquakes;
(3) suffer only limited repairable damage in moderate shaking;
(4) be undamaged in more frequent, minor earthquakes.

The design seismic forces acting on a structure as a result of ground


shaking are usually
determined by one of the following methods:

Static analysis, using equivalent seismic forces obtained from response


spectra for

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horizontal earthquake motions.

3) BOOK
TITLE : EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS
AUTHOR : BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
CONTENT :

Shear Wall
A wall designed to resist lateral force in its own plane. Braced frames,
subjected primarily to
axial stresses, shall be considered as shear walls for the purpose of this
definition.

Space Frame
A three-dimensional structural system composed of interconnected
members, without shear or bearing walls, so as to function as a
complete self-contained unit with or without the aid of horizontal
diaphragms or floor bracing systems.

Vertical Load Carrying Frame


A space frame designed to carry all the vertical loads, the horizontal
loads being resisted by shear walls.

Moment Resistant Frame


A space frame capable of carrying all vertical and horizontal loads, by
developing bending moments in the members and at joints. Moment
Resistant Frame with Shear Walls A space frame with moment resistant
joints and strengthened by shear walls to assist in carrying horizontal
loads.

Band
A reinforced concrete or reinforced brick runner provided in the walls to
tie them together and
to impart horizontal bending strength in them.

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4) RESEARCH PAPER
TITLE : SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE BEAM-SLAB-
COLUMN SYSTEMS CONSTRUCTED WITH A RE-USEABLE
SHEET METAL FORMWORK SYSTEM.
AUTHOR : Upul Perera
YEAR : 2015
CONTENT :

Type of structures
The structural engineer adopts a classification for structures based on
the way the structure resists loads, as follows (General types of
structures):
Gravity masonry structures.
- Framed structures.
- Shell structures.
-Tension structures.
-Pneumatic structures.

Steel frame structures


Steel-framed structures .maybe further classified into the following
types:

1)Single-storey, single or multi-bay structures which may be of truss


or stanchion frames or rigid frame of solid or lattice members.
2)Multi-storey, single or multi-bay structures of braced or rigid frame
construction.
3) Space structures (space decks, domes, towers etc.).
4) Tension structures and cable-supported roof structures.
5) Stressed skin structures.

1)Masonry
Load bearing walls or columns in compression and walls taking in-
plane or transverse loads. Construction is very durable, fire resistant
and aesthetically pleasing. Building height is moderate, say to 20
stories.

2) Concrete
Framed or shear wall construction in reinforced concrete is very
durable and fire resistant and is used for the tallest buildings.
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Concrete, reinforced or prestressed, is used for floor construction in all
buildings, and concrete foundations are required for all buildings.

3)Structural steel
Load bearing frames in buildings, where the main advantages are
strength and speed of erection. Steel requires protection from
corrosion and fire.
5) THESIS REPORT
TITLE : EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS
AUTHOR : SUBZAR AHMAD BHAT
CONTENT :

Resistant Building Design


Another approach for controlling seismic damage in buildings and
improving their seismic performance is by installing Seismic Dampers in
place of structural elements, such as diagonal braces. These dampers act
like the hydraulic shock absorbers in cars much of the sudden jerks are
absorbed in the hydraulic fluids and only little is transmitted above to the
chassis of the car. When seismic energy is transmitted through them,
dampers absorb part of it, and thus damp the motion of the building.

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Commonly used Seismic Dampers

5. Viscous Dampers (energy is absorbed by silicone-based fluid passing


between piston cylinder arrangement),

6. Friction Dampers (energy is absorbed by surfaces with friction between


them rubbing against each other),

7. Yielding Dampers (energy is absorbed by metallic components that


yield).

8. Viscoelastic Dampers (energy is absorbed by utilizing the controlled


shearing of solids).

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How Dampers Work?

The construction of a fluid damper is shown in (fig). It consists of a


stainless steel piston with bronze orifice head. It is filled with silicone
oil. The piston head utilizes specially shaped passages which alter the
flow of the damper fluid and thus alter the resistance characteristics of
the damper.

A fluid viscous damper resembles the common shock absorber such as


those found in automobiles. The piston transmits energy entering the
system to the fluid in the damper, causing it to move within the
damper. The movement of the fluid within the damper fluid absorbs
this kinetic energy by converting it into heat. In automobiles, this
means that a shock received at the wheel is damped before it reaches
the passengers compartment. In buildings this can mean that the
building columns protected by dampers will undergo considerably less
horizontal movement and damage during an earthquake.

CHAPTER 5
CASE STUDY

1) TAIPEI 101

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TAIPEI 101 - A structural marvel created by combining the best of all structural systems.

SOME BASIC INFORMATION

Architect C.Y.Lee & Partners


Structural Engineer Shaw Shieh
Total Height 508m
No. of Floors 101
Plan Area 50m X 50m
Cost $ 700 million
Parking - 83,000 m2, 1800 cars

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380 piles with 3 inch concrete slab.


Mega columns- 8 cm thick steel & 10,000 psi concrete infill to provide
for overturning.
Walls - 5 & 7 degree slope.
106,000 tons of steel, grade 60- 25% stronger.
6 cranes on site steel placement.

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CHALLENGES FACED

Taipei being a coastal city the problems present are:


Weak soil conditions (The structures tend to sink).
Typhoon winds (High lateral displacement tends to topple
structures).
Large potential earthquakes (Generates shear forces).

FOUNDATION

The building is a pile through clay rich soil to bedrock 50 m below.


The piles are topped by a foundation slab which is 3m thick at the
edges and up to 5m thick under the largest of columns.
There are a total of 380 1.5m dia. Tower piles.

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TYPICAL PLAN UP TO 26TH STOREY

LATERAL LOADING SYSTEM

For additional core stiffness, the lowest floors from basement to the 8th floor have concrete shear walls
cast between core columns in addition to diagonal braces.

DAMPING SYSTEMS

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The main objective of such a system is to supplement the structures


damping to dissipate energy and to control undesired structural
vibrations.
A common approach is to add friction or viscous damping to the joints
of the buildings to stabilize the structural vibration.
A large number of dampers may be needed in order to achieve
effective damping when the movements of the joints are not sufficient to
contribute to energy absorption.

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TUNED MASS DAMPERS

A TMD is a passive damping system, which consists of a spring, a


viscous damping device, and a secondary mass attached to the vibrating
structure.
By varying the characteristics of the TMD system, an opportunity is
given to control the vibration of the primary structure and to dissipate
energy in the viscous element of the TMD.

TMD USED IN TAIPEI 101

The Taipei 101 uses a 800 ton TMD which occupy 5 of its upper floors
(87 91).
The ball is assembled on site in layers of 12.5-cm-thick steel plate. It is
welded to a steel cradle suspended from level 92 by 3 cables, in 4 sets
of 2 each.
Eight primary hydraulic pistons, each about 2 m long, grip the cradle to
dissipate dynamic energy as heat.

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2) EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOMES JAPAN

Earthquakes don't kill people. People's houses in the midst of


earthquakes kill people. Look at the statisticsor the photographs
and you'll know that the vast majority of fatalities from earthquakes
large or small come from buildings, or parts of buildings, falling on
people.

What better way to avoid tragedy then, but by tossing a house in the
air when an earthquake comes?

That's the general idea behind the levitating house developed by the
Japanese company Air Danshin. The product of inventor Shoichi
Sakamoto, the house sits, during more stable times, on a deflated air
bag. When sensors feel a tremor, they switch on a compressor within
a second.

The compressor pumps air into an airbag, inflating it within a few


more seconds, and ultimately lifting the entire house a good three
centimeters off its supposedly earthquake-proof concrete foundation.

There the structure will hover, its inhabitants able to casually go


about their business, for the duration of the quake. Then the airbag
deflates and the house gently settles back down.

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Diagram of how a house would levitate during an earthquake. Image: Air


Danshin

The company built such a house on a "shake table" and equipped it with
a few inhabitants, some furniture, and a couple of glasses of wine. When
the mock tremors hit, in front of a rapt, hardhat-outfitted audience, the
denizens hardly noticed, and not a drop of wine was spilled. The system
will be added to new, otherwise typically built homes of an appropriate
weight, and can be retrofitted to existing structures as well.

Minimizing Damage

"It would take care of a smaller earthquake, I would think," says Deke
Smith, Executive Director of the Building Seismic Safety Council and the
buildingSMART alliance, part of the National Institute of Building
Sciences, Washington, DC. "It would dampen some of the motions
certainly. I think it would be more of a comfort thing than a minimizing
damage thing. But I don't know that if you invested in it that you will
have eliminated any problems with earthquakes for your structure."

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Image: Air Danshin

Air Danshin's shake test dealt only with side-to-side motion and most
earthquakes are not limited to a two-dimensional plane. Three centimetres of
levitation will only protect a house from earthquakes that don't rise higher
than three centimetres. Never mind the question of what would happen to a
floating house hit by a tall wave of a quake. It would likely slip right off its
foundation. Or, conceivably, a strong tornado might more easily carry the
structure off to Oz.

Improving Design

Another problem is that the first tremors that would activate the system
may very well be the biggest, most destructive tremors of the
earthquake. The airbag, were it able to inflate, might be pushing up
against the rubble of an already damaged house. "Each earthquake has
its own signature. Some might have a big jolt in the beginning, some in
the end, some in the middle." Unfortunately, our seismic sensors are not
yet at the level of those animals, including dogs, that can sense
earthquakes before they happen, and long before humans or their
technology do so.

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Structure levitates 1 cm - 3 cm. Image: Air Danshin

However, even if Air Danshin's system is only good for that rare, lateral
shaking earthquake which never moves the earth higher than three
centimetres, and saves its biggest jolts for its finale, 88 Japanese homes
are soon to be retrofit with the airbag and its assemblage. That's 88
experiments that will provide some data after the next quake.
At approximately three million Yen a pop (over $37,000), it's also a
sizable chunk of change.

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3) PETRONAS TOWERS

Architect - Cesar Pelli and Associates


Client - Kuala Lampur City Center Holding
Date of Completion - 1997

Height

Antenna spire 451.9 m (1,483 ft)

Roof 378.6 m (1,242 ft)

Top floor 375 m (1,230 ft)

Technical details

Floor count 88

Floor area 395,000


m2 (4,252,000 sq ft)

Elevator count 78

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Structural System(for gravity and lateral loads):

- Structural system consists with75-by-75 foot concrete cores and an


outer ring of widely-spaced super columns.

- The core structure of each tower is composed of a ring of sixteen


cylindrical columns of high strength reinforced concrete.

- The columns vary in size from2.4in diameter at the lower areas to


1.2meters in diameter at the top ,and are placed at the outside
corners.

- The columns are linked with a series of concrete core walls and ring
beams. These movement-resistant and damper-free structures can be
described as a pair of soft tubes. There are actually two concentric
pressurized cores in the structures, and the two cores unite at the 38th
floor of each tower.

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Construction Process

The foundation system of the towers consists of a 4.5 metre thick piled raft
supported on
rectangular friction piles (barrettes) varying in depth from 40 metres to 105
metres, to control predicted settlement under different thicknesses of
Kenny Hill formation underlain by
limestone. Each foundation consists of 104 barrettes (rectangular in-situ
piles up to 1.2 by 2.8 metres).

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Material Used
High-strength concrete was used in the central core, perimeter
columns, perimeter ring beams and outrigger beams.
The towers and their base are clad with stainless steel extrusions and
custom-made 20.38 millimetre laminated light-green glass.
The sunscreens have cast aluminium end caps and are fixed on
brackets made of extruded aluminium and finished with oven-cured
PVF2 fluorocarbon paint.

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Comparative Study of Case Studies

PARAMETER TAIPEI 101 - TAIWAN EARTHQUAKE PETRONAS


RESISTANT TOWERS- KUALA
HOMES- JAPAN LAMPUR

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STRUCTURAL 380 piles with 3 When sensors feel 75-by-75 foot
SYSTEM inch concrete slab. a tremor, they concrete cores
Mega columns- switch on a an outer ring of
8 cm thick steel & compressor within widely-spaced
a second. super columns.
10,000 psi
The compressor The columns vary
concrete.
pumps air into an in size from2.4in
Walls - 5 & 7
airbag, inflating it diameter at the
degree slope. in seconds, and
106,000 tons of lower areas to
ultimately lifting
steel, grade 60- 1.2meters in dia
the entire house a
25% stronger. good 3 cm. at the top.

CHALLENGES Weak soil conditions Large potential Weak soil


FACED
(The structures tend earthquakes conditions (The
to sink). (Generates shear structures tend to
Typhoon winds (High forces). sink).
lateral displacement Typhoon winds
tends to topple (High lateral
structures). displacement )
Large potential Large potential
earthquakes earthquakes
(Generates shear (Generates shear
forces). forces).

DAMPING The Taipei 101 NIL The bridge relies on


SYSTEM
uses a 800 ton tower for lateral
TMD which occupy support but allows
5 of its upper them to move
floors (87 91). freely.
lowest floors Cylindrical towers
from basement - sustain vortex
8th floor have shedding.
concrete shear
walls cast b/w core

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columns in
addition to
diagonal braces.

CONCLUSION
1) Design structures to resist above loads for safety against earthquakes.
2) Proper care should be taken during time of construction.
3) Base isolation can be used for retrofitting of structure.

4) Model experiments should be developed to illustrate the concepts in


earthquake engineering, using low-cost and easily available instruments.
These experiments should be integrated with the theory courses to illustrate
different concepts of earthquake engineering and structural dynamics.

5) There is also an urgent need to develop short-term training programs in


the area of earthquake-resistant constructions for structural engineering
faculty of different engineering colleges.

6) There is a very urgent need to d-mystify the earthquake-related design


codes by developing detailed commentaries on the code provisions.

REFRENCES
www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/readings
www.studymafia.org/earthquake-resistant-building-construction-seminar-
pdf-report-and-ppt/
https://www.scribd.com/doc/101555560/EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT-
BUILDINGS/

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https://www.slideshare.net/mvm2594/earthquake-resistant-designs-
12158375/
https://www.slideshare.net/mvm2594/earthquake-resistant-designs-
12158375/

BIBLOGRAPHY
ACI 318-08, (2008), Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and
Commentary, American Concrete
Institute, Farmington Hills, USA

Ambrose,J., and Vergun,D., (1999), Design for Earthquakes, John Wiley & Son,
Inc., USA
Arnold,C., and Reitherman,R., (1982), Building Configuration and Seismic
Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, USA

ASCE 41-06, (2007), Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, American


Society of Civil Engineers, USA

Bachmann,H., (2003), Seismic Conceptual Design of Buildings Basic


principles for engineers, architects, building owners, and authorities, BBL
Vertrieb Publikationen, Bern Charney,F.A., (1998), NONLIN Program
educational program for learning the concepts of Structural Dynamics and
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Chopra,A.K., (1982), Dynamics of Structures A Primer, Earthquake


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Chopra,A.K., (2012), Dynamics of Structures Theory and Application to
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Prentice Hall Inc, USA

CSI, (2010), Structural Analysis Program (SAP) 2000, Version 14, Computers
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Das,B.M., Principles of Foundation Engineering, 7th Ed., Cengage Learning,


Stamford, CT, USA
Dowrick,D.J., (1987), Earthquake Resistant Design for Engineers and
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FIB, (2003), Displacement-based Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete


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Goel,S.C., and Chao,S.H., (2008), Performance-Based Plastic Design


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