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Module 3: Planning

Module 3.2: Concepts, Principles, Mission, Philosophy and Objectives

Learning Objectives

The overall objective is to understand the need and importance of planning

concepts, principles and objectives which is carrying out the managerial functions and its effective utilization into day to day activities.

Learning Outcome

At the end of this module the students will be able to:

Define about planning

List out the nature of planning

Describe the importance of planning

Enlist the principles of planning

List down the characteristics of planning

Enumerate the components of planning

Explain the types of planning

Describe about the classification of planning

List down the criteria & steps of planning

Explain about the planning cycle

Enumerate the advantages & Disadvantages of planning

Describe about the planning in health care services

List of Topics

Introduction

Planning

Nature, Importance and Principles of planning

Characteristics and Components of planning

Types of planning

Classification of planning

Criteria for planning

Steps of planning

Planning cycle

Advantages and Disadvantages of planning

Planning in health care services

Summary

References

Introduction

“For those who intending to build a tower, must sit down and estimate the

cost ,to see whether he has enough to complete it. other wise ,when he has laid a foundation and is not able to finish, all who see it will begin to

ridicule him ,saying this fellow began to build and was not able to finish”.

Definition of Planning

Planning is a process of determining the objectives of administrative effort and devising the means calculated to achieve them Millet.

Planning is a process of setting formal guidelines and constrains for the

behavior of the firm - Assoff and Buninharg.

Nature of Planning

Planning is a comprehensive term.

Planning sketches a complete mental picture of things.

Planning is a rational dynamic and integration process.

Planning is the selecting and relating facts and the making and using of

assumptions.

Planning is a rational ,conscious and deliberate effort.

Planning is not a static process.

Planning is a comprehensive and integrative process

Planning is the continuous determination of a future course of action to achieve the desire results.

Planning is inevitable at all levels of administration and while plan

consciousness at operational level is essential for the due

implementation of plans.

Importance of Planning

Attempts to offset uncertainty.

It focuses attention on the objectives or goal of the organization and their achievement .

It helps in controlling the activities.

helps in coordinating the operations of an organizations.

Principles of Planning

Planning must focus on purposes .it should always be based on clearly defined objective.

continuity and flexibility should be maintained in planning cycle.

Planning should be simple and there should be provision for proper

analysis and classification of action.

 

In planning there should be a good harmony with organization and environment.

Planning

is

hierarchical

in nature and must have organizational

identification. Planning should be pervasive activity.

Planning must be precise in its objective scope and nature.

In planning provision should be made to use all available resources.

Planning should always be documented.

Characteristics of Planning

Characteristics of Planning Primacy Continuity Flexibility Unity Precision Pervasiveness 10

Primacy

  • Continuity

  • Flexibility

Characteristics of Planning Primacy Continuity Flexibility Unity Precision Pervasiveness 10
Characteristics of Planning Primacy Continuity Flexibility Unity Precision Pervasiveness 10

Unity

Precision

  • Pervasiveness

Components of Planning

Budget Objectives Programme Policies Procedures
Budget
Objectives
Programme
Policies
Procedures

Types of Planning

Directional Planning:

It is often called policy planning ,and is concerned with the board general direction of the programme.

Administrative Planning:

It is concerned with the overall implementation of the policies developed and with the mobilization and co-ordination of the personnel and material available in the administrative unit.

Operational Planning:

It is concerned with the actual delivery of the services to the community.

for example nursing personnel of all levels are planning to deliver

proper services to the community either in the hospital or community .

Classification of Planning

PLANNING STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL
PLANNING
STRATEGIC
OPERATIONAL

Strategic Planning

It is usually the strategic and long term top level.

planning is undertaken by the

Detail analysis of strength ,weakness opportunities and threats

(SWOT) of organization both internal and external environment.

Developing philosophy and formulation of policies and objectives on the basis of analysis of the organization.

Allocation of resources on the basis of priority.

Evaluation of activities to increase efficiency.

Providing proper direction to avoid duplication of services.

Operational Planning

It is usually this operational and short range planning is undertaken by middle or supervisory level personnel.

Planning for a few month to a financial year.

Planning for details budgeting ,provision for short range goods and it

should be achieved within given period. Extensional aspect of long range plan.

Criteria for An Effective Planning

Plans should be based on a thorough study of the ends results desired.

Planning should involve participation of the medical staff ,other

concerned service representatives. Plans should be comprehensive.

Plans should be flexible.

Plans should be continually updated.

Plans should be realistic.

Plans should be time phased.

Steps of Planning

Identifying the priority Formulating problem Objectives Setting Goals Reviewing limitations Laying down Writing operational down the
Identifying
the priority
Formulating
problem
Objectives
Setting
Goals
Reviewing
limitations
Laying
down
Writing
operational
down the
policy
plan
Analysis & Under standing of the system
Analysis &
Under
standing of
the system

Planning Cycle

Evaluation & re-planning

Planning Cycle Evaluation & re-planning Midterm appraisal & making correction Task adoption & plan Assessing planning

Midterm appraisal & making correction

Planning Cycle Evaluation & re-planning Midterm appraisal & making correction Task adoption & plan Assessing planning

Task adoption & plan

Assessing planning
Assessing
planning

environment

Planning Cycle Evaluation & re-planning Midterm appraisal & making correction Task adoption & plan Assessing planning

Data collection & data analysis

Planning Cycle Evaluation & re-planning Midterm appraisal & making correction Task adoption & plan Assessing planning

Strategy formulation

implementation

Planning Cycle Evaluation & re-planning Midterm appraisal & making correction Task adoption & plan Assessing planning

Plan

authentication

Planning Cycle Evaluation & re-planning Midterm appraisal & making correction Task adoption & plan Assessing planning

target setting

Planning Cycle Evaluation & re-planning Midterm appraisal & making correction Task adoption & plan Assessing planning

Participatory

plan

formulation

Advantages of Planning

Planning

leads

to

more

effective

and

faster

achievement

of

any

organization.

Planning gives an added strength to the business or services for its continuous growth and steady prosperity.

It avoids duplication of services ,overlaps and cross purposes .

 

Planning minimizes cost of performance.

 

Planning

has unique contribution towards the efficiency of managerial

functions.

Planning provides the basis for control in an organization.

 

It

provides

flexibility

and

make

provision

for

future

growth

and

development.

Disadvantages of Planning

It

depends

on

facts

and

information

,reliable

information

is

not

possible.

 

Planning may lead to internal in flexibilities and procedural rigidities.

It is said to be a time consuming and expensive process.

Planning Process in Health Services

Health planning is an orderly process of defining community health

problems, identifying correct needs and surveying the resources to meet

them, establishing priority goals that are realistic and feasible and projecting administrative action to accomplish the purpose of the proposed programme.

Analysis of the health situation

Establishment of objectives and goals

Assessment of resources

Fixing priorities

Write up the formulated plan

Programming and implementation

Evaluation

Summary

Planning is essential for all the jobs. The careful planning helps to success in any programme because it saves time in the long run.

Planning leads to more effective and rapid achievement because, every one involved is clear about what is to be done, how, when and why. It ensures unity of purpose, clear cut methods of doing things and focus on the objectives and targets to be achieved.