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Negentropy
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Thenegentropyhasdifferentmeaningsininformationtheoryandtheoreticalbiology.Inabiologicalcontext,the
negentropy(alsonegativeentropy,syntropy,extropy,ectropyorentaxy[1])ofalivingsystemistheentropythat
itexportstokeepitsownentropylowitliesattheintersectionofentropyandlife.InotherwordsNegentropyis
reverseentropy.Itmeansthingsbecomingmoreinorder.By'order'ismeantorganisation,structureandfunction:
theoppositeofrandomnessorchaos.Theconceptandphrase"negativeentropy"wasintroducedbyErwin
Schrdingerinhis1944popularsciencebookWhatisLife?[2]Later,LonBrillouinshortenedthephraseto
negentropy,[3][4]toexpressitinamore"positive"way:alivingsystemimportsnegentropyandstoresit.[5]In1974,
AlbertSzentGyrgyiproposedreplacingthetermnegentropywithsyntropy.Thattermmayhaveoriginatedinthe
1940swiththeItalianmathematicianLuigiFantappi,whotriedtoconstructaunifiedtheoryofbiologyand
physics.BuckminsterFullertriedtopopularizethisusage,butnegentropyremainscommon.

InanotetoWhatisLife?Schrdingerexplainedhisuseofthisphrase.

[...]ifIhadbeencateringforthem[physicists]aloneIshouldhaveletthediscussionturnonfree
energyinstead.Itisthemorefamiliarnotioninthiscontext.Butthishighlytechnicaltermseemed
linguisticallytooneartoenergyformakingtheaveragereaderalivetothecontrastbetweenthetwo
things.
Indeed,negentropyhasbeenusedbybiologistsasthebasisforpurposeordirectioninlife,namelycooperativeor
moralinstincts.[6]

In2009,Mahulikar&Herwigredefinednegentropyofadynamicallyorderedsubsystemasthespecificentropy
deficitoftheorderedsubsystemrelativetoitssurroundingchaos.[7]Thus,negentropyhasSIunitsof(Jkg1K1)
whendefinedbasedonspecificentropyperunitmass,and(K1)whendefinedbasedonspecificentropyperunit
energy.Thisdefinitionenabled:i)scaleinvariantthermodynamicrepresentationofdynamicorderexistence,ii)
formulationofphysicalprinciplesexclusivelyfordynamicorderexistenceandevolution,andiii)mathematical
interpretationofSchrdinger'snegentropydebt.

Contents
1 Informationtheory
2 CorrelationbetweenstatisticalnegentropyandGibbs'freeenergy
3 Riskmanagement
4 Brillouin'snegentropyprincipleofinformation
5 Seealso
6 Notes

Informationtheory
Ininformationtheoryandstatistics,negentropyisusedasameasureofdistancetonormality.[8][9][10]Outofall
distributionswithagivenmeanandvariance,thenormalorGaussiandistributionistheonewiththehighest
entropy.NegentropymeasuresthedifferenceinentropybetweenagivendistributionandtheGaussiandistribution

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withthesamemeanandvariance.Thus,negentropyisalwaysnonnegative,isinvariantbyanylinearinvertible
changeofcoordinates,andvanishesifandonlyifthesignalisGaussian.

Negentropyisdefinedas

where isthedifferentialentropyoftheGaussiandensitywiththesamemeanandvarianceas and


isthedifferentialentropyof :

Negentropyisusedinstatisticsandsignalprocessing.Itisrelatedtonetworkentropy,whichisusedin
IndependentComponentAnalysis.[11][12]

CorrelationbetweenstatisticalnegentropyandGibbs'freeenergy
Thereisaphysicalquantitycloselylinkedtofreeenergy(freeenthalpy),withaunitofentropyandisomorphicto
negentropyknowninstatisticsandinformationtheory.In1873,WillardGibbscreatedadiagramillustratingthe
conceptoffreeenergycorrespondingtofreeenthalpy.Onthediagramonecanseethequantitycalledcapacityfor
entropy.Thesaidquantityistheamountofentropythatmaybeincreasedwithoutchanginganinternalenergyor
increasingitsvolume.[13]Inotherwords,itisadifferencebetweenmaximumpossible,underassumedconditions,
entropyanditsactualentropy.Itcorrespondsexactlytothedefinitionofnegentropyadoptedinstatisticsand
informationtheory.Asimilarphysicalquantitywasintroducedin1869byMassieufortheisothermal
process[14][15][16](bothquantitiesdiffersjustwithafiguresign)andthenPlanckfortheisothermalisobaric
process.[17]Morerecently,theMassieuPlanckthermodynamicpotential,knownalsoasfreeentropy,hasbeen
showntoplayagreatroleinthesocalledentropicformulationofstatisticalmechanics,[18]appliedamongthe
othersinmolecularbiology[19]andthermodynamicnonequilibriumprocesses.[20]

where:
isentropy
negentropy(Gibbs"capacityforentropy")
Massieupotential
partitionfunction
Boltzmannconstant

Riskmanagement
Inriskmanagement,negentropyistheforcethatseekstoachieveeffectiveorganizationalbehaviorandleadtoa
steadypredictablestate.[21]

Brillouin'snegentropyprincipleofinformation
In1953,LonBrillouinderivedageneralequation[22]statingthatthechangingofaninformationbitvaluerequires
atleastkTln(2)energy.ThisisthesameenergyastheworkLeSzilrd'sengineproducesintheidealisticcase.In
hisbook,[23]hefurtherexploredthisproblemconcludingthatanycauseofthisbitvaluechange(measurement,
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decisionaboutayes/noquestion,erasure,display,etc.)willrequire
thesameamountofenergy.

Seealso
Exergy
Extropy
Freeentropy
Entropyinthermodynamicsandinformationtheory

Notes
1.Wiener,Norbert
2.Schrdinger,Erwin,WhatisLifethePhysicalAspectoftheLiving
Cell,CambridgeUniversityPress,1944
3.Brillouin,Leon:(1953)"NegentropyPrincipleofInformation",J.
ofAppliedPhysics,v.24(9),pp.11521163
4.LonBrillouin,Lascienceetlathoriedel'information,Masson, WillardGibbs1873availableenergy(free
1959
energy)graph,whichshowsaplane
5.MaeWanHo,Whatis(Schrdinger's)Negentropy?(http://www.is
is.org.uk/negentr.php),BioelectrodynamicsLaboratory,Open perpendiculartotheaxisofv(volume)and
universityWaltonHall,MiltonKeynes passingthroughpointA,whichrepresentsthe
6.JeremyGriffith.2011.WhatistheMeaningofLife?.InTheBook initialstateofthebody.MNisthesectionof
ofRealAnswerstoEverything!ISBN9781741290073.From thesurfaceofdissipatedenergy.QandQare
http://www.worldtransformation.com/whatisthemeaningoflife/ sectionsoftheplanes=0and=0,and
7.Mahulikar,S.P.&Herwig,H.:(2009)"Exactthermodynamic thereforeparalleltotheaxesof(internal
principlesfordynamicorderexistenceandevolutioninchaos", energy)and(entropy)respectively.ADand
Chaos,Solitons&Fractals,v.41(4),pp.19391948
AEaretheenergyandentropyofthebodyin
8.AapoHyvrinen,SurveyonIndependentComponentAnalysis,
node32:Negentropy(http://www.cis.hut.fi/aapo/papers/NCS99web/ itsinitialstate,ABandACitsavailableenergy
node32.html),HelsinkiUniversityofTechnologyLaboratoryof (Gibbsenergy)anditscapacityforentropy(the
ComputerandInformationScience amountbywhichtheentropyofthebodycan
9.AapoHyvrinenandErkkiOja,IndependentComponentAnalysis: beincreasedwithoutchangingtheenergyofthe
ATutorial,node14:Negentropy(http://www.cis.hut.fi/aapo/papers/I bodyorincreasingitsvolume)respectively.
JCNN99_tutorialweb/node14.html),HelsinkiUniversityof
TechnologyLaboratoryofComputerandInformationScience
10.RuyeWang,IndependentComponentAnalysis,node4:MeasuresofNonGaussianity(http://fourier.eng.hmc.edu/e161/lec
tures/ica/node4.html)
11.P.Comon,IndependentComponentAnalysisanewconcept?,SignalProcessing,36287314,1994.
12.DidierG.LeiboviciandChristianBeckmann,AnintroductiontoMultiwayMethodsforMultiSubjectfMRIexperiment
(http://www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/analysis/techrep/tr01dl1/tr01dl1/tr01dl1.html),FMRIBTechnicalReport2001,Oxford
CentreforFunctionalMagneticResonanceImagingoftheBrain(FMRIB),DepartmentofClinicalNeurology,
UniversityofOxford,JohnRadcliffeHospital,HeadleyWay,Headington,Oxford,UK.
13.WillardGibbs,AMethodofGeometricalRepresentationoftheThermodynamicPropertiesofSubstancesbyMeansof
Surfaces(http://www.ufn.ru/ufn39/ufn39_4/Russian/r394b.pdf),TransactionsoftheConnecticutAcademy,382404
(1873)
14.Massieu,M.F.(1869a).Surlesfonctionscaractristiquesdesdiversfluides.C.R.Acad.Sci.LXIX:858862.
15.Massieu,M.F.(1869b).Additionauprecedentmemoiresurlesfonctionscaractristiques.C.R.Acad.Sci.LXIX:1057
1061.
16.Massieu,M.F.(1869),Compt.Rend.69(858):1057.
17.Planck,M.(1945).TreatiseonThermodynamics.Dover,NewYork.
18.AntoniPlanes,EduardVives,EntropicFormulationofStatisticalMechanics(http://www.ecm.ub.es/condensed/eduard/pa
pers/massieu/node2.html),EntropicvariablesandMassieuPlanckfunctions20001024UniversitatdeBarcelona
19.JohnA.Scheilman,Temperature,Stability,andtheHydrophobicInteraction(http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/reprint/73/6/296
0.pdf),BiophysicalJournal73(December1997),29602964,InstituteofMolecularBiology,UniversityofOregon,
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Eugene,Oregon97403USA
20.Z.HensandX.deHemptinne,NonequilibriumThermodynamicsapproachtoTransportProcessesinGasMixtures(htt
p://arxiv.org/pdf/chaodyn/9604008),DepartmentofChemistry,CatholicUniversityofLeuven,Celestijnenlaan200F,B
3001Heverlee,Belgium
21.PedagogicalRiskandGovernmentality:ShantytownsinArgentinainthe21stCentury(http://www.kent.ac.uk/scarr/event
s/Grinberg%20(2).pdf)(seep.4).
22.LeonBrillouin,Thenegentropyprincipleofinformation,J.AppliedPhysics24,115211631953
23.LeonBrillouin,ScienceandInformationtheory,Dover,1956

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Categories: Thermodynamicentropy Entropyandinformation Statisticaldeviationanddispersion


Negativeconcepts

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