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Original Title: Riemann Sums Kouba

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Omran Kouba

Abstract

We generalize the property that Riemann sums of a continuous function

corresponding to equidistant subdivisions of an interval converge to the integral

of that function. We then give some applications of this generalization.

Prove that

n

X arctan k n (k) 3 log 2

lim = , (1)

n n+k k 4

k=1

where denotes Eulers totient function. In this note we prove the following theo-

rem, that will, in particular, answer this question.

Theorem 1. Let be a positive real number and let (an )n1 be a sequence of positive

real numbers such that

n

1 X

lim ak = L.

n n

k=1

For every continuous function f on the interval [0, 1],

n Z 1

1 X k

lim f ak = L x1 f (x) dx.

n n n 0

k=1

n

1 X 1

lim k =

n n+1 +1

k=1

n

1 X

lim k k = 0.

n n+1

k=1

Indeed, fact 1 is just the statement that the Riemann sums of the function

x 7

R 1x corresponding to an equidistant subdivision of the interval [0, 1] converges

to 0 x dx.

The proof of fact 2 is a Cesaro argument. Since (n )n1 converges to 0 it

must be bounded, and if we define n = supkn |k |, then limn n = 0. But, for

1 < m < n, we have

1 X n m n

1 X 1 X

k k +1 k |k | + +1 k |k |

+1

n n n

k=1 k=1 k=m+1

m+1

1 + m .

n+1

Let be an arbitrary positive number. There is an m > 0 such that m < /2.

Then we can find n > m such that for every n > n we have m+1

1 /n+1 < /2.

Thus

1 X n

n > n = +1 k k < .

n

k=1

This ends the proof of fact 2.

Now, we come to the proof of our Theorem. We start by proving the following

property by induction on p :

n

1 X

lim k p ak = L. (2)

n n+p +p

k=1

The base property (p = 0) is just the hypothesis. Let us assume that this is true

for a given p and let

n

1 X p L

n = +p k ak ,

n +p

k=1

(with the convention 0 = 0,) so that limn n = 0. Clearly,

L

k p ak = k +p k (k 1)+p k1 + k +p (k 1)+p ,

+p

hence

L

k p+1 ak = k +p+1 k k(k 1)+p k1 + k +p+1 k(k 1)+p ,

+p

L

= k +p+1 k (k 1)+p+1 k1 + k +p+1 (k 1)+p+1

+p

L

(k 1)+p k1 (k 1)+p

+p

It follows that

n n1 n1

!

1 X

p+1 1 X

+p L 1 X

+p

k ak = n k k + 1 k .

n+p+1 n+p+1 +p n+p+1

k=1 k=1 k=1

Using fact 1 and fact 2 we conclude that

n

1 X

p+1 L 1 L

lim k ak = 1 = .

n n+p+1 +p +p+1 +p+1

k=1

n Z 1

1 X k

In (f ) = f ak , and J(f ) = L x1 f (x) dx.

n n 0

k=1

Now, if X p denotes the function t 7 tp , then (2) is equivalent to the fact that

limn In (X p ) = J(X p ), for every nonnegative integer p. Using linearity, we con-

clude that limn In (P ) = J(P ) for every polynomial function P .

P

that for every continuous functions f and g on [0, 1] and all positive integers n,

[0,1] [0,1]

ber. Using Weierstrass Theorem there is a polynomial P such that ||f P || =

supx[0,1] |f (x) P (x)| < 3M . Moreover, since limn In (P ) = J(P ), there exists

an n such that |In (P ) J(P )| < 3 for every n > n . Therefore, for n > n , we

have

|In (f ) J(f )| |In (f ) In (P )| + |In (P ) J(P )| + |J(P ) J(f )| < .

Applications.

It is known that Eulers totient function has very erratic behaviour, but on

the mean we have the following beautiful result, see [2, 18.5],

n

1 X 3

lim (k) = 2 . (3)

n n2

k=1

Using Theorem 1 we conclude that, for every continuous function f on [0, 1],

n Z 1

1 X k 6

lim 2 f (k) = 2 xf (x) dx. (4)

n n n 0

k=1

arctan x

Choosing f (x) = x(1+x) we conclude that

n Z 1

X arctan(k/n) 6 arctan x

lim (k) = dx. (5)

n k(n + k) 2 0 1+x

k=1

R1

Thus we only need to evaluate the integral I = 0 arctan x

1+x dx. The easy way

1t

to do this is to make the change of variables x 1+t to obtain

1 1

1t

Z Z

dt dt

I= arctan = arctan t

0 1+t 1+t 0 4 1+t

Z 1

dt

= I

4 0 1+t

Hence, I = 8 log 2. Replacing back in (5) we obtain (1).

Similarly, if (n) denotes the sum of divisors of n, then (see [2, 18.3]),

n

1 X 2

lim 2 (k) = .

n n 12

k=1

Using Theorem 1 we conclude that, for every continuous function f on [0, 1],

n

2 1

Z

1 X k

lim f (k) = xf (x) dx.

n n2 n 6 0

k=1

1

Choosing for instance f (x) = 1+ax2

we conclude that

n

X (k) 2

lim = log(1 + a).

n n2 + ak 2 12a

k=1

Starting from

n

1 X (k) 6

lim = 2,

n n k

k=1

which can be proved in the same way as (3), we conclude that, for every 0,

n

1 X 6

lim k 1 (k) = (6)

n n+1 2 (1 + )

k=1

Also,

n Z 1

1 X 6

lim k 1 log(k/n)(k) = x log(x) dx

n n+1 2 0

k=1

6

= .

2 ( + 1)2

n

1 X

1 6 (1 + ) log n 1

k log k (k) = + o(1).

n+1 2 (1 + )2

k=1

References

[1] C. Lupu, Problem U131, Mathematical Reflections. (4) (2009).

ed.), Oxford University Press. (1980).

Omran Kouba

Department of Mathematics

Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology

P.O. Box 31983, Damascus, Syria.

omran kouba@hiast.edu.sy

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