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Elias Ghannoum1

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of IEC Publication No. 60826 (old number IEC 826)

entitled 'Loading and Strength of Overhead lines'. This publication has been a

milestone in the introduction of improved structural design criteria of overhead

transmission lines based on reliability methods. Originally published by IEC in 1991

as a technical report type II (i.e. a pre-standard phase), this document was then

extensively reviewed by CIGRI~ and IECfrC11/WG08, and a revised version of this

document is currently being circulated to National Committees of IEC/TCll for

adoption as an IEC Standard.

This IEC publication specifies loadings and strengths requirements of overhead lines

derived from reliability-based design principles. It is based on the concept whereby a

transmission line is designed as a system made of components such as supports,

foundations, conductors and insulator strings. This approach enables to coordinate the

strengths of components within the system taking into account the fact that in such a

series system, the failure of any component could lead to the loss of power

transmitting capability. It is expected that this approach should lead to an overall

economical design without undesirable mismatch between strengths of line

components.

Many improvements were introduced in the revised version of IEC 60926 (IEC 2002)

such as: dividing the document into a normative section containing all requirements

and another section consisting of a commentary to the document and technical

annexes, providing default load and strength factors when statistical data are scarce,

Chair on OverheadTransmissionLines, Departmentof Civil Engineering,Universit6of Sherbrooke,

Qu6beeJ1K 2R1;phone1-514-3444127;elias@ghannoum.com

59

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60 ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE

previous version, but may not control the design, etc.

The IEC 60826 has already been used in many national standards (ex. CSA C22.3, ex.

IS 802, 2002, CENELEC) and utility practices, and has proven to be an essential tool

for those migrating toward the more efficient and economical Reliability Based

Design (RBD) concepts.

Introduction

Committee T C l l and CIGRE Study Committee SC22 pioneered improvement of

overhead transmission lines design criteria as well as the introduction of

reliability/probabilitybased design concepts (Ghannoum, 1986), (CIGRI~ 1990).

A milestone of this evolution occurred in 1991 when the IEC 826 document entitled

"Loading and Strength of Overhead Lines" was published (IEC, 1991). This

document introduced reliability and probabilistic concepts for calculation of loading

and strength requirements for overhead lines components. This document was

published as a technical report type 2, i.e. a pre-standard document that will be

reviewed in a few years for the purpose of converting it to an IEC standard.

When document IEC 826 was published, IEC asked CIGRE to prepare application

examples of this document and to simplify it for an eventual conversion to the status

of an IEC international standard. The CIGRE task was completed in 1998 and a

revised/simplified version of IEC 826 (now IEC 60826) was sent by CIGRE SC22 to

IEC T C l l .

The new version of IEC 60826 (IEC, 2002) is currently being circulated for vote (as

of May 2002) to National Committees members of IEC/TC11.

This paper provides an overview of IEC and CIGRt~ work and summarizes the main

features of IEC 60826.

organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical,

electronic and related technologies. The membership consists of more than 60

participating countries, including all the world's major trading nations and a growing

number of industrializing countries.

all questions of electrotechnical standardization and related matters, such as the

assessment of conformity to standards in the fields of electricity, electronics and

related technologies.

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ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE 61

The definition given in all IEC standards reads: "A normative document, developed

according to consensus procedures, which has been approved by the IEC National

Committee members of the responsible committee in accordance with Part 1 of the

ISO/IEC Directives as a committee draft for vote and as a final draft International

Standard and which has been published by the IEC Central Office."

Adoption of IEC standards by any country, whether it is a member of the

Commission or not, is entirely voluntary.

What is CIGRE

governmental and non profit-making International Association based in France. It

was founded in 1921 and aims to:

9 Facilitate and develop the exchange of engineering knowledge and

information, between engineering personnel and technical specialists in all

countries as regards generation and high voltage transmission of electricity.

9 Add value to the knowledge and information exchanged by synthesizing state-

of-the-art and world practices.

9 Make managers, decision-makers and regulators aware of the synthesis of

CIGRE's work, in the area of electric power.

More specifically, issues related to the planning and operation of power systems, as

well as the design, construction, maintenance and disposal of HV equipment and

plants are at the core of CIGRE's Mission.

Many IEC publications and standards originated from CIGRE technical work. It is

generally the practice that CIGRE develops new technical work until such work

reaches technical consensus and maturity. Once this stage is reached, the resulting

work may be used by IEC as a basis for preparation of a new standard or revising an

existing one.

The cooperation between IEC and CIGRE is obvious in the development and revision

of IEC 60826 as explained in this paper (CIGRt~ 1990).

When developed, IEC 60826 was oriented to correct some identified shortcomings of

safety factor methods such as (Ghannoum, 1984):

9 Possible inconsistencies and unbalance in strengths of components

9 Unknown reliability level (except by general inference from experience)

9 Difficulty to adjust overall line reliability

9 Difficulty to design composite structures (steel and wood for example)

9 Difficulty to evolve with new technologies

9 Difficulty to adjust design to local conditions

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62 ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE

failure event is triggered (for example: Ultimate capacity of foundations could

be less that the supported tower, or a critical angle tower may fail before a less

critical tangent tower).

Scope

IEC 60826 specifies the loadings and strengths requirements of overhead lines

derived from Reliability Based Design (RBD) principles. It also provides a

framework for the preparation of National overhead transmission lines Standards

using reliability concepts and employing probabilistic or semi-probabilistic methods.

However, National Standards still need to establish the local climatic data for the use

and application of this standard.

The design criteria in IEC 60826, although intended to apply to new lines, they can

also be used to address the reliability requirements for refurbishment and uprating of

existing lines.

It is noted that IEC60826 does not cover the detailed design of line components such

as towers, foundations, conductors or insulators. Nevertheless it provides loading and

strength requirements that allow a coordinated and consistent design between these

components.

Basis of load-strength relation in IEC 60826

A major breakthrough in probability methods occurred when a relation that leads to

an almost constant probability of failure, was uncovered between load and strength

(Ghannoum 1983, 1986). This relation is:

QT = (10%)R, or

Load with a return period T = Strength met with 90% probability (or having a 10%

exclusion limit).

The above relation was found to give consistent reliability (or probability of survival

Ps) almost equal to (1 - 1/2T ), with a typical range of (1 - 1/T ) to ( 1 - 1/2T ). These

results remain valid for various distributions of load curves Q such as extreme type

(Gumbel), log-normal and Frechet, as well as for Normal and log-Normal strength R

distributions. Refer to Figure 1 for the case where T = 50 years and the coefficient of

variation (COV) Q was varied from 12 to 50%.

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ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE 63

50 years, Q is extreme type I and R is Normal.

System design

IEC 60826 design methodology is based on the concept whereby a transmission line

is designed as a system made of components such as supports, foundations,

conductors and insulator strings. This approach enables to coordinate the strengths of

components within the system taking into account the fact that in such a series

system, the failure of any component could lead to the loss of power transmitting

capability. It is expected that this approach should lead to an overall economical

design without undesirable mismatch between strengths of line components.

Design methodology o( IEC 60826

The design methodology as per IEC60826 can be summarized in the Figure 2 (note

that the activities (a) and (h) listed in this figure are not parts of the scope of IEC

60826):

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64 ELECTRICALTRANSMISSION1NA NEW AGE

The design according to IEC60826 (see boxes bl, b2 and b3 in Figure 2) originates

from the following requirements:

9 Reliability: These requirements consist of climatic loads (wind, ice,

temperature and their combinations) and aim to provide lines with satisfactory

service performance. Statistical tools are used to quantify these loads.

9 Security: These requirements aim to prevent or reduce risk of uncontrollable

or cascading failures.

9 Safety: These requirements aim to prevent human injury.

Reliability levels

Three Reliability levels (I, II, III) are provided in IEC 60826. These levels correspond

to return periods of design loads of 50, 150 and 500 years. In general,

9 Level I is considered minimum for all permanent lines

9 Level II applies to lines with voltages equal or exceeding 230 kV

9 Level III applies to important lines in excess of 230 kV that are a unique

source of supply.

Security requirements

Security requirements relate to behavior of lines once failure is initiated. They aim to

prevent uncontrolled propagation of failures (cascading). In such case, components

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ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE 65

are allowed to be reach stresses very close to their ultimate limit state. It is noted that

in IEC 60826, security is a deterministic concept, while reliability is probabilistic.

Security and reliability requirements are interrelated because both tend to increase

strength of components. Security measures, if more critical than climatic loads

(reliability requirements), can also increase reliability.

Safety requirements

These are required to protect people from injury. They consist of construction and

maintenance loads. It is aimed that the probability of failure under such loads should

be very low.

Design equation, general format

Load effect < Strength or,

QT < Rc or,

Load corresponding to a return period T < Characteristic strength Rc

The above equation has been expanded in the document to the form below:

YQT = ~R Rc, where,

y factor for span dispersion, default value equal to 1.0

QT load corresponding to a return period T

% global strength factor equal to the product of ~S * ~N * ~Q * ~C

~s factor related to coordination of strength (sequence of failure)

% factor related to number N of components

I~Q factor related to the difference between tested and installed component

~c factor related to the statistical parameters of the characteristic strength

It is important to note that the load QT shall be the maximum along the space covered

by the line. Furthermore, not only the maximum load intensity is important, but also

its spatial coverage, as both affect design requirements and line reliability. Directional

tendencies of wind or ice loads can be taken into account if confirmed; otherwise, it

should be assumed that load direction always occurs in the most critical direction.

Loading conditions and limit states

Limit states of strength of line components are defined for each component: a damage

limit state (serviceability) and a failure (ultimate) limit state. Each group of loading

requirements is associated with one of the limits states given below:

STATE

Reliability climatic, ice, wind, wind + ice, with a damage limit

return period T

Security failure limit (torsional and longitudinal) Failure limit

Safety construction and maintenance loads damage limit

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66 ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE

IEC 60826 recognizes that the actual reliability may differ from the theoretical

reliability when factors such the ones listed below are not accounted for:

9 Actual use factors of components as opposed to assuming them equal to 1.0

9 The degree of correlation between loads and strengths

9 Direction of wind speed in relation to that of the line

9 Exclusion limit of strength different from the assumed 10%

9 Number of components subjected to maximum load intensity

9 Quality control during fabrication and construction

Methods to take into account the above factors are covered in the subject document.

Use factor of components

Use factor in IEC 60826 is defined as the ratio of the actual load (as built) to the limit

design load of a component. For tangent towers, it is virtually equal to the ratio of

actual to maximum design spans (wind or weight) and for angle towers, it also

includes the ratio of the sines of the half angles of deviation (actual to design angles).

Use factor cannot exceed 1.0 and its influence on line reliability has been covered in

the Document. The Use factor variation in overhead lines is inevitable because of the

following reasons:

9 Line components are mass fabricated

9 Components are not specifically designed for each tower location or use

9 Their design parameters reflect maximum usage along the line

9 Effective loads on line components are location dependent (span and tower

height at each location)

Globally, the use factor variation should increase reliability. However, a large

dispersion of U may be an indication of a poor optimization (e.g. not enough tangent

tower types or their parameters incorrectly selected). It is important to recognize that

the preferred sequence of failure could also be altered if the use factor is not taken

into account.

The Characteristic strength Rc_

IEC 60826 makes reference to the characteristic strength which is defined as the

strength value guaranteed in relevant Standards. Sometimes, it is also called the

guaranteed strength, the minimum strength, or the minimum failing load, and usually

corresponds to an exclusion limit, from 2 to 5%, with 10% being an upper practical

(and conservative) limit.

quality control, it tends to become a Log-normal function.

The characteristic strength can thus be calculated from the following equation,

assuming it corresponds to a 10% exclusion limit:

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ELECTRICALTRANSMISSION1NA NEW AGE 67

k = 1,28 for Normal distribution

k = 1,08 to 1,26 for Log-normal distribution

In case the maximum intensity of load is widespread and covers a large number (N)

of structures, the strength distribution becomes that of chain or a series of N

components whose strength is controlled by the weakest. Although the original

distribution of strength can be Normal, that of the series of N structures will tend to

be an Extreme (minima) type. Correction factors are provided in order to take into

account the effect of the spatial coverage of the maximum load event on reliability

(~N factor).

Strength coefficient ~ related to sequence of failure

In IEC 60826, line components can be designed to fail (with a 90% probability) in a

preferred mode called "preferred sequence of failure". The best (or least damaging)

failure mode is the one where the consequences of the first failure on the line are

minimized. Strength factors allowing targeting a preferred sequence of failure are

provided in the document. It is generally accepted that angle towers, dead-end towers,

conductors or foundations should not fail first, thus leaving tangent towers as the one

to fail first. The following table specifies the strength factors applicable to the

strength of the component not to fail first.

Table 1 - Values of ~)S

5% 7,5% 10% 20%

COV of 0,05-0,10 0,92 0,87 0,82 0,63

R2 0,10-0,40 0,94 0,89 0,86 0,66

Note: in the above Table, R2 is the component designed more reliable than R1

Wind loads and limitations of wind calculations

Wind loads on conductors and tower structures are the source of important and

critical loading requirement for overhead transmission lines. Methods to calculate

wind forces starting with a reference wind speed are provided in the document for the

following conditions:

9 Spans between 200 m and 800 m

9 Height of supports less than 60 m

9 Altitude below 1300 m

Ground roughness

For the purpose of calculating wind pressure and forces, four (4) categories of ground

roughness (also called terrain types) are provided:

9 A- Flat coastal areas and deserts

9 B- Open country, cultivated fields

9 C- Numerous low height obstacles

9 D- Suburban areas

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68 ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEWAGE

The reference wind velocity V R considered in IEC 60826 consists of a 10 min.

average, at 10 m height, in a terrain type B. The document provides for conversion

from other wind data, having different averages or located in a different terrain

category, to the above reference value

Wind speed design cases

High wind is combined with average minimum daily temperatures and a reduced

wind (60% of the reference value) is combined with the 50 year minimum

temperature.

Wind load model

The conversion from wind speed to forces follows the equation:

Load = k (V2 9V2), where k is the product of:

9 height factor

9 span factor

9 response factor

9 shape factor

In IEC 60826, the k factor in the above equation takes the form of:

Wind force = A Cx Gc ( V29 V2 ), with

Gc = the combined wind factor dependent on spans, height and terrain roughness

category

Cx = Drag (or force) coefficient

9 is the air mass per unit volume = 1,225 kg/m3 (this is a default value, but

adjustments of p to different temperatures and altitudes are provided.

A similar equation provides for calculation of wind forces applied to various types of

transmission structures such as those made of angle sections, round pipe sections or

steel poles. Drag coefficients are also provided for these tower types and take into

account the compactness (or solidity ratio) of the windward face to reflect the

shielding of wind on the leeward face.

Validation of lEC60826 wind model

IEC wind load calculations (or wind model) have been satisfactorily validated. The

results of some experimental validations can be found in "Houle, Hardy, and

Ghannoum (1991)" and "EPRI, TR-104480".

Icing types

Ice accretion on conductors and structures are the source of important loads, and often

control the design in many northern countries. The document covers three types of ice

accretion: precipitation icing, wet snow, and in-cloud icing. Methods to calculate

design icing are provided and cover a range of cases with various availabilities of

statistical data.

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ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE 69

Once design ice thickness or weight per unit length of conductors has been

statistically defined, this value is used in the following loading cases:

9 Uniform ice formation

9 Non uniform ice (longitudinal unbalanced icing, with all phases in a span

subjected to the same unbalanced conditions)

9 Torsional condition (unbalanced icing conditions occurring in opposite

longitudinal directions thus creating a torsional moment on the structure)

Combined ice loads with wind

The presence of wind during or after icing episodes requires special loading cases and

combinations of ice and wind loads in order to account for their combined effects.

The calculation of combined forces due wind on ice covered conductors are provided

in the document and take into account: the ice thickness or ice weight per unit length

of conductor, ice density, wind speed during icing, and drag coefficient of ice covered

conductor.

Three combinations of: ice, wind speed during icing, ice density/drag coefficient are

provided for in the document and consist of combining an extreme value of one

variable (such as the 50 year value) with average values of the other variables.

Construction and maintenance loads (safety requirements)

The loading conditions provided in the IEC document supplement National

Regulations and safety codes. They are focused on reducing the risk of injuries to

personnel working during construction and maintenance of the lines. These

requirements should result in a very high reliability (risk of failure practically nil).

The approach to deal with such loads is deterministic and consists of applying

overload factors of 1.5 to 2.0 in order to insure such a high reliability. These loads are

not usually combined with climatic loads, because construction and maintenance

operations are not commonly undertaken during strong weather events.

For example, loads during erection of supports are simulated by designing each

support point for twice the static loads at sagging conditions. Under some conditions,

and under controlled construction operations, the factor of 2.0 could be reduced to

1.5.

Security related loads

As explained earlier, these loads are intended to prevent cascading or uncontrollable

failures. Minimum requirements are specified as follows:

9 A broken phase load (torsional load) is applied on any one phase or g/w

attachment point, and is equivalent to the Residual Static load (RSL)

calculated with bare conductors at average temperatures.

9 A longitudinal load is specified, equivalent to a simulated fictitious ice load

equal to the conductor weight applied on one side of the tower.

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70 ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE

For lines that require a higher security level, additional security measures can be

considered such as: Increasing the number of points where the RSL is applied,

Considering the RSL in conjunction with some climatic load, and/or inserting anti-

cascading towers.

Limit states of conductors and ground wires

An example of limit states of strength of conductors and ground wires is provided in

Table 2.

Table 2 - Damage and failure limits of conductors and ground wires

Types Damage limit Failure limit

lowest of :

- Vibration limit, or

All types - the infringement of critical clearances defined by Ultimate tensile

appropriate regulations, or stress (rupture)

- 75% of the characteristic strength or rated tensile

strength (typical range in 70 % to 80 %)

Limit states of interface components

An example of strength limit states of interface components is provided in Error!

Not a valid bookmark self-reference.

Type of interface Damage Umit2 Failure limit

components

Cable connectors: Dead- Unacceptable permanent Rupture

end and junction fittings deformation or slippage

and Suspension fittings

Insulators (porcelain and 70 % strength rating or broken Rupture of pin, cap,

glass) shed (glass only) cement or shed

Hardware Critical3 permanent deformation Rupture of hardware

or shear of bolts

limilarities between IEC 60826 and ASCE 74

Both documents represent

9 Similar design philosophy of reliability, security and safety criteria.

9 Both treat load and strength as random variables

9 The design equation (load-strength relation) is similar in format

9 Reliability levels are expressed in return periods of design loads

2 Normally, hardware is designed in a manner to reduce or eliminate wear. Should wear be expected

because of point to point contact, it should be considered in the design. In such case, the damage limit

becomes: exceeding the excepted wear.

3 Defined as the state where the hardware cannot be easily taken apart.

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ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE 71

9 Wind model in both documents are similarly based on the Davenport model

9 Both approaches coordinate the strength of components

Differences between IEC and ASCE

9 The ASCE is component based, while IEC is system (line) based

9 Reliabilities in ASCE are now referred to as relative reliabilities, but in both

IEC and ASCE, return periods of loads are used.

9 Load data used in IEC relate to the space or the area covered by the line while

ASCE is based on point data

9 Fastest mile statistics in early version of ASCE (now 3 second gust) are used

versus 10 min average wind speed in IEC.

9 Combinations of wind and ice loads are somehow different

of this document is being circulated to National Committees for adoption as an IEC

standard (refer to IEC 60826, 2002). The main changes in this document compared to

the earlier 1991 version are summarized hereafter:

Structure of revised IEC 826

The document in now split in two parts: The first part contains design requirements

and is Normative. Efforts were made in this part to delete requirements that do not

control the design. The second part is informative and contains commentary,

explanations and useful annexes related to the first part. This revised document, takes

into account the comments received on the 1991 version from CIGRI~ and National

Committees of IEC.

Main features introduced in the revised 1EC 60826

9 In the revised version, users can either determine the load corresponding to a

return period T from statistical data or apply load factors to the 50 year loads

if the latter are provided in National Standards.

9 The values of strength factor d~ and Rc are now provided for two assumptions

of strength distributions: Normal and log-Normal distributions.

9 Air density correction factors are now provided for the purpose of calculating

wind forces on towers and conductors for various combinations of altitudes

and temperatures.

9 The gust response factors Gc have been simplified and all the values of Gc

can now be obtained graphically from one Figure.

9 The span effect on wind load was previously included in the gust response

factor, but it is now provided separately as span factor GL

9 In case statistical data for strength of components are not available, default

values of COV's are provided.

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72 ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONIN A NEW AGE

Conclusion

This paper summarizes the background, key features of and the evolution of

document IEC 60826 that provides for: a) a design methodology based on reliability

concepts, b) more consistent design that targets a minimum reliability, and c) avoids

mismatch between line components.

Local weather conditions are taken into account during the design process, and tools

are provided in order to increase reliability and security if warranted either by the

importance of the line or by local conditions.

This document should provide for more economical design for a given target

reliability compared to safety factor methods or, inversely, should provide for a

higher reliability for given limit loads.

The IEC 60826 has been integrated to many international standards (ex. IS 802, CSA

C22.3, 2002, CENELEC and utility practices and represents a major contribution to

the international trend in migrating toward reliability based design concepts in

overhead line design.

References

IEC/60826 - Ed. 2.0 (1991): Loading and strength of overhead transmission lines,

June 1991.

Houle, S., Hardy, C., and Ghannoum, E. (1991), "Static and Dynamic Testing of

Transmission Lines Subjected to Real Wind Conditions", CIGRI~ Symposium on

Compact Overhead Lines, Leningrad, June 1991.

EPRI Field Validation studies" EPRI, TR-104480.

Lines According to Recent Advances by IEC and CIGR]~", International Symposium

of Probabilistic Design of Transmission Lines, Toronto, June 1986.

Probability Calculations and Structural Reliability", IEEE/PES 1983 Winter Meeting,

New-York.

Design Criteria Corresponding to a Target Reliability", IEEE/PES 1983 Winter

Meeting, New-York.

Reliability Techniques", IEEE/PES 1984 Winter Meeting, Dallas.

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ELECTRICALTRANSMISSION1NA NEW AGE 73

Loading, 1991

11/165A/CDV, March 2002.

Electra No. 129, March 1990.

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