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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Importance of Water

Man and animals not only consume water, but they also consume
vegetation for their food. Vegetation, in turn, cannot grow without water.
Growth of vegetation also depends upon bacterial action, while bacteria
need water in order to thrive.
Good sanitation cannot be maintained without adequate water supply
system.
Man needs water for drinking, cooking, cleaning and washing.
Water maintains an ecological balance balance in the relationship
between living things and environment in which they live.

1.2 Definition of Types of Water

1.2.1 Pure and Impure Water

Pure water contains only 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen. It is


not good for health as pure water does not contain essential minerals
required for human health.
Impure water, besides 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen,
contains other elements.

1.2.2 Potable and Wholesome Water

Potable water is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low
risk of immediate or long-term harm.

Water that is not harmful for human beings is called wholesome water. It is
neither chemically pure nor contains harmful matters to human health.
Requirements of wholesome water:

i. It should be free from radioactive substance, microorganism, disease


causing bacteria, objectionable dissolved gases, harmful salts,
objectionable minerals and other poisonous metals.
ii. It should be colourless, and sparkling which may be accepted by public.
iii. It should be tasty, odour-free, soft, cool and cheap in cost.
iv. It shouldnt corrode pipes.
v. It should have dissolved oxygen and free from carbonic acid so that it
remains fresh.

1.2.3 Polluted and Contaminated Water

Contamination means containing harmful matter. It is always polluted and


harmful for use. Water consisting of microorganisms, chemicals, industrial
or other wastes, large numbers of pathogens that cause diseases is called
contaminated water.
Pollution is synonymous to contamination but is the result of
contamination. Polluted water contains substances unfit or undesirable for
public health or domestic purpose.

Two broad categories of water pollution: a) Point Source b) Non-point Source

a) Point Source: occurs when harmful substances are emitted directly into a
body of water. E.g. pipe from an industrial facility emitted directly into a
body of water.
b) Nonpoint Source: delivers pollutants through transport or environmental
charge. E.g. fertilizer from a farm field carried into a stream by rain.

1.3 Historical Development of Water Supply System

What is Water Supply System?

Water Supply System is a network of pipelines of various sizes with control


valves for carrying water to all streets and supplying water to the consumers.

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Historical Development

Most of the historical community settlements throughout the world were


made near springs, lakes and rivers from where water for drinking and
irrigation purposes was obtained.
In the ninth century, few important water supply structures were
constructed by the Moors in Spain. In the 12 th century, small aqueduct was
constructed in Paris. In London, spring water was brought by means of
lead pipes and masonry conduits in the thirteenth century.
During the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, large impounding
reservoirs were developed due to the necessity of feeding canals.
The first water filter was constructed in 1804 by John Gibb at Paisley in
Scotland.
The first permanent use of chlorination originated under the direction of
Sir Alexander Houston at Lincoln in 1905.
1.4 Objectives of Water Supply System

The quintessential objective of water supply system is to supply water equitably


to the consumers with sufficient pressure so as to discharge the water at the
desired location within the premises.

1.5 Schematic Diagram of Typical Water Supply System

1. City/General

2. Hilly Area/Rural Area


3. Terai Area

1.6 Components of Water Supply System and their Functions


The components of a water supply system can be divided into two major parts:

1. Transmission Line or Transmission Main: Pipeline from intake to reservoir


tank.
2. Distribution Line: Pipeline from reservoir tank to tap stand.

There are three systems of supply as:

i. Gravity Flow System


ii. Pumping System
iii. Dual System

(Details will be studied in chapters to come later.)