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SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

The Fourth International Workshop on


Seismotectonics in Myanmar and Earthquake Risk
Management
(11-12 May, 2013)

SMERM 2013

1| MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

WORKSHOP PROGRAMME

1st day May 11, 2013 (Saturday)

08:30 Registration

09:00-09:30 Inauguration (MES Function Hall, 3rd Floor)

Opening Speech by Distinguished Guest


Opening Speech by Myanmar Engineering Society
Opening Speech by Myanmar Geosciences Society
Opening Speech by Myanmar Earthquake Committee

0930-1000 Coffee Break

Scientific Sessions (Conference Room, 1st Floor)

Part 1 Earthquake Geology of Myanmar and Surrounding Region

Chair Person Prof. Kerry Sieh

Progress in Earthquake Geology between Singapore and Myanmar in


2012 Kerry Sieh 1000
Paleoseismological Investigations of Xaiyabouri area, central Lao PDR
Punya Charusiri 1020

2| MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Geology of Pyay Thrust, part of the central Myanmar Belt Lin Thu
Aung 1040
Thabeikkyin Earthquake: the third 21st Century Geo-Disaster of
Myanmar Tint Lwin Swe 1110
Surface rupture of the 11th November 2012 Mw 6.8 Thabeikkyin
earthquake -- Ian Watkinson 1140
From the 1762 Arakan earthquake to the long-term development of
the western Myanmar coastal deformation belt - Chiang Hong-Wei
1200

-- Lunch Break

Part 2 Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Chair Person Dr. Win Swe

Seismic hazard modeling on the Mw 6.8, Nov. 11, 2012 Thabeikkyin


Earthquake Myo Thant 1330
Development of earthquake early warning system using low cost
accelerometer in Taiwan Yih-Min Wu 1400

-- Tea Break --

Public awareness trainings in Thabeikkyin earthquake affected areas


Thin Hlaing Oo 1420
Seismic evaluation and retrofit of existing reinforced concrete
buildings - Nyi Nyi Zaw 1440

-- Welcoming Banquet (MES Function Hall) --

3| MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

2nd Day May 12, 2013 (Sunday)

Part 3 Earthquake Engineering and other Selected Topics

Chair Person U Than Myint

Andaman Spreading Zone Analysis and Tsunami Simulation of


Myanmar Coastal Area - Moe Pwint San 0900
National Building Code Development and Earthquake Risk Mitigation
in Myanmar U Than Myint 0920

-- Tea Break --

Damages of Structures due to Tarlay and Thabeikkyin Earthquakes


Saw Htwe Zaw 1000
Comparative study on active tectonics and seismicity of Yazagyo and
Manipura multipurpose dam project - U Kyaw Aung 1030
Earthquake risk Assessment Mandalay - Phyoe Maung Maung 1100

-- Lunch Break --

Part 4 Workshop: Possible Action Plan 1300

- Remark from OYO Corporation


- Identification on Area of Collaborative Interest
- Need Assessment (Human Resource, Instrumental Resource,
Technical Resource etc.)

4| MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Progress in Earthquake Geology between Singapore and Myanmar in


2012

Kerry Sieh1, Wang Yu2, and Paramesh Banerjee1

1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University


2 California Institute of Technology

During the past year, collaboration in earthquake science between the Earth
Observatory of Singapore, the Myanmar Earthquake Committee and the Department
of Meteorology and Hydrology continued to produce interesting results. We
published our manuscript on the great subduction earthquake of 1762. One
manuscript on the 2011 Tarlay earthquake is in the press and another is almost ready
for submission. Our manuscript on the overarching earthquake geology of the region
is also nearly ready for submission. In our talk, we will discuss aspects of each of these
works that we have developed within the past year.

5| MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Geology of Pyay Thrust, part of the central Myanmar Belt


Lin Thu Aung1,3, Soe Thura Tun1, Tint Lwin Swe1, Kaung Min Khant2, Set Paing Htoo2,
Htay Lwin2, Aung Thein Zaw2, Zin Bo Bo2, Day Wa Aung3 and Win Naing4

1 Seismotectonics Research Division, Myanmar Earthquake Committee


2 Department of Geology, Pyay University
3 Department of Geology, Yangon University
4 Monywa University

Pyay thrust is a west verging high-angle thrust fault or reverse fault running in NNW-
SSE trend along the western flank of the Pyay Basin, one of the Miocene extensional
basins in Myanmar. Total fault length is 127 km and the total width is about 5km in the
north and 16 km in the south. Being located between the Indo-barman Ranges in the
west and the Sagaing Fault in the east and as part of the central tectonic domain, some
megascopic and mesoscopic observations along the fault trace have been carried out
in order to identify the deformation features of the thrust. The northern part of the
fault trace near Kama is running in NW-SE direction and further south, passing through
along west flank of Pho-U Taung range, it submerged underneath the Ayeyarwady
River where the fourth defile of the river near Sinde village until the western edge of
Shwedaung anticline.

The steep scarp slope with v-shaped gullies, short and straight drainage pattern are
the characteristic features of the Pyay Thrust and the highest elevation with high
topographic relief can be observed in this portion. The occurrences of terrace (gravel)
deposits along the Mindon stream valley and at west bank of Ayeyarwaddy River, the
foot wall block is believe to be major evidence of the present day uplifting along this
fault while the small alluvial fan and associated scarps are observed on the hanging
wall block along the Shwedaung anticline.

Key words: Pyay thrust, earthquake records, deformation, fault trace, terrace deposits
6| MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon
SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Thabeikkyin Earthquake: the third 21st Century Geo-Disaster of Myanmar


Saw Ngwe Khaing1, Soe Thura Tun2, Myo Thant3, Soe Min4, Lin Thu Aung2,3, Tint Lwin
Swe5, Kyaw Zin Oo2, Saw Htwe Zaw6 and MES field party

1 Department of Geology, Hinthada University, Hinthada


2 Myanmar Geosciences Society
3 Department of Geology, University of Yangon
4 Department of Geology, Taungoo University
5 Myanmar Earthquake Committee, Myanmar Engineering Society
6 Myanmar Engineering Society

Thabeikkyin Earthquake (Mw 6.8, 11th November 2012) and Tarlay Earthquake (Mw
6.8, 24th March 2013), are recent examples of geo-disaster occurred in Myanmar. It
is to be considered how the country was felt similar ones in her history and how could
it be experienced in the future. Earthquake geologists could have studied more
scientifically in those recent events than in the Taungdwingyi Earthquake of similar
magnitude which they encountered a decade earlier.

The event of 2012 was a strong shock that frightened to thousands of people in
Myanmar because of its focal point which is not far from Mandalay, the second-most
populated city, and its propagated intensity resulted in collapse of many pagodas in
view of urban dwellers. The quake of early morning destroyed several tens of lives,
hundreds of houses, big infrastructures, and numerous Buddhist stupas. Geological
exposures were different from those of the Tarlay event on the Shan Plateau a year
before.

One striking impression of Thabeikkyin shock, as it was originated at the Sagaing Fault,
is the first strong one in 21st Century though the active structure created at least four

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SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

major events in the early decades of last century. Being the major fault trace near or
along the structurally controlled Ayeyawady River, right-lateral slip possible for similar
event was not prominently observed like those in left-lateral Namma Fault that
propagated Tarlay Earthquake in 2011 near the Thai Border. Vertical and mixed slips
with bank failures and liquefied en echelon fractures are striking in 80 km long segment
of the transform fault. Composite of the surface features could possibly be due to the
release of loaded strain in this segment which has already been ruptured during the
last century.

8| MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Surface rupture of the 12th November 2012 Mw 6.8 Thabeikkyin earthquake


Ian Watkinson1, Soe Thura Tun2, Lin Thu Aung2, Thura Aung2, Myo Thant2, Kuvert
Atakan3.

1 Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham,


Surrey, U.K.
2 Myanmar Geosciences Society, 303 MES Building, Hlaing University Campus,
Yangon, Myanmar.
3 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bergen, Norway.

The Sagaing Fault is a major dextral strike-slip fault passing through central Myanmar
that presently accommodates 18 mm/yr of the motion between the India/West Burma
plates and Sundaland. It is over 1500 km long, and transfers its displacement in the
north to the eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, and in the south to the Andaman Sea
spreading centre. A long and well-documented historical record of major earthquakes
along the fault shows that it is seismically active and capable of generating M>7
earthquakes. A Mw6.8 earthquake centred close to Thabeikkyin, 100 km north of
Mandalay, occurred on 11th November 2012. It produced an exceptionally-well
developed coseismic surface rupture over 40 km long. In most cases the rupture cuts
through previously un-deformed superficial deposits just east of a prominent pressure
ridge along the eastern bank of the Ayeyarwaddy River. The rupture is characterised
by en-echelon synthetic Riedel shears ranging from a few centimetres to 40 metres
long. Individual shears record oblique dilation, shown by rotation and subsidence of
clasts torn from fracture margins. Adjacent shears are rarely linked by P-shears, but
more commonly by zones of gentle uplift, or more well-developed thrust systems.
Larger scale complexities, such as restraining and releasing step-overs, are probably
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SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

controlled by the position of long-lived faults below the shallow superficial sediments.
This indicates that, in the uppermost crust at least, the Sagaing Fault is segmented,
which has implications for the prediction of future rupture nucleation and termination
mechanisms. Dextral displacement along the November 2012 rupture is distributed
across a brittle-ductile shear zone in the poorly-consolidated superficial sediments.
At Thabeikkyin, the brittle rupture is narrow, and shows up to 30 cm dextral
displacement, with another 10-15 cm distributed throughout an apparently ductile
shear zone up to 10 m wide. At the faults southern termination splay near Singu,
displacement across individual strands is less than 10 cm, but may be significantly
more when summed across the entire 750 m wide splay.

10 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

From the 1762 Arakan earthquake to the long-term development of the western
Myanmar coastal deformation belt
J. Bruce H. Shyu1, Yu Wang2,3, Chung-Che Wang1, Hong-Wei Chiang1,2, Soe Min4,
Thura Aung4, Lin Thu Aung4, Oo Than5, Chuan-Chou Shen1, Kerry Sieh2, and Soe Thura
Tun4

1 Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan


2 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
4 Myanmar Earthquake Committee, Myanmar Engineering Society, Yangon,
Myanmar
5 Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Yangon, Myanmar

Myanmar is located at one of the major plate boundaries of the world, between the
Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Along this major convergent plate
boundary, strain partitioning has produced two loci of active deformation, including
the subducting interface and the Sagaing fault, and both are among the largest seismic
sources in Southeast Asia. For the Sagaing fault, information of past earthquakes can
be obtained from the very detailed historical records of Buddhist pagodas. The
western coastal area of Myanmar, on the other hand, has experienced one large
historical earthquake in 1762. However, detailed information about this event is quite
limited.

For the past several years, we have investigated coastal geomorphic features of two
major islands in southwestern Myanmar, the Ramree Island and the Cheduba
(Manaung) Island. By analyzing uplifted corals and oyster reefs, we were able to

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SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

determine the amounts and patterns of co-seismic uplift in 1762 along the coast of
these islands. The results are consistent with historical documents of the earthquake,
and show 3-4 m of co-seismic coastal emergence along southwestern Cheduba Island,
diminishing northeastward to less than 1 m. Farther northeast, uplift associated with
the earthquake ranges from slightly more than 1 m to 5-6 m along the western coast
of Ramree Island but is insignificant along the islands eastern coast. This co-seismic
uplift pattern indicates that the earthquake source of 1762 was an upper-plate reverse
fault system, instead of the subducting interface itself.

Our paleoseismological investigations at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island


show that local earthquake events produced by the upper-plate reverse fault system
may have a much shorter recurrence interval than previously calculated. This would
imply that future earthquake potentials along the western Myanmar coast may be
higher than previously thought. The co-seismic uplift pattern of 1762 is also consistent
with the general topographic patterns of these two large islands, where the western
coasts are steeper with higher and narrower marine terraces than the western coasts.
Therefore, the long-term topographic development of the southwestern Myanmar
coast, at least near the two major coastal islands, may be strongly related with co-
seismic deformation of earthquakes produced by upper-plate structures.

12 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Seismic hazard modeling on the Mw 6.8, Nov. 11, 2012 Thabeikkyin Earthquake
Myo Thant1, Lin Thu Aung1, Zaw Myo Win1, Nwe Thazin Tun1, May Yee Mon Soe1,
Ian Watkinson2, Poe Mon Mon Kyaw1, Soe Thura Tun3, Soe Min3, Thura Aung3, Saw
Ngwe Khine3, Hiroshi Kawase4

1 Department of Geology, University of Yangon,


2 Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University, Egham, Surrey, U.K.
3 Myanmar Earthquake Committee
4 DPRI, Kyoto University, Japan

The Mw 6.8 Thabeikkyin earthquake happened on November 11, 2012 at 95.88 E,


23.01 N and the focal depth 10 km. This earthquake caused 26 casualties and 231
injuries. Moreover, 201 houses, 25 schools, 13 hospitals/clinics, 35 monasteries and 45
pagodas were also damaged. The earthquake was originated from the right-lateral
Sagaing fault. We visited to the earthquake affected areas, especially along the Sagaing
fault for three times. The site investigation was carried out by performing the
microtremor survey at four locations in Thabeikkyin for site specific seismic hazard
analysis. The characteristics of the surface rupture were also observed and the lateral
displacements were measured. The rupture model was then developed for this
earthquake by using the surface rupture observation data and the distribution of the
aftershocks. Based on the resulted rupture model, the seismic hazards were calculated
and the seismic hazard maps were developed by means of peak ground acceleration
(PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at the period of 0.2 s, 0.3 s and 1.0 s.

Keywords: Thabeikkyin earthquake, right-lateral Sagaing fault, seismic hazards,


surface rupture, aftershocks, seismic hazard maps.

13 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Development of earthquake early warning system using low cost accelerometer in


Taiwan
Yih-Min Wu
Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

The earthquake early warning (EEW) research group at the National Taiwan University
(NTU) and one technology company have been developing a Micro Electro Mechanical
Systems (MEMS) type of accelerometer (the Palert EEW sensor) specifically designed
for EEW purpose. The main advantage of the MEMS accelerometer comparing to the
other seismometers is that it is a relatively very low-cost seismic sensor. Currently, a
total of 350 Palert devices are installed in Taiwan region for onsite and regional EEW
purposes. When P wave triggers Palert will determine peak amplitude of the filtered
vertical displacement (Pd) as an indicator for onsite EEW. Most of the Palerts are
installed in the elementary schools with internet connection. Real-time signals from
local Palert device transfer to servers in NTU and Academia Sinica Grid Center via
internet for regional EEW purpose. Real-time signals are recorded using the Earthwarm
system. Twenty-one events with magnitude large than 4.0 were recorded by the Palert
network from June 2012 to January 2013. This system could report the earthquake
location and magnitude within 20 seconds. The uncertainty of magnitude and location
are about 0.2 and 30 km, respectively. Results of the Palert network encourage the
further implementations for the MEMS-type of seismometer in the EEW application.
Now the Palert device has been installed in Taiwan, China, and Indonesia. The Mexico.
India, Korea and Philippine are also planning to install the Palert device for EEW
purpose.

14 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Public awareness trainings in Thabeikkyin earthquake affected areas

Mitsuko Shikada & Thinn Hlaing Oo

SEEDS Asia

Myanmar is located in South East Asia, faces many kinds of disasters such as Cyclone,
Earthquake, Landslide, Tsunami, Fire, Flood and so on. SEEDS Asia from Japan and
Myanmar Engineering Society (MES) with the guidance of Relief and Resettlement
Department (RRD) have been implementing Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) awareness
Training programs to the students, teachers and communities in Myanmar since 2008
by utilizing a truck named Mobile Knowledge Resource Center (MKRC) & a boat named
Water Knowledge Resource Center (WKRC) with the mission of Reaching the
Unreachable. The goal of MKRC & WKRC is to aware communities about the risk and
to enhance individual family or neighborhood level actions.

The Thabeikkyin earthquake happened on 11th November 2012 and there were many
damages of residents, religious buildings, government buildings etc. It was significantly
seen that most of the people did not expect earthquake in that area. The school
teachers have never experienced teaching DRR education at school. Thus children also
did not know what to do at the time of the earthquake. Trainings to government
officials are urgently needed and experience sharing session as lessons learnt from this
earthquake will be the good for the other related government personnel. Thus to fulfill
the above needs, public awareness trainings on earthquake hazard were conducted by
MKRC with the collaboration of MES, SEEDS Asia and Myanmar Earthquake Committee
with the guidance of Relief and Resettlement Department in some of the Thabeikkyin
earthquake affected area after the earthquake happened.

15 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

NYI Nyi Zaw & Masanori TANI

1 Executive Engineer, Public Works, Ministry of Construction, Nay Pyi Taw,


Myanmar
2 Building Research Institute (BRI), Tsukuba, Japan

Seismic evaluation and retrofitting of existing RC buildings are very important for
earthquake disaster mitigation for Myanmar because almost all RC buildings in
Myanmar have been built without national building codes and seismic designs.
Myanmar still does not have proper seismic evaluation methods and regulation
procedure for all the existing RC buildings. In this paper, the Japanese seismic
evaluation method is studied and applied to one Japanese building and one Myanmar
building in order to introduce these evaluation methods into Myanmar in the future

There are three different levels of screening to find the seismic capacity of RC buildings
in Japanese standard. In this study, the first and second screening methods are used
to evaluate the seismic performance of RC buildings. In this paper, seismic evaluation
and retrofit will be performed with an actual Japanese building damaged by the 2011
Great East Japan earthquake. First, the data is collected from the damaged RC building
and the seismic performance of the building is evaluated by using the Japanese seismic
standard. Then, the result is compared with actual damages. A good correlation is
observed between the seismic performance indices of structures calculated by the
standard Japanese guidelines and the actual damages. Then, this method is applied
again to evaluate seismic performance of a Myanmar RC school building. So, seismic
capacity of existing RC buildings in Myanmar can be checked in future by these
methods.
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SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

To verify the seismic evaluation methods, the responses of two buildings are
performed for the nonlinear frame analysis with STERA 3D program again. After
analyzing data by STERA 3D program, the results are also coincided with the seismic
evaluation methods. After evaluation, both target buildings are found to be weak in
seismic performance. Simple retrofit methods such as wing walls, RC shear walls and
structural slits are chosen to increase their seismic capacity. After retrofit, enough
seismic capacity is obtained in both target buildings. . But, there is a limitation in terms
of building height to apply these methods. The standard methods are applicable to six
or seven story buildings and most of the governmental, school and public are below
six stories in Myanmar. So, these standard methods can be adopted for the seismic
evaluation standard for Myanmar.

Keywords: Seismic Evaluation, Nonlinear Frame Analysis, Retrofit, Existing RC Building.

17 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Andaman Spreading Zone Analysis and Tsunami Simulation of Myanmar Coastal


Area

Moe Pwint San

Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Ministry of Transport, MYANMAR


moepwintsan@gmail.com

The seismotectonic of the Myanmar region have originated from two main causes: (1)
the subduction (with collision only in the north) of the northward moving India Plate
underneath the Burma Plate at an average rate of 4-6cm/yr along the Andaman
Megathrust Zone; (2) the northward movement of the Burma Plate from a spreading
center in the Andaman Sea at an average rate of 2.5- 3.0 cm/yr. Very large over-thrusts
along the Western Fold Belt have resulted from the former movement, and the Sagaing
fault and other faults from the latter movement. Along the northern extension of the
Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Zone can cause tsunami genetic earthquakes, as the
nature of plate convergence is thrust type mechanism. The regional tectonic setting of
the northeast India Ocean is very complex. The subduction of the major plates with
respect to one another has resulted in the formation of a deep trench, aback arc
island and basins, and a spreading center. Among of them, spreading center is very
interesting place because there are reverse faults, strike-slip faults and normal fault in
this area. In this paper, I only observed normal fault which strike east-west

18 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

National Building Code Development and Earthquake Risk Mitigation in Myanmar

U Than Myint

Myanmar Earthquake Committee

Though Myanmar is an earthquake prone country, we do not have National Building


Code for our own and we are not aware to design the buildings for mitigating the
earthquake risk. Some international building codes are used in design of buildings but
earthquake resistant design is not followed. For natural disaster mitigation the
National Building Code is needed, now the National Building Code is developed with
the collaboration of different ministries, technical Institutions and professional
societies. The project is guided by Ministry of Construction, supported by UN-Habitat
and organized by Myanmar Engineering Society. Chapter on Earthquake Resistant
Design is in National Building Code and once the code is adopted our buildings will be
earthquake resistant designed buildings, it will mitigate earthquake risk in Myanmar.
We have long way to go, but we have started for earthquake risk mitigation in
Myanmar. For getting the suitable data in designing the buildings the works of
Seismologists and Geologists are very important and essential. Collaboration and
cooperation of Seismologists and Geologists are appreciated.

19 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Damages of Structures due to Tarlay and Thabeikkyin Earthquakes

Saw Htwe Zaw

Myanmar Engineering Society

There were two significant earthquakes recently in Myanmar- magnitude of 6.8 in


March 2011 near Tarlay and anther magnitude 6.8 in October 2012 near Thabeikkyin.
Tarlay is located in eastern Shan State and predominantly Shan ethnic area while
Thabeikkyin is in central plain area of Myanmar predominantly Bamah ethnic area. Due
to racial and cultural differences, the building types were different.

The damages of the buildings and bridges were compared between two earthquakes.
The lesson learnt from the damages and losses of lives were discussed.

20 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon


SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

Comparative Study on Active Tectonics and Seismicity of Yazagyo and Manipura


Multipurpose Dam Projects, Kale Township, Sagaing Region
Kyaw Aung
Geology Branch, Department of Irrigation, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
kyawaung.203@gmail.com

Manipur Dam and Yazagyo Dam lie at the eastern foothill of the northern Chin Hills
and they are about 50 miles apart from south to north. Both dams lie at Western belt
and Eastern belt respectively and those two distinct structural belts separated by the
east dipping Kheng Thurst at the southern Chin Hills and called Theizan Thurst in the
north (United Nations, 1979; Mitchell et. al., 2008). The Eastern belt comprises of
Metamorphic and igneous rocks and the Triassic Flysch so called Pane Chaung group.
In the Western belt, deep marine Senonian sediments with pelagic limestone are
encountered.

The area is earthquake prone that means, tectonics of the region is still active. The
prominent feature is the NNE-SSW trending subduction zone beneath the present
area, where the Wadati-Binioff Zone being the contact of Indian Plate and Burma
(Myanmar) Plate is approximately between 75 to 100 km (45 to 60 miles) depths. Every
year, more than ten (sometimes up to 30) earthquakes with magnitude range of 3.5 to
6 occur in the region covering 15,000 square miles. Prominent structural system is N
trending Kabaw Fault Zone that lies 10 miles away east of the Manipura Dam Site.
Possible active lineaments of the fault zone occur near the Yazagyo Dam Site. Kabaw
Fault is the fore arc thrust fault formed in association with convergence between
Indian and Burma Plates. Main fracture and its associates have an average 45 dip to
the east. Due to the change in the stress field between India-Asia Collision, the thrust

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SMERM 2013, 11th-12th May 2013

system exhibit prominent right lateral strike slip activity in Neogene tectonics that has
been active from Miocene until Recent.

This area can be regarded as the considerable high seismicity based on the
instrumental record of ANSS (Advanced National Seismic System, 1963-2009). In the
historical records, the maximum magnitude of the earthquake happened is 7.7M,
which struck on 12, March 1952 at above 150 km (to the North) away from the present
area, near Hommalin. The second high magnitude earthquake, 7.2M 16, Aug 1938
event struck near Yazagyo Dam Site, and the third one is Magnitude 7 earthquake also
happened near Hommalin. However, both of the last earthquakes happened at the
deep foci with the depth of 100 km and 180 km. Estimation of ground motion for
Manipur dam site by deterministic way, the highest pga values show 0.339 g (Boore et
al. and Youngs et al. (1997) and 0.551 g (Takahashi et al., 2000) in rock. Estimation of
ground motion for Yazagyo Dam Site by deterministic way, the highest pga values show
0.348 g (Boore et al. and Youngs et al. (1997) and 0.553 g (Takahashi et al., 2000) in
rock. Estimation of ground motion by Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for
both Manipura and Yazagyo Dam Sites are also determined for 10% probability of
exceedance of 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 years.

Key words: Tectonics, subduction, seismicity, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis,


deterministic way

22 | MES Building, Hlaing Universities Campus, Yangon